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同人小说二三事

The Case for Fan Fiction (feat. Lindsay Ellis and Princess Weekes) | It’s Lit

– Hey Princess. – Hi Lindsay.
– 嗨 Princess – 嗨 Lindsay
So… have you ever… done the fanfiction before?
你以前写过同人小说吗?
Yes, many moons ago.
嗯 很久之前写过
Oh yeah? What was the first fandom you ever wrote for?
真的吗?你的第一篇同人文是关于什么的?
Avatar: The Last Airbender.
《降世神通:最后的气宗》
Zutara lives on forever.
Zutara万岁
What about you?
你呢?
Phantom. Phantom of the Opera,
《歌剧魅影》
like, not the Billy Zane Phantom.
不是比利·赞恩演的《轰天奇兵》
The uh… the bad one. The problematic one.
是邪恶不道德的《歌剧魅影》
So on a scale from disappointed to disheartened,
在一条轴上 一边是失望 一边是失落
how deep is your shame?
你的罪恶感有多深 在哪个位置?
My shame? Pretty deep, how about you?
我的罪恶感吗?挺深的 你呢?
You know, sometimes I feel ashamed,
有时候我挺有罪恶感的
but other times I’m like, “You know what?
但有时候我又想着
I like my trash.”
“我还挺喜欢自己写的垃圾的”
And that is what we are: trash.
你说得对 我们就是:垃圾
Our relationship to fanfic as a concept has changed,
我们与同人小说这个概念之间的关系已经变了
but not just fans’ relationship to it –
但不仅是粉丝跟同人小说的关系
the professional publishing world also has
大概从10年前开始
a wildly different relationship to fanfic
专业出版界跟同人小说的关系
even from, like, ten years ago.
也发生了巨大的改变
So what has caused this shift,
那是什么促成了这种变化
and what does that change even look like?
这个变化又是怎么回事呢?
Part of the human fascination with narrative
人们痴迷于写作
is a desire to expand on the stories we hear.
部分原因在于想要延展听到的故事
One popular narrative is the story of the trickster hero,
骗子vs英雄的故事 是一种很受欢迎的叙事
like in the American South we have The Jack Tales
比如说在美国南部 就有《杰克的传说》
about a guy named Jack,
讲述了杰克的故事
or in The Black Diaspora
或者是在《黑人离散史》里
we have the spider-god character Anansi –
有一个角色是蜘蛛神Anansi
these characters have no original author,
这些角色不是哪个作者的原创
but over the years have gained popularity
而是通过口述传统
in their communities through oral traditions.
在他们周围慢慢流行起来的
But the modern concept of copyright
但版权这一现代概念
complicates our relationship to characters and narratives,
把我们跟角色与叙事之间的关系弄复杂了
which are no longer the intellectual property of a culture,
角色与叙事不再是某个文化的知识产权
they’re the IP of a person or a company.
而是一个人或一家公司的知识产权
Fanfiction website Archive of Our Own,
同人小说网站“我们自己的档案”的
who I lost a Hugo to last year,
(就因为这个网站 我去年没拿到雨果奖)
co-founder Francesa Coppa defines it simply as
联合创始人Francesa Coppa将同人小说简要定义为
“creative material featuring characters
“一种创意文本 其中的角色
from works whose copyright is held by others.”
来自别的版权作品”
There’s kind of an unspoken understanding that
大家都心照不宣的是
you aren’t supposed to make money off of fanfiction,
你不应该用同人小说赚钱
which is part of why copyright holders
这也是版权所有者为什么
usually let it slide.
一般都睁只眼闭只眼
And as a result it kind of exists in a legal grey area –
因此同人小说可以说是处在法律灰色地带
most IP owners let it exist,
大部分IP所有者容忍同人小说的存在
and some even encourage it
有些甚至鼓励粉丝写同人小说
because it facilitates a good relationship with fans.
因为这有利于跟粉丝搞好关系
But for me, what’s really interesting about fan fiction
但对我来说 同人小说最有趣的一点
is the negative connotations
在于过去这几十年里
that have sort of dogged it for the last few decades;
同人小说身上的那些负面含义
that fan fiction is embarrassing,
比如说 同人小说很尬
that it’s neither real writing, nor a good writing exercise,
它既不是真正的写作 也不是好的写作训练
and that it is something to be relegated to
不过是小女孩们
the daydreams of pre-teen girls.
