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蟑螂B-Box

The Cockroach Beatbox

当你想到大脑
When you think about the brain,
很难理解
it’s difficult to understand,
因为如果我现在问你 “心脏是如何工作的?”
because if I were to ask you right now, how does the heart work,
你会立刻告诉我它是一个泵
you would instantly tell me it’s a pump.
它输送血液
It pumps blood.
如果我问你关于你的肺
If I were to ask about your lungs,
你会说它呼出二氧化碳 吸入氧气
you would say it exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide.
这很简单
That’s easy.
如果我问你你的大脑如何工作 这很难被理解
If I were to ask you how the brain works, it’s hard to understand
因为你不能只看见一个大脑 就理解它是什么
because you can’t just look at a brain and understand what it is.
这不是一个机械的对象 不是一个泵 不是一个气囊
It’s not a mechanical object, not a pump, not an airbag.
这就像 如果你在它死亡的时候把它拿在手上
It’s just like, if you held it in your hand when it was dead,
它只是一块脂肪
it’s just a piece of fat.
为了理解大脑是怎样工作的 你必须进入一个工作中的大脑
To understand how the brain works, you have to go inside a living brain.
因为大脑不是机械 大脑是电和化学
Because the brain’s not mechanical, the brain is electrical and it’s chemical.
你的大脑由1000亿个叫做神经元的细胞组成
Your brain is made out of 100 billion cells, called neurons.
这些神经元相互通过电流交流
And these neurons communicate with each other with electricity.
并且我们要偷听两个细胞之间的对话
And we’re going to eavesdrop in on a conversation between two cells,
我们将要听一些叫做“spike”的东西
and we’re going to listen to something called a spike.
但我们不会记录我的 或者你的 或者你的老师的大脑
But we’re not going to record my brain or your brain or your teachers’ brains,
我们要使用我们的好朋友——蟑螂
we’re going to use our good friend the cockroach.
因为我觉得它们不仅很酷
Not just because I think they’re cool,
还因为他们和我们的大脑非常相似
but because they have brains very similar to ours.
所以如果你学习一点关于他们的大脑是如何工作的
So if you learn a little bit about how their brains work,
我们将会了解到很多关于我们的大脑是如何工作的
we’re going to learn a lot about how our brains work.
我要把它们放在一些冰水里
I’m going to put them in some ice water here
然后——
And then —
观众:哟! 格雷格·加布:是啊…
Audience: Ew! Greg Gabe: Yeah …
现在它们正在被麻醉
Right now they’re becoming anesthetized.
因为它们是冷血 它们和水的温度一样
Because they’re cold blooded, they become the temperature of the water
而且它们无法控制 所以它们基本上是很淡定的 是吧?
and they can’t control it so they just basically "chillax," right?
它们不会有任何感觉
They’re not going to feel anything,
可以告诉你一点我们将要做什么
which may tell you a little about what we’re going to do,
一个用来研究大脑的科学实验
a scientific experiment to understand the brain.
所以
So …
这是一只蟑螂的腿
This is the leg of a cockroach.
和一只有这些美丽头发的蟑螂
And a cockroach has all these beautiful hairs
并且浑身是刺
and pricklies all over it.
在每一个毛刺下面有一个神经元
Underneath each one of those is a cell,
这些神经元细胞会将信息传递出去
and this cell’s a neuron that is going to send information
关于风或者振动
about wind or vibration.
如果你想抓住一只蟑螂 这是很困难的 因为它们能感觉到你的到来
If you ever try to catch a cockroach, it’s hard because they can feel you coming
在你到达之前 它们开始逃跑
before you’re even there, they start running.
这些细胞将信息压缩 送到大脑
These cells are zipping up this information up to the brain
使用这些小轴突和电子信息
using those little axons with electronic messages in there.
我们将通过黏住大头针来记录
We’re going to record by sticking a pin right in there.
我们需要取下这只蟑螂的腿
We need to take off the leg of a cockroach —
别担心 它们还会长回来的
don’t worry, they’ll grow back —
然后我们要在这里放两个别针
then we’re going to put two pins in there.
这些都是金属针
These are metal pins.
一个会获得这些电子信息 这些电子信息正在路过
One will pick up this electronic message, this electric message is going by.
所以 我们现在要做一个实验 看看你们是否能看到这些
So, we’re now going to do the surgery, let’s see if you guys can see this.
是的 它一共…
Yeah, it’s gross …
好吧 这么说都信了吧
All right. So there we go.
你们可以看到他的腿
You guys can see his leg right there.
现在我要把这条腿
Now I’m going to take this leg,
我要把它放在这项发明 我们想出了
I’m going to put it in this invention that we came up with
叫Spikerbox
called the Spikerbox —
这家伙可以替代实验室里很多昂贵的仪器
and this replaces lots of expensive equipment in a research lab,
所以你们可以在学校里自己做这个实验
so you guys can do this in your own high schools,
或你自己的地下室 如果是我
or in your own basements if it’s me.
(观众笑)
(Audience: Laughter)
那么 开始
So, there.
你们能明白吗?
Can you guys see that?
好了 我来把这个打开
Alright, so I’m going to go ahead and turn this on.
这个要插进去
I’m going to plug it in.
(电子音)
(Tuning sound)
对我来说 这是世界上最美丽的声音
To me, this is the most beautiful sound in the world.
