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极简主义风格

The Case for Minimalism | The Art Assignment | PBS Digital Studios

PBS数字工作室
So you see a few cubes sitting in an art gallery,
当你在美术馆里看到几个整齐的立方体时
and you think to yourself,
你可能暗自想:
“This is the greatest hoax that anyone has ever pulled off.”
“这是个骗局吧 谁都能摆出这种东西啊”
You immediately walk away, discouraged by the wide gulf
你感到沮丧然后离开了 因为
between what you hope for when you walk into a museum
这和你进来时想象中美术馆的样子
and what they’ve presented to you.
相差太大了!
How did we get here?
为什么会变成这样?
How could these cubes that the artist didn’t even make
为什么这些甚至都没有由艺术家经手
with their own hands be important?
的立方体这么重要呢?
This is the case for minimalism.
这就是一个极简主义的案例
First off, we’re not talking about minimalism
首先 我们所讲述的极简主义
as a general sensibility
不是一种整体带来的感受
or the life-changing magic of tidying up.
也不是一种改变生活的收缀魔法
We’re talking about the art of a particular moment in time.
我们讲的是一种产生于特定历史时期的艺术
Namely, the 1960s, when all of a sudden,
换句话说 也就是在上世纪60年代
there was a lot of geometric, abstract art.
突然间产生的几何抽象艺术
Some of it was painting by artists like Frank Stella
其中有绘画 代表画家有弗兰克•斯特拉
and Ellsworth Kelly,
和埃尔斯沃思•凯利
but most of it was sculpture by artists
但大多数是雕塑作品 代表人物有
like Donald Judd, Carl Andre, Dan Flavin,
唐纳德·贾德 卡尔•安德烈 丹•弗莱文
Anne Truitt, Robert Morris,
安娜·特鲁伊特 罗伯特·莫里斯
Tony Smith, Ronald Bladen, and Sol LeWitt.
托尼·史密斯 罗纳德·布莱登和索尔·莱维特
Art critics called it ABC art, object art,
艺术评论家们称之为ABC艺术或者物体艺术
primary structures, and cool art,
原始结构或者冷艺术
but the term minimalism prevailed.
但极简主义这个术语最终盛行
These artists never called their art minimalism,
他们从不用极简主义来形容自己的作品
by the way,nor did they like the term,
而且他们也不喜欢这个术语
or the implication that the work was so reductive that it was minimally art.
因为这暗示着作品太过简单才会被称为极简艺术
But minimalism was a rejection of what came before.
但是极简主义是对之前艺术风格的摒弃
Specifically, abstract expressionism,
尤其是对抽象表现主义——
which dominated the art market in the 1950s.
一种主宰了20世纪50年代艺术市场的风格
These new artists wanted to remove expression completely,
这些新兴艺术家们想完全脱离艺术的表现形式
remove emotion, empty the work of idiosyncratic gesture,
摒弃情感 清除作品中的古怪形式
make it resistant to biographical reading.
从而使作品能够避免传记式解读
Their hard-edged, basic shapes and forms
这些硬边画和基础图形
avoided allusion, metaphor, and overt symbolism.
避免了暗示 隐喻和显性的象征主义
The forms were often repeated, one thing after another
它们的形式经常重复或接续出现
in regular, non-hierarchical arrangements,
以规则 无分层的处理
rejecting compositional balancing.
打破了组合的平衡
No artist hemming and hawing over the canvas here.
作这样的画 没有艺术家会在画布上犹犹豫豫
The objects were impersonal, many of them machine-made,
这些物品是客观的 多为机械制品
fabricated from new and industrial materials.
以新材料和工业材料制成
Sometimes this entailed ready-made units,
有时则需要现成的部件
like Andre’s bricks, or Flavin’s fluorescent tubes.
如安德烈的砖块 或弗莱文的荧光管
They didn’t want you to ooh and ah,
艺术家们不想令你对作品表示惊叹
or admire the handling of paint.
或只欣赏颜料的处理手段
As LeWitt once said,”It is best that
正如勒维特曾言:
the basic unit be deliberately uninteresting.”
“最好的艺术就是在每一个基本零件上故作无趣”
Robert Morris wrote that he could
罗伯特·莫里斯曾写道 当时
hear resounding no at the time.
他能听到响亮的反对之声
“No to transcendence and spiritual values,
“不去追求超越和精神价值
heroic scale, anguished decisions,
史诗级规模和苦恼的决定
historicizing narrative, valuable artifact,
历史化的叙事 有价值的作品
intelligent structure, interesting visual experience.”
充满智慧的构造和有趣的视觉体验”
But what they were saying yes to was a new and startling realness.
但他们认同的是新的令人震撼的真实
Abandoning the pedestal to dismantle the separation between you and the art.
弃用底座 来消除我们和艺术之间的隔阂
Judd claimed these works are neither painting nor sculpture,
贾德称这些作品既非绘画亦非雕塑
but instead specific objects occupying real space.
而是三维的物体占据了真实的空间
