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红酒风味的来源 – 译学馆
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红酒风味的来源

The Chemistry of Wine

总有个别朋友
You know that guy in your group of friends
总要带着红酒去参加派对
that always brings wine to the party
这样他就可以夸夸而谈
JUST so he can talk about it
他总说着这样的话:“噢!
He’s always saying things like “Ooh!
噢 这酒中有着钱的味道!
ooh~ There are notes of bacon!
让酒液在你的口中回转
Really swish it around
你将会感受到香草饮料的芬芳
and you’ll get those hints of cream soda.
切身的去感受那酒液的紫红”
Really taste the purple.”
这些话听起来也许怪异 也许会让你
It may sound strange, and it may make you
重新考虑你的朋友 但是所有这些
reconsider your friends, but all those different
各异的气味和味道来自于复杂的化学反应
smells and tastes come from complex chemistry
它们赋予每瓶酒独特的风味
that gives each bottle of wine its unique flavors.
首先 抱歉了成功人士们
First off, sorry high rollers, but no matter
无论你为它花了多少钱 一瓶酒中
how much you paid for it, a bottle of wine
都大概含有98%的水和酒精
is about 98 percent water and ethanol.
是那剩余2%的成分
It’s the remaining couple percent that makes
让酒有了酒味 并且 更特别的是
wine taste like wine, and more specifically
是这2%让西拉子与黑比诺的口味显得不同
makes a shiraz taste different than a pinot noir.
这些差别归结于三件事:
It comes down to three things:
葡萄 土地 气候
grapes, soil and climate.
如果你认为所有红酒都一样 那你就错了!
If you think all wines are pretty much the same, they ain’t!
在世界上 有着超过1万种酿酒葡萄
There are more than 10-thousand wine grape varieties
把它们酿制成酒时
in the world, all producing different
它们的滋味与香味都各不相同
tastes and smells when made into wine.
土壤也是一大因素
Dirt is also a big factor.
著名的葡萄种植地区像法国 加利福尼亚
Famous winegrowing areas like France, California
和智利 在这些地区广阔的地理环境中
and Chile have distinct minerals in their soils across
土壤的独特矿物质使葡萄酒种类各异
their vast geographies that make wines different.
葡萄酒中含有多达60种微量元素
There are up to 60 trace elements in wine
它们有助于鉴别土壤或葡萄的种类
that help identify a soil or grape variety.
研究者甚至可以鉴别酒液的化学指纹图谱
Researchers can even identify chemical fingerprints in wine
来指出究竟是哪棵树做成的木桶
that point to the exact trees used to make
陈年存放了葡萄酒
the wooden barrels that wines are aged in.
这就像是对红酒的犯罪现场调查 然而卡鲁索绝对不会出现
It’s like wine CSI, but with 100% less Caruso.
另一个主要因素是气候
The other huge factor is climate.
酿酒者知道 寒冷的天气
Winemakers know that cold climates produce
会酿造出低酒精含量且风味淡雅的红酒
lower alcohol wines with more subtle flavors,
而温暖的地区产出的红酒更加醇厚
while warm regions make more robust wines.
这是由于在低温下
That’s because the ripening process that
产生糖分和其他许多风味分子
produces sugars and many flavor molecules
的成熟过程更加的缓慢
slows at cooler temperatures.
当葡萄被压碎 天然的
Once the grapes are crushed, natural
和人工添加的酵母菌开始吸收糖分
and added yeasts begin to eat the sugars,
把糖分转化成酒精和二氧化碳
turning them into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
二氧化碳气体可以变成气泡而排出
The carbon dioxide gas is allowed to bubble out.
就像放屁一样
Like yeast farts.
但是当酵母菌在吸葡萄汁里的
But as yeasts digest sugars and other compounds
糖分与其他化合物时 它们也产生了
present in grape juice, they produce a host
赐予葡萄酒其独特风味的分子
of molecules that give wines their flavor.
酵母菌产生醋酸和其他酸
Yeasts make acetic acid and other acids
这使得红酒有了酸味
that give wines their tartness.
丙酮酸的派生物贡献出葡萄酒的红色
Derivatives of pyruvic acid, contribute to red wine’s color.
酵母菌还会产生二乙酰
Yeasts also make diacetyl, which give
这令夏敦埃酒拥有黄油般的芬芳
Chardonnays their “buttery” aroma.
随后 还有数以百计的其他分子
And then there are the hundreds of other
它们让红酒拥有了各自独特的风味
molecules that give wines their very specific flavors.
例如 科学家曾经发现
For example, scientists have figured out
甲氧基吡嗪让一些红酒
that methoxypyrazines make some wines
尝起来有点像灯笼椒
taste a bit like bell peppers.
不同的分子赋予红酒嫩草或坚果般的风味
Different molecules give the flavor or smell of
但红酒中普通的风味
grasses or nuts, while other common wine
像是巧克力 甚至是烟草的味道
flavors, like chocolate or even tobacco,
却绝不仅仅来源于某一个特定的分子
haven’t been pinned to a specific molecule.
组成红酒风味的另一大成分是丹宁酸
Another big component of wine’s flavor is tannins.
丹宁酸这种大分子来自于
Tannins are big molecules that come from
葡萄的皮和种子 同样也产生于
the skin and seeds of grapes and also
陈年存酒的木桶
the wood in barrels used to age the wine.
看看这个大家伙!
Look at that big sucker.
一些丹宁酸会刺激你舌头上
Some tannins trigger taste receptors on
的味觉接收器 并让红酒味道更佳
your tongue and can give wine a bitter taste.
其他的则使你感到口中干涩 即所谓的“丹宁程度”
Others can make your mouth feel dry, known as “astringency”.
记住了老铁们 味道和气味
Remember gang, taste and smell are
都是复杂的化学过程
very complex processes, both chemically
都取决于你的大脑怎样解释它们
and in how your brain interprets them.
所以是的 你可能没尝过灯笼椒
So yes, you may not taste bell pepper
或巧克力和别的那些东西
or chocolate and someone else might.
不用担心 享受它就好了
Don’t worry about it. Just enjoy!
感谢我们在加州 佩塔卢马
Thanks to our friends at Azari Vineyards in
阿扎瑞葡萄园的朋友们
Petaluma, California for letting us drop by
让我们拜访了他们超赞的酿酒厂并举杯共饮
their gorgeous winery and raise a glass.
更多详情请看简介
Find out more about them in the description.
如果你想继续这买酒一日游
If you want to keep this booze cruise going,
查看我们在Craft beer chemistry上的视频
check out our video on craft beer chemistry.
我的朋友们可远不止在谈论化学
And our friends over at Speaking of Chemistry
事实上 他们在一池红酒里洗澡
actually took a bath in a bunch of red wine.
为什么他们要这样做?
Why would they do such a thing?
你绝不想错过那个视频!
You don’t want to miss that video!
相信我!
Trust me!
点击订阅确保你
And click subscribe to make sure you
绝对不会错过我们任何一个视频
never miss one of ours either.
感谢观看 Chemheads
Thanks for watching, Chemheads.

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视频概述

为什么红酒会有不同的风味,甚至有些红酒尝起来像是辣椒或烟草?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Dod

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YF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UaS743_aEs

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