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科里奥利效应简析

The Coriolis Effect Explained

科里奥利效应简析
科里奥利效应简析
Picture a circle.
画一个圆
Here’s its center.
这是中心点
Here’s point A and here’s point B.
这是A点 这是B点
Point A is twice the distance from the center
A点到中心点的距离
of the circle than point B.
两倍长于B点到中心点的距离
Oh yeah. And it spins from its center.
现在让它们围绕这个中心点旋转
In two seconds, both points do one full revolution.
在两秒钟之内 每个点都转了一圈
But to go all the way around,
但同样是走完一整圈
point A has to go this far
A点走了这么远
while point B only has to go this far.
但B点却只走了这么远
And we all know, if something travels a greater distance
众所周知 在有限的时间里
in a shorter amount of time,
如果一个东西走的更远
it must be going faster.
那它的速度一定更快
So point A must be moving faster than point B.
所以A点的速度一定比B点的速度快
OK. Now swap up this flat circle for the earth,
好 现在用地球来代替这个平面圆形
and the same thing is true.
同理 我们可知
All points closer to the centers,
越接近中心的点
say, like someone in Greenland,
比如在格陵兰上的一个人
will be spinning slower when compared to points
将会比离中心较远一点的人
spinning further away from it,
比如在更接近赤道的巴西
say, like people in Brazil, closer to the equator.
转的更慢
So, if we look at it all flattened out,
所以 现在我们把地球展成平面
we can picture something like this –
再画上这样的一些箭头
arrows of the equator travel faster
就像我们看到的一样
than arrows of the 45-degree line,
赤道的箭头会快于
like we just observed.
45度纬线上的箭头
Now, imagine you’re a cloud
现在 想象你是一朵云
that formed here on the equator.
一朵形成于赤道上的云
You’ll have the same velocity as the earth,
你将和地球有着同样的转速
but then, a gust of wind sweeps you to the north,
然而 一阵大风将你吹向北方
where the earth isn’t spinning as fast.
在这里 地表转的没有赤道快
Due to inertia, your speed remains the same.
但由于惯性 你的速度将保持不变
You don’t get any faster,
你并没有转的更快
but everything around you is literally traveling slower.
但你周围的一切相对来说却变慢了
So you, relative to the ground,
所以 从地面上来看
move ahead of everything else.
你是最快的
If you’re a cloud that forms at the 45-degree line
如果你是形成于45度纬线附近的云
you’ll also have the same speed
你将会和你周边的东西
as everything around you.
有着一样的速度
But if you drift down to equator,
但如果你飘向赤道
you’ll be moving slower
你会比地面
than the ground underneath you.
移动的慢一些
So you’ll fall behind.
所以 你会被甩在后面
And the same things for the southern hemisphere.
南半球也是一样
Moving towards the equator
向赤道方向移动
always results in falling behind,
就会被甩在后面
while moving away results in pushing ahead.
相反 若远离赤道 你将会走到前面
OK. Now imagine a low pressure cell.
好 现在想象一个低压点
That means all the arrow around it
意思是它周围的箭头
will get sucked into the center.
都会被它吸引到中心里
But the air coming from the equator
但是来自赤道的气流
will be traveling faster
速度会更快
so it will deflect to the right,
所以它会移动到右边
while the air coming from the poles
同时 来自极地的气流
will be moving slower,
由于速度较慢
so they’ll fall behind and deflect to the left.
所以它们将会落后到左边
What this results in is a
结果就是
circular air current spinning counterclockwise.
环状的气流逆时针旋转
And that’s exactly what hurricanes are,
实际上这就是飓风
low pressure cells spinning,
一个由科里奥利效应引起的
because of the Coriolis Effect.
低压气旋
Moving this example down to the southern hemisphere,
将这个例子放到南半球
things are reversed.
情况则恰好相反
A low pressure cell will still
低压中心仍然会
suck in the surrounding air,
吸引周边的气流
but now the air coming from above
但是现在来自上边的气流
will be moving faster,
移动的更快
again deflecting to the right,
它们会移动到右边
while the air coming from below is moving slower,
来自下边的气流移动的更慢
again, falling behind by moving to the left.
它们就被落到了左边
This results in a clockwise spin,
这样 气流就会顺时针旋转
which is why storms in the southern hemisphere
这便解释了为什么南半球的飓风
spin this way.
以这样的方式旋转
Uh, that’s about it.
嗯 就是这样了
It’s a short video that’s kind of the point.
这就是一个简短的视频
I hope you got what you came for.
我希望你得到你想要的东西
Uh, and the Coriolis Effect doesn’t really influence toilets.
嗯 科里奥利效应对马桶并没有多大影响
They’re just really too small.
因为马桶真的是太小了
And the direction of the spin
而且水流旋转的方向
more depends on the placements of jets inside the toilet.
更多的取决于喷嘴的位置
But that’s it. That’s the Coriolis Effect.
就这样了 这就是科里奥利效应
If you like this shorten-to-the-point video,
如果你喜欢这个言简意赅的小视频
get this video a like,
就给它点赞吧
and if you want to see more videos like it,
如果你想看更多类似的视频
why not subscribe?
那就订阅吧
I’ll be back next week with another video, so until then,
我将在下周带来另一个视频 在这之前
thanks for watching.
感谢观看!

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视频概述

本文言简意赅,形象生动的讲述了什么是科里奥利效应。通过在同一时间内行驶距离长的物体速度快解释了赤道的大气移动速度比两极的快,从而导致南北的大气在向低压中心移动的过程中呈一定方向运动,运动的方向由南北半球决定,北半球逆时针,南半球顺时针,从而解释了南北半球飓风运动方向的不同。结尾还顺便提了一嘴抽水马桶的水流方向与此效应关系不大,而主要取决于喷水嘴的位置。

听录译者

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翻译译者

启明

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIyBpi7B-dE

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