These objects aren’t pointing to anything or referencing anything.
这些物体没有表明什么或参考什么
Andre called his work a kind of plastic poetry,
安德烈称自己的作品为一种塑料诗歌
in which elements are combined to produce space.
在他的诗里 各种要素联合起来制造出空间
So there is no illusion of space, it just is space.
所以它不是空间幻觉 它就是空间
Minimalism had its haters from the start.
极简主义从一开始就拥有反对者
In 1967, art critic Michael Fried
1967年 艺术评论家迈克尔·弗雷德
attacked the work for being theatrical.
就批评这些作品正在变得戏剧性
For him it was an object in a room that had presence before a viewer,
对他来说 这仅仅是一个放在房间里的实物
but it did not have what good art has,
但它不具备好的艺术品应有的东西
which is presentness,
它只是当下存在而已
or,”an instant of aesthetic experience
换句话说 它是“发生在非真实时空的
which occurs in no real space or time at all.”
瞬间审美体验”
But Fried really just ended up affirming exactly
但弗雷德最终确切地肯定了
what the artists were trying to do:
这些艺术家们正在努力做的事:
proving how radical it really was.
证明极简主义真的十分前卫
Despite its detractors, minimalism became all the rage.
尽管有诋毁者 极简主义仍风靡起来
This geometric, unadorned style flowed throughout the worlds
这种几何的 朴素的风格席卷了
of fashion, theater, and design.
时尚 戏剧和设计等领域
In short, it was cool.
简而言之 它很酷
And then because these artists were never
然后 因为这些艺术家
trying to be minimalist to begin with,
一开始也不是有意要往极简艺术发展
they moved on to other things
于是转向了其他艺术形式
and other kinds of art had its day.
因此 其他种类的艺术也随之兴起
But minimalism changed things.
但是极简主义改变了某些东西
For centuries, art had been trying to trick you,
几个世纪以来 艺术一直在试图欺骗你
convince you that the hunk of rock was something other than a hunk of rock.
让你相信那是一大块石头不只是石头 而是别的东西
But not this.
而不是像这样简单的石头
You feel like there’s gotta be some secret to it, but there isn’t.
你感觉其中应该有什么奥秘 然而并没有
There’s nothing to interpret.
没有深意 无需解读
This is what it is.
它就是它
It wasn’t supposed to look like art of the past,
它看起来不像过去的艺术
and it wasn’t supposed to function like it either.
它也不该具备那样的功能
With minimalism, meaning doesn’t rest inside the object,
极简主义中
waiting to be unlocked.
物体本身没有意义
The meaning is in the context, and exists in your interaction with it.
意义存在于不同的环境和你与物体的交流之中
But minimalism is a resistant lover.
但极简主义是个顽固的爱人
It’s just not that into you.
它不会让你对它很感兴趣
It encourages observation, but doesn’t draw you in,
它鼓励你观察 却不让你着迷
and it was never trying to.
它也从不试图这么做
Remember these objects were supposed to be emptied of pretension of mastery,
这些作品不需要考虑一些虚饰来
of the usual seduction between art and viewer,
平衡艺术性与观众感受
and of the grand, glorious traditions that preceded them.
也不应该为了领先而去遵循伟大而光荣的传统
But the fetishization and commodification of minimalist art
但对极简主义艺术的盲目迷恋和商品化
has complicated and polluted these ideas.
已经使这些观念变得复杂 污浊
What’s less real than million-dollar plywood boxes?
什么东西能比价值百万美元的胶合板箱还不真实?
And yet, for me at least,
至少于我而言
minimalist art can still impart a strong feeling,
极简主义艺术仍旧可以传递强烈的情感
a feeling for space, light, for presence and absence.
一种关于空间感 光线 存在或者不存在的感觉
You’re aware of your own body in the gallery
你能感觉到到自己身处美术馆
as you’ve never been before.
就你能感觉到自己以前从没来过一样
You notice that your position in the room
你感受到自己在房间中的位置
shapes your perception of the thing.
形成了你对事物的感知
You appreciate the architecture and the spareness,
你能感受到建筑和空间
and in a world filled with complexity and information
当身处于充斥着繁杂事物和信息
and lots and lots of stuff,
以及很多很多事情的世界里
this is a balm.
这是带有治愈效果的慰藉
This is a world more simplified than the actual world is,
这是一个比真实世界更简单的
and that I can appreciate.
我可以欣赏的世界

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视频概述

极简主义是如何成为风靡一时的艺术的?它又是怎样的存在?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

岳家棠棠

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEi0Ib-nNGo

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