做白日梦的地方
But not only that,
不仅如此
professional authors’ relationship to fanfiction has changed.
职业作家和同人小说的关系也变了
Many authors began as fanfiction writers,
很多作家最开始是写同人小说的
and are kind of out and proud about that now.
对这件事也不会藏着掖着的了
Some continue to write it for fun,
有些作家还会继续写同人小说 写着玩玩
and sometimes they just
有时候他们会直接
swap out the names of the copyrighted characters
把版权角色的名字换掉
and publish their fanfic as original fiction.
将同人小说作为原创小说出版
Where fanfiction used to be seen as a joke,
同人小说在以前是个笑话
writers today have been “coming out of the closet” so to speak
但现在作者们可以说是都“出柜”了
about their own history with fanfiction
讲以前自己也会写同人小说
and how it helped them form their professional careers.
以及同人小说是如何帮助他们成为职业作家的
That’s right, we have Hugo and Nebula
没错 现在已经有同人小说作家
winning fanfiction authors now.
获得过雨果奖和星云奖了
Some History
一点历史
What we know as fanfiction has its roots
现在我们所熟知的同人小说
not on the internet but in fanzines,
并非源自互联网 而是源自粉丝杂志
specifically science fiction fanzines from the early 20th century,
尤其是20世纪早期的科幻粉丝杂志
which actually published fanfiction at the time.
那时候粉丝杂志会刊登同人小说
To Harvard English professor and writer Dr. Stephanie Burt,
哈佛英语系教授兼作家Stephanie Burt博士认为
fan fiction is a phenomena
同人小说是一种现象
that has always existed in some form or another
一直以这种或那种形式存在着
as a way for fans to meaningfully
是粉丝与喜欢的媒介之间
interact with media they like.
有意义的交流方式
Says Burt: “First there were fans
Burt说:“早在1930s
of science-fiction novels and magazines
就有科幻小说和杂志的粉丝
who held conventions and traded self-published journals as early as the nineteen-thirties.
开始举办集会 出售自行出版的杂志了”
Or: first there was Sherlock Holmes,
或者说 最开始是《福尔摩斯探案集》的
whose devotees, hooked by serial publication,
忠实爱好者痴迷于这个系列小说
pushed for more stories,
想看更多的故事
formed clubs, and wrote their own.”
就组建俱乐部 然后自己写”
Some say that fan fiction itself isn’t writing–
有些人说 同人小说不算写作
that real writers don’t participate in it.
真正的作家不会参与其中
That, if you want to write, you have to write original stories.
如果你想写作 你得写原创故事
You know, like James Joyce and
要像詹姆斯·乔伊斯
William Shakespeare and Dante and Salman Rushdie.
威廉·莎士比亚 但丁还有萨尔曼·鲁西迪一样
Says Burt again: “No clearer path from new writers
Burt又说:“在文明社会的历史长河中
to potentially interested readers
从来没有出现更方便的渠道
has existed in the history of civilization….
能让作家跟可能感兴趣的潜在读者找到对方
not all stories are stories
并不是所有的故事
that other people will seek out.
都是别人会主动去发现的故事
If you can work your memories, hypotheses,
如果你能将记忆 假设
or fantasies about living away from home,
或是住得离家很远
or about gender transition, or about retirement
性别转换或退休生活的幻想
into a story about Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson,
融入到有关布鲁斯·韦恩和迪克·格雷森的故事里
maybe the many people who care about Batman and Robin
可能那些关注蝙蝠侠和罗宾的人
will care about your thoughts and experiences, too.”
也会关注你的想法和经历”
This challenges the idea that
因此 这样的观点就受到了挑战:
fan fiction is the toy of the creatively-bereft;
“同人小说是没有创造力的人手中的玩具”
that the only good fiction is writing that is 100% original–
“好的小说百分百是原创的”
why, for example, is John Milton’s Paradise Lost
比如 约翰·弥尔顿的《失乐园》或是
or James Joyce’s Ulysses ‘canon’
詹姆斯·乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》被视为正统
without ever questioning their originality,
但这两部作品其实分别重述了
even though they are retellings of
《圣经》和《奥德赛》的故事
the Bible and The Odyssey, respectively?
为什么没人质疑过这些作品的原创性呢?
Well, part of it is copyright jankiness –
部分原因在于他们不用考虑版权问题
Ulysses and Paradise Lost are based on stories that
《尤利西斯》和《失乐园》所改编的作品
were never copyrighted,
没有版权
because copyright was not a thing in Homer’s time.