现在这是你的大脑在做什么
This is what your brain is doing right now.
你有1000亿个细胞发出这些雨点式的噪音
You have 100 billion cells making these raindrop-type noises.
让我们来看看它是什么样子
Let’s take a look at what it looks like,
让我们显示在iPad屏幕上
let’s pull it up on the iPad screen.
这里我插我的iPad
I plugged my iPad into here as well.
记住我们说过轴突看起来像一个高峰
So remember we said the axon looks like a spike.
我们来看一看
So we’re going to take a look
稍等一会 可以看到它们中的一个是什么
at what one of them looks like in just a brief second.
我们在这里点一下
We’re going to tap here,
就可以对它取平均
so we can sort of average this guy.
好我们看到了 这是一个动作电位
So there we see it. That’s an action potential.
你的大脑里有1000亿个细胞正在做这件事
You’ve got 100 billion cells in your brain doing this right now,
传递着你能看到和听到的所有信息
sending all this information back about what you’re seeing, hearing.
而且这个细胞还
We also said this is a cell
采集关于风带来的振动信息
that’s going to be taking up information about vibrations in the wind.
那么我们来做个实验?
So what if we do an experiment?
我们可以吹这里 然后听听有没有发生变化
We can actually blow on this and hear if we see a change.
大家准备好了吗?
Are you guys going to be ready?
我吹的时候你们可以告诉我是否听到了什么
If I blow on it you tell me if you hear anything.
(吹)
(Blowing)
(声音的变化)
(Sound changes)
让我用这个小笔来碰一下
Let me just touch this with a little pen here.
(杂音)
(Noise)
这是神经发射率
That was the neural firing rate.
实际上神经学家要理解这一点也得花上一段时间
That actually took a while in neuroscience to understand this.
这叫做 神经编码
This is called rate coding:
你在某样东西上按得越用力 峰值就会越高
the harder you press on something, the more spikes there are,
并且所有信息都在传给你的大脑
and all that information is coming up to your brain.
这就是你接受事物的方式
That’s how you perceive things.
这是电实验的实验方法之一
So that’s one way of doing an experiment with electricity.
另一种方法是 你的大脑不仅在接受电脉冲
The other way is that your brain is not only taking in electrical impulses,
也在发送
you’re also sending out.
那就是你做动作的原因
That’s how you move your muscles around.
如果我在蟑螂腿里插入带电的东西
Let’s see what happens if I’ve plugged in something that’s electric
让我们看看会发生什么
into the cockroach leg here.
我需要两个大头针 把它们弄插到蟑螂上
I’m going to take two pins, I’m going to plug them onto the cockroach.
我要拿着另一端 插进我的iPod
I’m going to take the other end, I’m going to plug in into my iPod.
实际上这是我的iPhone
It’s my iPhone actually.
你们知道耳机在你耳朵里是如何工作的吗?
Do you guys know how your earbuds work in your ears?
你的iPhone或者iPod有一个电池 对吧?
You have a battery in your phone, or iPod, right?
电流会被送到耳机里的磁铁上
It’s sending electrical current into these magnets in your earbuds
会产生来回振动 然后你就听到声音了
which shake back and forth and allow you to hear things.
我们的大脑也运用同种电流
But that current’s the same currency that our brain uses,
所以我们可以发送到蟑螂腿上
so we can send that to our cockroach leg
希望它能好使
and hopefully if this works,
当我们给蟑螂播放音乐时 我们可以清楚看到发生了什么
we can actually see what happens when we play music into the cockroach.
让我们看看
Let’s take a look.
(音乐)
(Music beat)
我们能调大声点吗?好了
Can we turn it up? There we go.
(观众的反应和喘气)
(Audience reacts and gasps)
GG:发生了什么?
GG: So what’s happening?
观众:哇!
Audience: Wow!
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以你可以看到什么在动 它在跟着节奏律动
So you see what’s moving. It’s moving on the bass.
所有那些发烧友
All those audiophiles out there,
如果你有很棒的 很嗨的汽车音响
if you have awesome, kicking car stereos,
你知道 低音扬声器是最大的扬声器
you know, the bass speakers are the biggest speakers.
最大的扬声器有最长的波
The biggest speakers have the longest waves,
因为它的电流最强
which have the most current,
并且这波就是导致这些东西移动的原因
and the current is what’s causing these things to move.
所以这不仅仅是扬声器导致电流
So it’s not just speakers that are causing electricity.
麦克风也产生电力
Microphones also cause electricity.
(节奏)
(Beat)
所以我要继续并且邀请另一个人在舞台这里
So I’m going to go ahead and invite another person out on the stage here
帮我解决这个问题
to help me out with this.
来 我们开始吧
So there we go.
(节奏口技)
(Beatboxing)
这是人类历史上第一次发生这样的事
This is the first time this has ever happened in the history of mankind.
人类的节奏口技 传到蟑螂腿上
Human beatbox to a cockroach leg.
当你们回到高中 想想神经学
When you guys go back to your high school, think about neuroscience
想象一下你们可以创造出怎样的神经学革命吧
and how you guys can begin the neuro-revolution.
谢谢观赏 再见
Thank you very much. Bye bye.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tr4gWi9Jf6k

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