Escaping slavery; risking everything to save her family;
leading a military raid;
championing the cause of women’s suffrage;
these are just a handful of the accomplishments
of one of America’s most courageous heroes.
Harriet Tubman was born Araminta Ross
in Dorchester County, Maryland, in the early 1820s.
Born into chattel slavery, Araminta, or Minty,
was the fifth of nine children.
Two of Minty’s older sisterswere sold to a chain gang.
Even as a small child,
Minty was hired out to different owners.
who subjected her to whippings and punishment.
Young Minty’s life changed forever
on an errand to a neighborhood store.
There, an overseer threw a two-pound weight
at a fugitive enslaved person,
missed and struck Minty instead.
Her injury caused her to experience sleeping spells,
which we know of today as narcolepsy,
for the rest of her life.
Minty’s owner tried to sell her,
but there were no buyers for an enslaved person
who fell into sleeping spells.
She was instead put to workwith her father, Ben Ross,
who taught her how to lumber.
Lumbering increased Minty’s physical strength
and put her in touch with free black sailors
who shipped the wood to the North.
From them, Minty learned aboutthe secret communications
that occurred along trade routes,
information that would prove invaluable later in her life.
In this mixed atmosphere
of free and enslaved blacks working side by side,
Minty met John Tubman, a free black man she married in 1844.
After marriage, she renamed herselfHarriet, after her mother.
Harriet Tubman’s owner died in 1849.
When his widow planned to selloff her enslaved human beings,
Harriet feared she would be sold awayfrom everyone she loved.
She had heard ofan “underground railroad,”
由一些安全屋 船长 马车夫
a secret network of safe houses,
boat captains, and wagon drivers willing to
harbor fugitive enslaved people on their way north.
所以塔布曼和她的两个兄弟 本和哈利 一起逃走
So Tubman fled with two of her brothers,Ben and Harry.
They eventually turned back,fearing they were lost.
But in one of her sleeping spells,
Harriet dreamed that she could fly like a bird.
Looking down below,she saw the path to liberation.
And in the autumn of 1849,
she set out on her own,
following the North Star to Pennsylvania,and to freedom.
Tubman returned to the South13 times to free her niece, brothers,
parents, and many others.
She earned the nickname Black Moses
and worked diligentlywith fellow abolitionists
to help enslaved people escape,
first to the North, and later to Canada.
Harriet Tubman worked as a Union army nurse,
scout and spy during the Civil War.
In 1863, she became the first womanin United States history
to plan and lead a military raid,
liberating nearly700 enslaved persons in South Carolina.
After the war, the 13th Amendmentto the U.S. Constitution
legally abolished slavery,
while the 14th expanded citizenship
and the 15th gave voting rightsto formerly enslaved black men.
But she was undaunted, and she persisted.
She raised fundsfor formerly enslaved persons
and helped build schoolsand a hospital on their behalf.
In 1888, Tubman became more active in the fight
for women’s right to vote.
In 1896, she appearedat the founding convention
of the National Associationof Colored Women in Washington D.C.
and later at a woman’s suffragemeeting in Rochester, New York.
There she told the audience:
“ I was a conductor on the Underground Railroad,
and I can say what many others cannot.
I never ran my train off the track,
and I never lost a passenger. ”
As her fame grew,
various friends and allies helped her in the fight
to collect a veteran’s pension for her service in the Union Army.
In 1899, she was finally granted $20 a month.
In a fitting twist of fate,
the United States Treasury announced in 2016
that Tubman’s image will appearon a redesigned twenty dollar bill.
Harriet Tubman died on March 10, 1913.
Even on her deathbed at age 91,
she kept the freedom of her people in mind.
Her final words were:
“I go away to prepare a place for you.”
If you’re inspired by Harriet Tubman’s life and work,
We highly recommend the Pulitzer Prize winning novel,
“The Underground Railroad”
This wild inventive in courageous book
follows protagonist Corra through the trails and horrors of escaping slavery in the South.
You can download an audio version of the book for free
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encourage the audible to continue supporting teded’s nonprofit mission.
塔布曼震撼人心的勇气 Janell Hobson