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在这里,所有公共交通都免费

The Country Where All Public Transit Is Free

Luxembourg is a small country.
卢森堡是个小国家
It’s about 50 miles by 35 miles,
面积约为50英里×35英里
with just over 600,000 people living in it.
人口仅有60多万
And here in the capital, Luxembourg City,
在首都卢森堡市
around 200,000 people commute into work every day,
每天约有20万人通勤
half from outside the country,
其中有一半来自国外
but less than 20% of them travel by public transit.
但只有不到20%的人乘坐公共交通工具
But from Sunday, March 1st,
但从3月1号(星期日)开始
all public transit in the entire country will be free.
全国的公共交通都将免费
Pretty soon, there’ll be no ticket machines,
很快 除了售卖国际券票的机器
unless you want an international ticket.
其他售票机都将被移除
There’ll be no fare dodgers,
不会再有逃票的人
unless you count people who are sneaking into the first-class train cabins
除非你把逃票溜进头等舱的人也算上
that you will still have to pay for.
那里还是需要购票的
And on the face of it,
表面看来
free public transit seems like an easy decision.
免费公共交通是个简单的决定
Get people out of cars and into buses and trains.
可以让人们不再自驾车转而乘坐公交和火车
But it’s a little more complicated than that.
但实际情况有点复杂
We are the country, besides Qatar,
除了卡塔尔
with the highest degree of cars per household in Luxembourg,
卢森堡是户均汽车拥有量最高的国家
and we have definitely a big problem,
我们的确面临很严重的问题
especially in peak hours, with enormous congestion problems.
尤其在高峰时段 交通拥堵相当严重
We have a problem also, that’s quality of life in our cities, in our villages, is really worsened.
另一个问题是城乡居民的生活质量很糟糕
That comes because Luxembourg is a country
因为卢森堡在过去25年里
where you had not only the highest average of economic growth in the last 25 years,
不仅人均经济增长位列欧盟第一
but also our population growth is the highest in the European Union.
而且人口增长也是欧盟最高的
Having mobility behaviour that is mainly based on individual cars
主要依靠私家车出行
cannot really function anymore,
已经不再可行了
and at the end, it’s also a problem then for our economy itself.
最后交通拥堵也会严重影响国家经济
Making public transit free is not a new idea.
公共交通免费并不是什么新办法
There are quite a few cities around the world who’ve already done it,
世界上很多城市早已施行了这种方案
and a lot of Estonian now has free public transit for residents.
很多爱沙尼亚居民都在享受免费的公共交通
Luxembourg, though, is the first country to abolish fares entirely,
但卢森堡是第一个完全废除车票的国家
and partly that’s because it can afford to do it.
一定程度上是因为它有这样的经济实力
The country is a small, rich tax haven.
卢森堡国土面积虽小 但税收很高
The thing is, public transit here is almost free already.
现在这里的公共交通几乎已经完全免费
A ticket valid for a full day on every bus, tram, and train in the country is €4.
公交 有轨电车 火车都可以用的单日通票价为4欧元
The whole transit network costs the government €700 million a year to operate,
政府每年需拨付7亿欧元来维持交通运输网运行
but all the tickets sold add up to just 10% of that.
但全部售票收入加起来只有政府支出的10%
By comparison, London’s transit network is about half-funded by fares.
相比之下 伦敦的交通网成本一半都依靠车票收入
So from the Luxembourg government’s perspective,
所以在卢森堡政府看来
there’s not actually that much difference between a €4 day ticket and free transit,
一张单日车票4欧元和免费并没有很大区别
But “free transit” is the sort of headline that gets you a lot of good publicity.
但“免费交通”是会获得很多关注的那种头条
But hey, if transit is free, why would you want to get around by car?
但是 如果交通免费 你为什么还想自驾出行呢
Well, it’s because the transit here isn’t great.
这是因为这里的交通并不怎么样
It’s okay, by European standards.
按照欧洲标准 它还可以
The buses and trains will get you there.
公交和火车可以送你去目的地
I’ve had no problems as a tourist,
作为游客没有任何问题
but the commuter lines are already overcrowded in rush hour.
但在高峰时段通勤线路太拥挤了
A lot of the rolling stock is dated,
很多轨道车辆都老旧了
and there is a litany of complaints about the paths they take
民众对所乘线路有很多抱怨
and how they deal with breakdowns.
对车辆故障的处理方式也很有意见
Driving here, even with the congestion, is usually quicker and more convenient,
即使拥堵 这里开车通常会更快 更方便
sometimes even for journeys directly between city centres.
甚至市中心之间的行程有时也是这样
So every year, there’s more and more people moving here,
年复一年 移居这里的人越来越多
and the infrastructure system is under a lot of strain.
基础设施面临着很大压力
So the needs are to make it work, not to make it free.
人们的需求是实用 而不是免费
There’s lots of research on this,
关于这个问题已经有很多调查
and what comes out over and over again is that
结果一次又一次地证实
the fare is not the main motivating factor.
