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关于新型冠状病毒你应该怎么做

The Coronavirus Explained & What You Should Do

In December 2019
2019年12月
the Chinese authorities notified the world
中国政府对外报告
that a virus was spreading through their communities.
一种病毒正在他们的社区传播
In the following months ,
在随后的数月里
it spreads to other countries.
病毒扩散到了其他国家
with cases doubling within days.
病例数天内出现了翻倍
This virus is the
这种病毒被称为
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus 2
严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2型
that causes the disease called Covid-19
感染病毒会引发新型冠状肺炎
and that everyone simply calls coronavirus.
我们可以将其简称为新冠病毒
What actually happens when it infects a human
人类感染新冠病毒后会发生什么呢?
and what should we all do?
我们又该如何应对?
[Intro Music]
[前奏音乐]
A virus is really just a hull
病毒实际上只是由外壳包裹着
around genetic material and a few proteins,
遗传物质和少量蛋白质组成的物质
arguably not even a living thing.
它们甚至还称不上生物
It can only make more of itself by entering a living cell.
病毒只能通过入侵活细胞来进行繁殖
Corona may spread via surfaces,
冠状病毒能通过物质表面传播
but it’s still uncertain how long it can survive on them.
但它能在物质表面存活多久 这点还不确定
Its main way of spreading seems to be droplet infection
它的主要传播方式是飞沫传播
when people cough, or if you touch someone who’s ill
咳嗽或接触到了感染者
and then your face, say rubbing your eyes or nose.
然后我们摸了脸 揉了眼睛或鼻子
The virus starts its journey here,
病毒都可以通过上述方式来传播
and then hitches a ride as a stowaway
随后像偷渡者一样 病毒搭乘便车
deeper into the body
进入到身体内部
Its destinations are the intestines, the spleen or the lungs,
它的目的地是肠道 脾脏和肺
where it can have the most dramatic effect.
病毒在这些部位能发挥最显著的效果
Even just a few corona viruses
即便只有少量的新冠病毒数量
can cause quite a dramatic situation.
也会造成相当严重的后果
The lungs are lined with billions of epithelial cells.
肺里排列着数十亿个上皮细胞
These are the border cells of your body,
它们是我们身体里的边缘细胞
lining your organs and mucosa
排列在我们的器官和粘膜上
waiting to be infected.
等待着被感染
Corona connects to a specific receptor on its victim’s membranes
新冠病毒连接受侵细胞膜上的特定受体
to inject its genetic material.
以便注入病毒的遗传物质
The cell, ignorant of what’s happening,
细胞对此并未察觉
executes the new instructions,
并且开始执行新指令
which are pretty simple:
指令非常简单
copy and reassemble.
即复制和重组
It fills up with more and more copies of the original virus
细胞中充斥着越来越多的原病毒复制体
until it reaches a critical point
直到到达临界点
and receives one final order,
细胞接收到最后的指令
self-destruct.
自毁
The cell sort of melts away,
可以说 细胞逐渐融解了
releasing new corona particles
并释放出新的新冠病毒
ready to attack more cells.
来攻击更多的细胞
The number of infected cells grows exponentially
被感染细胞的数量呈指数级增长
After about 10 days, millions of body cells are infected,
约10天后 数百万个身体细胞会被感染
and billions of viruses swarmed the lungs.
数十亿个病毒聚集在我们肺部
The virus has not caused too much damage yet,
至此 病毒还没有造成太大的破坏
but corona is now going to release a real beast on you,
但此时新冠病毒正在释放真正的野兽
your own immune system.
人类自身的免疫系统
The immune system, while there to protect you,
免疫系统虽然是保护我们的
can actually be pretty dangerous to yourself
但实际上它也会让我们陷入危险
and needs tight regulation.
所以免疫系统需要严格的监管
And as immune cells pour into the lungs to fight the virus,
当免疫细胞近入肺部对抗病毒时
Corona infects some of them
新冠病毒会感染部分免疫细胞
and creates confusion.
造成紊乱
Cells have neither ears nor eyes.
细胞没有耳朵也没有眼睛
They communicate mostly via tiny information proteins
主要通过一种微小的信息蛋白质来交流
called cytokines.
即细胞因子
Nearly every important immune reaction is controlled by them.
几乎每一个重要的免疫反应都由它们控制
Corona causes infected immune cells to overreact
新冠病毒会让被感染的免疫细胞反应过度
and yell bloody murder.
大声愤怒地抗议
In a sense, it puts the immune system into a fighting frenzy
某种意义上 病毒让免疫系统陷入狂热战斗
and sends way more soldiers than it should,
并派出比正常情况下更多的士兵
wasting its resources and causing damage.
这既浪费了免疫系统资源 又造成了损害