毕竟在荷马生活的时代 还没有版权这个东西
We have a wholly different relationship to copyright now
跟詹姆斯·乔伊斯和约翰·弥尔顿那时候相比
than James Joyce and John Milton did.
我们现在跟版权的关系已经完全不一样了
But that can’t be all of it.
但这并不是全部
Ever since modern fanfiction gained popularity in fanzines,
自从现代同人小说通过粉丝杂志
particularly Star Trek fanzines,
尤其是《星际迷航》粉丝杂志流行起来
it’s predominantly been the wheelhouse of women.
写同人小说的主要是女性
Best-selling author and Hugo winner Seanen McGuire
畅销书作家 雨果奖获得者Seanen McGuire
sees the phenomenon as partially
将这一现象视为
a response to a lack of female-oriented storytelling
对主流媒体以及出版界中
in mainstream and published mediums.
缺少女性视角叙事的一种反抗
In her essay “The Bodies of the Girls Who Made Me:
她在文章《在造就了我的女性躯体里:
Fan Fiction and the Modern World”, she writes:
同人小说与现代世界》中写道:
“Everyone who grows up on a diet of Western media learns,
“每一个看着西方媒体长大的人都学会了
on some level, to accept The Default as their avatar,
在某种程度上 将“预设”视为自己的化身
because we historically haven’t had much choice.
因为我们一直没什么选择的余地
Want to be the hero, instead of the love interest,
想成为英雄 而不是恋爱角色
the scrappy sidekick, or the villain?
蹩脚跟班 或是反派吗?
Embrace The Default.
那就接受“预设”吧
Learn to have empathy with The Default.
要学会与“预设”感同身受
He’s what you get.
因为你没有别的选择
We stopped writing about ourselves
我们不再写关于自己的故事
and started writing avatars,
而是开始写关于化身的故事
characters who could represent us in the stories
化身就是那些在故事里不以自己为原型
without quite being us.”
却能够代表自己的角色”
It’s no coincidence that a large part of the fan fiction community
同人小说圈子主要是靠
has been built by women, POC
专业出版界里的女性 有色人种
and LGBTQ writers in a professional publishing world
和LGBTGQ作家们撑起来的 这可不是巧合
that has only relatively recently begun to represent them.
而专业出版界最近才开始接纳他们
Fanfiction is having something of a reckoning over the last few years:
在最近几年 同人小说逐渐得到认可
writers like Seanan McGuire or NK Jemisin,
Seanan McGuire以及NK Jemisin等
successful authors who are
成功作家
vocal proponents of what fan fiction
公开为同人小说辩护
has meant to them as creative minds,
说同人小说对她们的创作意义非凡
or websites like Archive of our Own
还有“我们的档案”这样的网站
creating a living documentation
为同人小说的大家庭
of fan fiction’s vast community
创造了线上文库
while advocating free speech,
同时倡导言论自由
or academics like Francesca Coppa
还有像Francesca Coppa这样做学术的人
publishing both commercial fan fiction
在出版商业同人小说的同时
and research on the subject.
也发表关于同人小说的研究
Star Trek fandom was the starting point
《星际迷航》粉圈是
for many science fiction professional writers.
许多职业科幻作家的起点
Jacqueline Lichtenberg was an early Star Trek fanfic writer.
Jacqueline Lichtenberg是一位早期《星际迷航》同人小说作家
She went on to publish her own fantasy series,
从1974年开始 她出版了
starting in 1974,
自己的奇幻系列作品
and Lois McMaster Bujold,
还有Lois McMaster Bujold
one of the most prolific and beloved
《佛科西根传奇》的作者
science fiction writers still writing today
作为直到今天都还在创作科幻小说的
and writer of the Vorkosigan saga
最受爱戴的高产作家之一
also dabbled in Trek fanworks early in her career.
她在职业生涯早期也写过《星际迷航》同人作品
But these are early examples of professional authors
但这些只是一些早期职业作家
getting their start in fanworks –
以同人作品为写作起点的例子
which is NOT the same thing as repackaging your fanfiction
这跟重新包装你的同人小说
as original fiction and then publishing it.
将其作为原创小说出版可不是一回事
When fictional fanworks are re-written
把虚构的同人作品重写后
and sold as profic,
当作专业出版小说来卖
the fannish code for this is
粉丝们称这种行为为
“filing off the serial numbers.”