票价不是主要的驱动因素
The motivating factor is comfort, reliability, and safety.
真正的驱动因素是舒适 可靠和安全
No one ever knows if the trains are actually going to be on time.
没有人知道火车会不会准时
It has happened that
之前发生过
people are standing for an hour and a half on the platform waiting for the train,
人们在站台等火车要等一个半小时
with no substitute buses or anything.
而没有可替换的公交或者别的交通方式
So that’s an extreme case, obviously,
很显然 那是一个极端事例
but if one wants to be somewhere on time,
但如果我们想准时到达目的地
one has to take this into account, that these things do happen.
我们就得考虑候车时间 因为确实会发生
The cities who are doing this investment into public transport, into free public transport,
将资金投入公共交通和免费公共交通的城市
that’s really the bit of cities that, from a competitive point of view,
从全球竞争角度来看
will be, worldwide, the winning cities.
这些少数城市将会是赢家
Even if I say it’s free to use,
即使说是免费使用
somebody pays it.
也有人承担运输成本
So at the end, the 700 million euros will be paid by the taxpayers in general.
最后 这7亿欧元通常将由纳税人承担
Someone, for example, with Minimum income pays no taxes.
而最低收入人群不用纳税
So he has the public transport, really, for free,
所以他们确实在享受免费的交通
but somebody who pays high taxes, he pays much more.
但纳税多的人会支付更多
That’s an important point
这是非常重要的一点
for someone like me, who’s a tourist with a travel budget,
对于我这样需要做旅行预算的游客来说
€4 for a day pass isn’t a big issue,
每天花4欧元通行并没有什么
but for someone on Minimum wage
但是对于那些从能买得起房子的地方出发
who has to commute an hour, or two hours, from wherever housing’s affordable,
每天通勤1或2个小时的最低收入人群来说
that makes a big difference.
影响非常大
– I don’t think the key social issue in Luxembourg is the price of the transit.
我认为卢森堡的社会问题关键不是票价
One needs to look at the housing costs.
住房成本才是需要关注的地方
The increasing prices of housing
日益增长的房价
are pushing people to the border regions.
将人们推到了边界地区
So it might be financially more sound to live in Belgium, or France and Germany,
所以住在比利时 法国和德国
buy a house, or rent a house,and buy a couple of cars,
在这些国家买房或者租房 买几辆车
than it would be to live here in Luxembourg and use the transit.
都比住在卢森堡乘坐免费交通更经济
It needs investment, and it needs investment now.
公共交通需要投资 现在就需要
It’s behind.
它已经落后了
And so Luxembourg needs to catch up and plan for the future.
卢森堡需要奋力追赶 同时为未来做好计划
You must see the free public transport additionally to the investments
此外 必须将免费交通看作
that we are doing in the improvement of the network
我们改善公共交通网
and the quality of the public transport.
提升公共交通品质的投资
If you only introduce free public transport,
如果只是公共交通免费
that will change not very much in behaviour.
现状不会有太多改变
It can only function if you do it combined with a complete strategy
只有和完整的政策结合 才能发挥作用
that will switch from individual mobility to multi-modality,
实现私家车到多种交通工具出行的转换
so even including pedestrians, cyclists,
甚至包括步行 骑自行车
and if you invest at the same time, a lot of money, in the infrastructure of public transport,
同时把大量资金投入到公共交通的基础建设
so that at the end, you can combine everything.
这样最终就可以结合所有策略
We say, if we built an infrastructure,
比如 如果建造基础设施
we will build it to move people and not to move cars.
目的就是输送民众 而不是车辆
– I’m not saying free transit is a bad thing.
我不是说免费交通是件坏事
I think it’s a great idea, personally,
相反我个人认为是非常棒的点子
but having good, frequent, well-connected transit
但是好的 车次较多的 线路广
that isn’t too crowded to board is also important.
又不太拥挤的乘坐体验也很重要
The question isn’t as binary as “Should public transit be free?”
问题并不是“公共交通应该免费吗”这么简单
because in a utopia, of course it would be.
因为在乌托邦理想社会中 肯定会是免费的
It would also be autonomous, zero-emission,
公共交通也一定会是自动化 零排放
and it would run from anywhere to everywhere all the time.
全时段全区域间都有线路车次
But until we’re in a post-scarcity society,
但在我们进入后稀缺社会之前
the public are paying one way or another, either through taxes or fares.
公众都会以某种方式来付费 纳税或购票
The more important question is about planning and long-term investment,
最重要的是计划和长期投资
because if your bus is always late,
因为 如果公交总是迟到
and your train’s always cancelled,
火车总是取消
it really doesn’t matter if they’re free.
那它们是否免费也就不重要了

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视频概述

公共交通免费是种什么体验?这样的政策对人们的生活有多大作用?跟着视频了解一下吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=feCQPD9DSOA

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