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铜牛刑:人类历史上最恶劣的惩罚 – 译学馆
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铜牛刑:人类历史上最恶劣的惩罚

The Brazen Bull (Worst Punishment in the History of Mankind)

Welcome back to our macabre series of shows
欢迎继续收看惊悚系列视频
featuring some of the worst things
这里主要讲述以惩罚的名义
people have done to each other in the name of punishment.
人们做的那些特别恶劣的事情
While in other shows we have talked about instruments of torture
我们在其他视频里讲过的一些折磨甚至杀人的手段
and killing that could be said to be basic—
跟这个比起来可以说是小菜一碟了
claws that rip flesh, cudgels that smash bones—
比如用爪子撕扯皮肉 用棍子敲碎骨头
this particular instrument of horrifyingly inhumane torture
今天要讲的这种惨无人道的折磨方式
could be said to have been cooked up by creative folks.
可以说是一些有创意的人想出来的的
As with just about anything we have talked about in this series
在这个系列中 我们谈论的任何事情
it would be unimaginable to suffer this treatment,
都是令人难以想象的折磨
but hey, we aren’t going to say
但我并不是说
it’s any worse than having your intestines chewed on by starving rats.
这比饿疯的老鼠嚼你肠子还要恐怖
Like that punishment, though, this one was slow
但它们相似的地方在于过程都很缓慢
making hanging or head chopping seem very merciful in comparison.
上吊和砍头与它相比都显得仁慈了
This form of execution was created by the ancient Greeks.
这样的处决方式是古希腊人发明的
It had a few names, and it might also be called
它有几个名字
the bronze bull, or the Sicilian bull.
也被叫做铜牛或西西里牛
But how do we know anything about it at all?
但我们是如何知道它的呢
One of the answers is because it was written about in something called
有一个回答是因为一本书里写到了它
the “Bibliotheca Historica”, which translates as “Historical Library”.
这本书叫Bibliotheca Historica 译作《历史丛书》
It consists of many books
里面包含了很多书籍
written by an ancient Greek historian named Diodorus Siculus.
为古希腊历史学家狄奥多罗斯所著
In these books you’ll find his version of the history of the world,
在这些书中 你可以看到他眼中的世界历史
from what went down in ancient Egypt to the leader Alexander the Great.
从古埃及发生的事情到领袖亚历山大大帝
Quite a lot of it is still intact,
有很多内容仍旧保存完整
but some parts from the series are missing or in fragments.
但是某些部分丢失了或者只剩一些片段
In one of those books Mr. Siculus wrote about the brazen bull
Siculus在其中一本书中写到了铜牛刑
and this is what he said.
这是他写的内容
The guy who invented it was an inventor by trade
一个发明家造出了它
and he was named Perilaus of Athens.
他是雅典人 叫Perilaus
It’s said before he built this thing,
据说他大约是在公元前570年到554年之间
somewhere between 570 and 554 BC,
提出了这个想法
he actually pitched the idea.
并最终造出铜牛
He was what you might call a creative technologist of the past looking for some funding.
这位昔日充满创造力的技术人员当时正在寻求资助
He got that funding from a man named Phalaris, the tyrant of Acragas.
他从阿克拉伽斯的暴君Phalaris那里拿到了钱
Given his frightening title you won’t be surprised to hear
因为这个可怕的头衔 别人说这个暴君异常残忍
that this man was said to be very cruel.
你应该不会感到惊讶
In some accounts of his life it’s written that he enjoyed torture
关于他的生活 记载中写到他喜欢折磨
and even went so low as to eat children.
甚至吃小孩
We should say that the Encyclopedia Britannica cites research that says
但根据《不列颠百科全书》引用的研究
he wasn’t as cruel as some people have written.
他又并不像一些人写的那么残忍
Whatever the case, it seems he commissioned the building of the brazen bull.
不管怎样 看起来是他委托别人造出的铜牛
So, how did one perish in the brazen bull?
所以 一个人是如何在铜牛里死亡的呢
Well, it was certainly a thing conjured up by a creative yet sadistic imagination.
好吧 它的确是源于一个有创造力但变态的想象
It was said to be the same size of a bull, but shaped from bronze,
据说它的形状大小和公牛一样 但由青铜制成
with an opening where a man could enter the thing.
留了一个口可以进人
A fire was then lit under the bull and the man would slowly roast to death.
