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冲浪这项运动的复杂历史 – 译学馆
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冲浪这项运动的复杂历史

The complicated history of surfing - Scott Laderman

For some, it’s a serious sport.
对一些人而言 冲浪是一种正式的运动
For others, just a way to let loose.
而对另一些人而言 只是放松的一种方式
But despite its casual association with fun and sun,
尽管常使人想到乐趣和阳光
surfing has a richer and deeper history than many realize.
但是冲浪丰富而深刻的历史却鲜有人知
What we today call surfing
我们今天所称的冲浪
originated in the Polynesian islands of the Pacific ocean.
起源于太平洋中的波利尼西亚群岛
We know from various accounts
从各类记载中我们知道
that wave riding was done throughout the Polynesian pacific,
太平洋中波利尼西亚地区人民都会冲浪
as well as in West Africa and Peru.
还包括西非和秘鲁地区
But it was in the Hawaiian archipelago in particular
但尤其在夏威夷群岛
that surfing advanced the most, was best documented.
冲浪发展的最快 有关记录也最完善和连续
And unlike elsewhere in Polynesia, persisted.
而不像波利尼西亚的某些地区
As for the people of Hawaii,
对于夏威夷人民
wave sliding was not just a recreational activity,
冲浪不仅仅是一种娱乐活动
but one with spiritual and social significance.
更是一种带有心灵和社会影响力的活动
Like much of Hawaiian society,
和夏威夷人的社会十分相似的是
nearly every aspect of surfing
几乎冲浪的方方面面
was governed by a code of rules
都遵循着一系列的程序规则
and taboos, known as kapu.
和禁忌 即”kapu”
Hawaiians made offerings when selecting a tree to carve,
选树刻舟的时候 夏威夷人会祭祀
prayed for waves with the help of kahuna
在“kahuna”的帮助下向海浪祈祷
or an expert priest,
即专业牧师
and gave thanks after surviving a perilous wipeout.
通过祭祀来对海浪没有吞噬自己表达感谢
Certain surf breaks were strictly reserved for the elite.
一些适合冲浪的浪型严格地只保留给精英冲浪者
But it wasn’t just a solemn affair.
但它却不仅仅是一种神圣的运动
Surfers competed and wagered on who could ride the farthest,
冲浪者们互相竞争打赌 看谁冲的最远
the fastest, or catch the biggest wave.
最快 或是征服最大的浪花
With superior skill, granting respect,
冲浪技术最优者会受到尊重
social status, and romantic success.
获得社会地位并收获爱情
The wave was later called the sport of kings,
冲浪后来又被称为国王的运动
Hawaiian men and women of all ages and social classes participate it,
夏威夷的男女老少 不论社会地位高低都参与进来
riding surf boards shaped from koa,
骑着由寇阿相思树
breadfuit, or wiliwili trees.
面包树或夏威夷刺桐制成的冲浪板
Many Hawaiians rode alaia boards,
许多夏威夷人骑着“快乐冲浪板”
which were thin, midsized and somewhat resemble today’s short boards.
这种板很薄 大小适中 有点像今天的短冲浪板
Some mounted paipo boards,
一些人骑白波冲浪板
short, round-nosed boards.
一种短的圆鼻式的冲浪板
on which riders typically lay on their stomaches.
最显著的特征就是冲浪者要要把肚子靠在上面
But only chieftains could ride the massive olo boards,
只有酋长可以骑大的奥罗冲浪板
twice as long as today’s long boards.
比今天的长冲浪板长一倍
Unlike most modern surfboards,
但是与今天的冲浪板不同的是
all boards were finless,
以前的所有冲浪板都是没有翼片的
requiring surfers to drag their hands or feet to turn.
需要冲浪者用手或脚拖拽来改变方向
We don’t know exactly when wave sliding was invented,
我们不知道冲浪板具体是什么时候发明出来的
but we know that it had already been practiced
但是我们知道波利尼西亚人已经
in Polynesia for centuries.
使用了数世纪
By the time it was described in 1777 by William Anderson,
在1777年当它被威廉姆·安德森设计出来时
a surgeon on Captain Cook’s ship “Resolution.”
安德森是库克船长“决心”号船上的一名外科医生
Although anderson was in awe,
尽管安德森备受尊敬
most of the American Christian missionaries
但大部分数十年后抵达到夏威夷的
who arrived in Hawaii several decades later,