Two kinds of cells in particular wreak havoc.
有两种细胞尤其会对身体带来破坏
First, neutrophils,
首先是中性粒细胞
which are great at killing stuff, including our cells.
它能杀死很多物质 包括我们自己的细胞
As they arrive in their thousands,
它们成千上万地抵达战场后
they start pumping out enzymes
便开始释放出酶
that destroy as many friends as enemies.
这些酶不分敌友 统统消灭
The other important type of cells that go into a frenzy
另一种陷入疯狂状态的重要细胞是
are killer T-cells,
杀伤T细胞
which usually order infected cells to commit controlled suicide.
它通常能命令受感染的细胞实施自杀
Confused as they are,
尽管它自己也感到困惑
they start ordering healthy cells to kill themselves too.
但T细胞还是命令健康细胞实施自我毁灭
The more and more immune cells arrive,
到达战场的免疫细胞越多
the more damage they do,
造成的伤害就越大
and the more healthy lung tissue they kill.
被杀死的健康肺组织也越多
This might get so bad
严重的话可能还会造成
that it can cause permanent irreversible damage,
永久性的不可逆转的损害
that leads to lifelong disabilities.
从而导致终身残疾
In most cases, the immune system slowly regains control.
大多数情况下 免疫系统会慢慢恢复控制权
It kills the infected cells,
它会杀死被感染的细胞
intercepts the viruses trying to infect new ones
拦截企图感染新细胞的病毒
and cleans up the battlefield.
并清理战场
Recovery begins.
这样复原就开始了
The majority of people infected by Corona
大多数感染新冠病毒的患者
will get through it with relatively mild symptoms.
症状是相对轻微的
But many cases become severe or even critical.
但也有很多是重症和危重症
We don’t know the percentage
我们不知道其中的比例
because not all cases have been identified,
因为还有病例得不到确诊
but it’s safe to say that there is a lot more than with the flu.
但肯定的是 比例远大于流感患者
In more severe cases,
患者出现危重症时
Millions of epithelial cells have died
数百万的上皮细胞死亡
and with them, the lungs’ protective lining is gone.
肺的保护层也随之消失
That means that the alveoli
这意味着我们的肺泡
tiny air sacs via which breathing occurs
这些我们进行呼吸的小气囊
can be infected by bacteria that aren’t usually a big problem.
可能会被细菌感染 但通常这不是大问题
Patients get pneumonia.
病人患上肺炎后
Respiration becomes hard or even fails,
呼吸出现困难甚至衰竭
and patients need ventilators to survive.
病人需要呼吸机才能生存
The immune system has fought at full capacity for weeks
几周时间里 免疫系统始终在全力抵抗
and made millions of antiviral weapons.
制造了数百万的抗病毒武器
And as thousands of bacteria rapidly multiply,
随着成千上万的细菌迅速繁殖
it is overwhelmed.
免疫系统不堪重负
They enter the blood and overrun the body;
细菌进入血液 在体内泛滥成灾
if this happens, death is very likely.
如果出现这种情况 极有可能会致命
The Corona virus is often compared to the flu,
我们经常把新冠病毒和流感作比较
but actually, it’s much more dangerous.
但实际上新冠比流感危险多了
While the exact death rate is hard to pin down
虽然在大流行病期间 我们还很难确定
during an ongoing pandemic,
新冠确切的死亡率
we know for sure that it’s much more contagious
但确定的是新冠比流感的传染性更强
and spreads faster than the flu.
传播速度也更快
There are two futures for a pandemic like Corona:
像新冠这样的大流行病会有两种发展趋势
fast and slow.
快速传播和缓慢传播
Which future we will see
我们会面临怎样的未来
depends on how we all react to it in the early days of the outbreak.
取决于我们在疫情爆发初期采取的措施
A fast pandemic will be horrible
一场传播迅速的流行病是很可怕的
and cost many lives;
会夺去很多人的生命
a slow pandemic will not be remembered by the history books.
而传播缓慢的大流行病却不会被载入史册
The worst case scenario for a fast pandemic
对于快速的大流行病 最糟糕的情况
begins with a very rapid rate of infection
是从非常高的感染率开始的
because there are no counter measures in place to slow it down.
因为已经没有相应措施能降低感染率了
Why is this so bad?
为何会落到如此境地?
In a fast pandemic, many people get sick at the same time.
在快速蔓延的疫情中 许多人会同时被感染
If the numbers get too large,
如果病例数非常大
health care systems become unable to handle it.
卫生保健系统将无法应对
There aren’t enough resources, like medical staff
我们没有足够的资源 像医务人员
or equipment like ventilators, left to help everybody.
呼吸机这样的设备来救治每个人
People will die untreated.
患者会因得不到治疗而死去
And as more health care workers get sick themselves,
随着越来越多的医疗工作者也被感染