“刮掉序列码”
50 Shades of Grey, which originated as Twilight fanfic,
《五十度灰》最开始是《暮光之城》的同人小说
might be the cliche of fanfiction reworked for publication,
这是同人小说改动出版都说烂了的例子
but it’s actually been a thing for a while.
但有段时间还是挺火的
There are a few obscure incidences from the olden times –
在以前 有一些说不清道不明的情况
for instance, in 1985
比如说在1985年
author Teri White published a Starsky and Hutch fanfic
作家Teri White将《警界双雄》的同人小说
as “Cowboy Blues,”
改名为《牛仔布鲁斯》出版
and in 1997
还有 在1997年
author Susan Matthews reworked her Star Wars fanfics
作家Susan Matthews把她的《星球大战》同人小说
into “An Exchange of Hostages”
改成《交换人质》
and the Jurisdiction series.
以及《审判》系列
You‘ll love to see it.
都很好看
But since the 2000s,
但大概从2000年起
perhaps in no small part because publishers
可能很大部分原因在于
have taken note of fanfic authors
出版商注意到了一些同人小说作者
who already have big followings of their own,
这些作者已经有很多人关注了
it’s gone from anomaly to actual trend.
同人小说从反常现象变成了真正的潮流
Cassandra Claire was a Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings BNF,
Cassandra Claire是《哈利波特》和《指环王》的BNF
which for those not in fandom parlance know means “Big Name Fan.”
BNF是粉圈用语 意思是“知名粉丝”
She became hugely popular
她因《马尔福三部曲》
in Harry Potter fandom for her Draco Trilogy,
在《哈利波特》粉圈获得了广泛知名度
much of which was reworked into her bestselling
她的《马尔福三部曲》在改过之后
Mortal Instruments series.
成为了畅销书《凡人圣物》系列
And a shocking amount of one fanfic sub-genre called RPF –
还有一个同人小说次类型叫RPF
which means ‘real person fic’,
RPF的意思是真人同人小说
which is exactly what it sounds like –
就是字面上的意思
has been reworked for publication…
有很多这类作品都在修改后出版了
probably because you can’t really copyright a person,
这可能是因为真人又没有版权
so there’s a lot less copyright jank there.
所以就没什么版权纠纷的问题了
You can just write about a real person and…
你可以直接写关于一个真人的故事
pretend it’s a fictional character.
然后假装这个人是个虚构的角色
After is the most famous example,
最有名的例子就是《之后》
reworked from the fanfic of the same name
这部作品是根据同名同人小说修改后出版的
about a college alternate universe, or AU,
讲的是在平行宇宙(AU)一所大学里
featuring Harry Styles from One Direction as a…
邪恶版单向乐队成员
bad Harry Styles,
哈里·斯泰尔斯的故事
but there is a truly staggering amount of One Direction fanfic
但真的有很多单向乐队同人小说
that has had its serial numbers filed off for publication.
刮掉序列号之后出版了
So not only are some authors permissive of fanfiction,
不仅许多作家已经接受了同人小说的存在
even starting their careers as fanfic writers
很多作家甚至在转型之前
before making the transition,
作为同人小说作家出道
some just cut out the middle man
有的作家省掉中间的步骤
and publish their slightly reworked fanfiction as original fiction.
直接将微调过的同人小说作为原创小说出版
JK Rowling has been generally supportive of fanfiction,
总的来说 J·K·罗琳是支持同人小说的
but not all authors have such a benign relationship
但并不是所有作家都对同人小说这一概念
to the concept of fanfiction.
抱有温和的态度
Authors who aren’t so keen on fanfic
对同人小说不太感兴趣的作者
range from the mildly disapproving,
有温和反对派
like uncle George RR Martin,
比如乔治·R·R·马丁大叔
who has said “My characters are my children…
他说过:“我的角色就像是我的孩子……
I don’t want people making off with them, thank you.
我不希望他们被拐走 谢谢
Even people who say they love my children.
就算他们说自己真的爱我的孩子们
I’m sure that’s true, I don’t doubt
我相信他们说的是真的 我也不怀疑
the sincerity of the affection, but still.
这种情感是真诚的 但我还是不愿意
No one gets to abuse the people of Westeros but me.”
除了我 没有人能够虐维斯特洛大陆人”
And the writers of Game of Thrones.