美国基督教传教士
regarded surfing as sinful,
都认为冲浪是一种罪恶的运动
and they discouraged it along with other aspects of native culture.
他们同样也不支持夏威夷其他的本土文化
The biggest threat to surfing, however,
但是 对于冲浪运动最大的威胁
was the threat to the natives themselves.
是对于土著人本身的威胁
By 1890, new illnesses introduced by Europeans and Americans
截至1890年 由欧洲人和美洲人带去夏威夷的疾病
had decimated the Hawaiian people,
已经杀死了大量的夏威夷人
leaving fewer than 40,000
只留下不到4万人口
from a preconntact population
而在未与外界文化接触之前
that may have exceeded 80,0000.
夏威夷约有超过80万的人口
At the same time, foreign influence grew.
在同一时间 外界的影响也在加大
With white settlers overthrowing the native monarchy in 1893,
1893年 白种定居人推翻了本土政权的统治
and the US annexing the islands five years later.
五年之后 美国吞并了夏威夷群岛
The end of Hawaii’s independence,
夏威夷追求独立的最终结果
coincided with surfing’s native-led revival,
与土著人引领的冲浪复兴在同时发生
A revival soon exploited
但这一复兴很快被
by the American colonizers.
美国殖民者剥夺
But first, some Hawaiians took surfing overseas.
但是仍然有一些夏威夷人在海外学习了冲浪
In 1907, George Freeth,
1907年 乔治·弗雷斯
the so-called Hawaiian Wonder,
被称为夏威夷奇迹的这个人
traveled to the west coast
旅行至美国西海岸
and gave surfing demonstrations in southern California.
在南卡罗来纳做了一系列冲浪表演
Then in 1914, Olympic swimmer Duke Kahanamoku
后来在1914年 曾参加奥运会的游泳选手杜克·卡哈那穆克
made his way to Australia and new Zealand.
去到澳大利亚和新西兰
Gliding across the southern Pacific waves
在南太平洋的浪花里穿梭
and attracting rapt audiences wherever he went.
吸引了所到之处各地的观众眼球
Shortly before Freeth went to California,
在弗雷斯去加利福尼亚之前很短暂的一段时间
a South Carolinan named Alexander Hume Ford moved to Hawaii.
一个叫亚历山大·休谟的南卡罗来纳人搬到夏威夷
After learning to surf,
在学会冲浪之后
he became a champion of the pastime.
他成为了娱乐冠军
But Ford may have had unsavoury reasons
但是福特到达夏威夷却有令人不愉快的原因
for his enthusiastic efforts to boost the sport.
他十分热情地宣扬这项运动
Like many settlers, he wanted Hawaii
和许多定居在这的人一样 他希望夏威夷
to become a U.S. State.
成为美国的一个州
But was worried about its
但是又为其人口大多数是
non-white majority of natives and Asian workers
非白人和亚洲工人而担忧
Ford thus promoted surfing to attract white Americans to Hawaii,
福特于是把冲浪发扬光大 以吸引白种美国人到夏威夷来
first as tourists, then as residents.
一开始是游客 然后成为这里的居民
He was helped by numerous writers and film makers.
许许多多的作家和电影制作人都帮他宣传
Ford’s demographic plan would fail miserably.
但福特的人口计划却悲惨地失败了
Hawaii became a state in 1959,
因为夏威夷在1959年成为了美国的一个州
and remains the most racially diverse state in the country.
也是人口种群最多样化的一个州
But the promotion of surfing
但是他对冲浪运动的传播
was a far greater success.
却是一个具有深远影响的成功案例
Today, surfing is a multibillion dollar global industry
今天 冲浪是一项可以带来数十亿美元收入的产业
with tens of millions of enthusiasts worldwide.
全世界有数千万计的爱好者
And though relatively few of these surfers
尽管相当少的一部分冲浪人
are aware of the once crucial wave chants
会意识到曾经极其重要的冲浪赞歌
or board carving rituals.
或是刻舟祭祀仪式
Hawaiians continue to preserve these traditions
夏威夷人仍然保留着这些传统
nearly washed away by history’s waves.
尽管这些传统已经几乎被历史的洪流卷走
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译制信息
视频概述

如今看似寻常的冲浪运动,你知道它复杂曲折的历史吗?

听录译者

面白坊主

翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

审核团1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyn_orqdyHQ

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