the capacity of health care systems falls even further.
卫生保健系统的能力会进一步下降
If this becomes the case,
到了这个地步
then horrible decisions will have to be made
就必须做出可怕的决定了
about who gets to live and who doesn’t.
谁可以活下去 谁要死去
The number of deaths rises significantly in such a scenario.
在这种情况下 死亡人数会显著增加
To avoid this,
要避免这样的情况
the world – that means all of us –
就意味着全世界 我们每个人
needs to do what it can to turn this
都要尽其所能将其转变为
into a slow pandemic.
一场缓慢的大流行病
A pandemic is slowed down by the right responses.
正确的应对措施可以减缓疫情扩散
Especially in the early phase,
尤其是在早期阶段
so that everyone who gets sick can get treatment
让每位患者都能得到治疗
and there’s no crunch point with overwhelmed hospitals.
医院也不存在人满为患的紧要问题
Since we don’t have a vaccine for Corona,
由于我们还没有新冠病毒疫苗
we have to socially engineer our behaviour,
我们必须改变自身的社会行为
to act like a social vaccine.
来充当一剂社会疫苗
This simply means two things:
只需做到下面两件简单的事
Not getting infected;
不被传染
and Not infecting others.
以及不传染给他人
Although it sounds trivial,
即便这听起来微不足道
the very best thing you can do is to wash your hands.
但是 我们能做的最有帮助的事就是洗手
The soap is actually a powerful tool.
但实际上 肥皂是非常有用的东西
The corona virus is encased in what is basically a layer of fat;
冠状病毒包裹在一层脂肪膜中
soap breaks that fat apart
而肥皂能分解脂肪
and leaves it unable to infect you.
让其无法感染我们
It also makes your hands slippery,
肥皂还能让我们的双手光滑
and with the mechanical motions of washing,
洗手时产生的机械运动
viruses are ripped away.
会把病毒清理掉
To do it properly,
要掌握正确的洗手方法
wash your hands as if you’ve just cut up some jalapeños
就要想象一下 假如刚切了一些墨西哥辣椒
and want to put in your contact lenses next.
然后要戴隐形眼镜 你该如何洗手
The next thing is social distancing,
还有一点是保持社交距离
which is not a nice experience,
这会让人不舒服
but a nice thing to do.
却值得去做
This means: no hugging, no handshakes.
这意味着不拥抱不握手
If you can stay at home, stay at home
能呆在家就呆在家里
to protect those who need to be out for society to function:
这样能保护那些需要出去为社会服务的人
from doctors to cashiers, or police officers
从医生到收银员 警察
You depend on all of them;
我们都要依靠他们
they all depend on you to not get sick.
他们也都不想我们生病
On a larger level, there are quarantines,
再大一点的层面就是实施隔离
which can mean different things
隔离与之不同
from travel restrictions or actual orders to stay at home.
隔离有限制旅行和强制待在家里
Quarantines are not great to experience
隔离的体验不会很好
and certainly not popular.
当然也不会受追捧
But they buy us –
但它们能为我们
and specially the researchers working on medication
尤其是能为药物研究和疫苗研发的
and vaccinations – crucial time
工作人员 赢得关键的时间
So if you are put under quarantine,
因此如果你被隔离了
you should understand why, and respect it.
你应该懂得理解和尊重
None of this is fun.
这些没一个是有趣的
But looking at the big picture,
但从大局来看
it is a really small price to pay.
这样做的代价是很小的
The question of how pandemics end,
大流行病会如何结束
depends on how they start;
将取决于它如何开始
if they start fast with a steep slope,
若开始时传播速度快 坡度陡
they end badly.
结局就会很糟糕
If they start slow, with a not-so-steep slope,
若开始时传播速度慢 坡度没那么陡
they end okay-ish.
结局就不会那么糟
And, in this day and age,
在今天这个时代
it really is in all of our hands.
结局其实掌握在我们每个人的手里
Literally, and figuratively.
这是本意也是引申义
A huge thanks to the experts who helped us
非常感谢在短时间内帮助
on short notice with this video,
我们完成本视频的专家
specially Our World In Data,
特别是《用数据看世界》
the online publication for research and data on the world’s largest problems
它是全球最大的问题研究和数据在线出版物
and how to make progress solving them.
上面还有解决问题策略
Check out their site.
登陆他们的网站
It also includes a constantly updated page on the Corona pandemic
网站还在不断更新新冠肺炎的情况
[Outro music]
[结尾音乐]

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视频概述

冠状病毒在世界范围内传播,一场重大的战役行动行动等着我们,我们该如何应对它?如何在疫情中重获光明?敬请观看视频!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtN-goy9VOY

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