(还有《权力的游戏》的编剧们)
And that brings us to Vampire Chronicles author Anne Rice,
说到这 就不得不提到《夜访吸血鬼》的作者安妮·赖斯
who was once very hardcore with the whole cease and desist letter thing,
她以前是坚定反对派 发警告信的那种
to the point where pretty much the entirety of Vampire Chronicles fanfiction
以至于《夜访吸血鬼》的同人小说基本上
throughout the 90’s and 2000’s
在上世纪90年代到2000年左右
existed on locked down Livejournal groups,
只存在于封闭的“生活杂志”网站群体里
with some fans even claiming to have been harassed by Rice’s lawyers.
一些粉丝声称自己被赖斯的律师穷追猛打
“The characters are copyrighted.
“这些角色是有版权的
It upsets me terribly to even think about fan fiction with my characters.
我很难接受同人小说里有我写的角色
I advise my readers to write
我建议读者们
your own original stories with your own characters.
用自己写的角色写自己的原创故事
It is absolutely essential that you respect my wishes.”
希望你们一定要尊重我的意愿”
That’s my Anne Rice voice.
那是我模仿的安娜·赖斯的声音
Although, to her credit,
但也得帮她说句公道话
she has mellowed out a little since then.
她后来态度还是温和了些的
Even pro authors like Seanan McGuire,
虽说Seanan McGuire这样的专职作家
who continue to write fanfic themselves,
也还在写同人小说
would prefer that you don’t
但他们还是希望你
send your own to them,
不要发自己写的同人小说给他们
because it can muddy the waters of whose idea is whose.
因为这就说不清一个想法最初是谁的了
Said McGuire in a tweet from 2017 –
McGuire在2017年发过这样一篇推文
“Fanfic is awesome and amazing and I love it
“同人小说很棒 我很喜欢
and if you try to tell me about your fanfic,
但如果你打算跟我分享你的同人小说
I will shut you down like a Blockbuster Video.”
我会毫不犹豫地拒绝你”
Some authors have cited a 1992 incident
有些作家还会举1992年的这个例子
involving author Marion Zimmer –
作家Marion Zimmer
she was initially very supportive of fandom
一开始很支持粉圈
and fanfiction in particular.
尤其是同人小说的写作
But while writing a new novel,
但在写一本新小说的时候
she realized that it touched on
她发现这本小说涉及的主题
themes of a fanfiction she had already read.
跟她以前读过的一篇同人小说有点像
Bradley decided to scrap the novel altogether
为了避免法律纠纷
rather than risk a lawsuit.
Bradley确定弃坑
So where fanfic used to exist mostly
以前大多数同人小说都不是公开的
in the underground in the realm of pure hobbyism
单纯属于个人爱好
and sometimes in locked LiveJournal communities
有时甚至因为害怕被作者起诉
out of fear of litigious authors,
就被锁在“生活杂志”网站群体里
fanfiction’s emergence into the mainstream
同人小说出现在主流媒体里以后
has changed our relationship to it.
我们跟同人小说的关系就发生了改变
Professional authors are fine admitting their past,
职业作家不会对自己过去或现在是
and sometimes present, as fanfiction writers.
同人小说作家这件事避而不谈
It’s no longer this shameful activity done in shadow,
写同人小说不再是见不得光的丑事
but an activity that is recognized as a valid way
而被认为是提升写作技巧的
to improve your skills as a writer.
有效途径
As Neil Gaiman puts it…
正如尼尔·盖曼所说:
“I think that all writing is useful for honing writing skills.
“我认为任何写作都有利于打磨写作技巧
I think you get better as a writer by writing,
我认为你坚持写 就能写得更好
and whether that means that you’re writing
不管你是在写
a singularly deep and moving novel
非常深刻动人的小说
about the pain or pleasure of modern existence
讲述现代人的痛苦或快乐
or you’re writing a Smeagol-Gollum [slashfic],
还是在写Smeagol和Gollum的同人小说
you’re still putting one damn word after another
你都是作为作家在一字一句地写
and learning as a writer.”
在慢慢地学”
And that is my best Neil Gaiman impression.
那是我模仿尼尔·盖曼模仿得最好的一次
How did you know about my Smeagol-Gollum slashfic, Neil Gaiman?
尼尔·盖曼 你怎么知道我写了Smeagol和Gollum的同人小说?
Cease and desist!
警告!

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译制信息
视频概述

介绍了同人小说的发展历程、同人小说跟职业作家之间的关系以及各方对同人小说态度的转变。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

oxw

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdDIMOehLm8

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