然后铜牛底下生火 人就会慢慢地被烘烤至死
But get this, it was made so that when the man was howling in agony
当受刑的人在其内部痛苦嚎叫时
his shrieks would emanate through specially distorted pipes built into the bull
声音会通过铜牛里特制的弯曲管道传出
so the impression an onlooker would get was an animal bellowing in pain.
所以观刑的人会觉得是动物在痛苦地吼叫
This might have been the fun part for someone like the tyrant of Acragas.
像阿克拉伽斯暴君这种人 可能会觉得这很有趣
The smoke would come out through holes in the bull’s nose,
烟会从铜牛鼻子上的洞出来
and that nose was filled with incense since burning bodies don’t smell so good.
鼻子里填满了香 因为焚烧尸体的味道不好闻
The bones that were left would then be turned into bracelets.
留下来的骨头会被做成手链
So the story goes. When the idea was pitched by Perilaus
继续说故事 当Perilaus提出这个想法
it’s said he said this to the tyrant Phalaris,
据说他跟暴君Phalaris说
“The occupant will shriek and roar in unremitting agony;
“里面的人会不停地痛苦尖叫 咆哮
and his cries will come to you through the pipes
他的哭喊声会通过管道传出来
as the tenderest, most pathetic, most melodious of bellowings.
这会是最痛苦 最可怜 最悦耳的叫声
Your victim will be punished, and you will enjoy the music.”
犯人受到了惩罚 你会喜欢这个声音的”
When the bull was finished, Phalaris told the inventor
铜牛完工时 Phalaris让发明的人
to get inside the thing to test out the sound,
进到里面测试声音
but some sources say he lit the fire and the inventor died there.
但是有些资料说他点着了火 发明者死在里面
Others say he pulled him out but then killed him by pushing him over a cliff.
也有人说发明者被拉出来了 但是被推下山崖
It seems for all his hard work Perilaus was killed,
看起来因为这个工作 Perilaus被杀了
but perhaps not because Phalaris didn’t want to pay.
但也许不是因为Phalaris不想付钱
Even though Phalaris is said to have been keen on cruelty,
尽管据说Phalaris嗜好残忍
it’s written that he said this to Perilaus
记载写道在听说了这个处决方法后
after hearing about the execution method.
他对Perilaus说了句话
His words revolted me. I loathed the thought of such ingenious cruelty,
他的话令我反感 我讨厌这么残忍的想法
and resolved to punish the artificer in kind.
我决定惩罚他
I said to him, “If your art can really produce this effect,
我对他说 “如果你的作品真的有效果
get inside yourself, and pretend to roar;
自己进去 假装叫喊
and we will see whether the pipes will make such music as you describe.”
我们就能听到管子能否发出你描述的声音”
By the way, it’s written that uopn his downfall
顺便说下 据记载Phalaris一下台
Phalaris was also killed inside the bull.
就在铜牛中被烧死
So that’s inventor and commissioner both killed at their own hands in a way.
所以它的发明人和发起人都死在自己手里
Word of the brazen bull was passed down and histories were written
后来铜牛刑的故事得以流传 被历史记载下来
and they link the device with these two men,
后人把这个刑具和这两个人联系在一起
the inventor and the tyrant.
即发明者和暴君
But the history of the bull doesn’t stop there.
但铜牛刑的历史并没有就此止步
The Romans it’s said had a taste for the brazen bull,
据说罗马人喜欢铜牛刑
and if you’ve watched our other shows on Roman torture,
如果看了我们其他关于罗马酷刑的视频
you won’t be surprised to hear some people wouldn’t have had many scruples
你就不会惊讶于一些人看到一个人被烧死
about roasting a man to death and enjoying his screams.
并不会良心不安 甚至还会享受他的叫喊
We might look at the story of a man named Saint Eustace.
来看看这个叫Saint Eustace的人的故事
It’s said he became a martyr after being killed in the second century.
据说在公元2世纪 他死后成为一名殉道者
The Romans were punishing many Christians
公元4世纪 在君士坦丁大帝领导下
before they themselves converted to Christianity
罗马人转信基督教
under the emperor Constantine, but that was in the fourth century AD.
但在此之前 他们折磨了很多基督徒
Before that a lot of Christian blood was spilled,
许多基督徒血流成河
and it seems a few Christians also got cooked to death inside a bronze animal.
看起来他们中的一些人死于铜牛刑
Saint Eustace was said to have been one of them.
据说Saint Eustace就是其中之一
Before he converted to Christianity he had served under a Roman emperor,
在转信基督教之前 他效忠于罗马皇帝
but he saw the light so to speak when he had a vision one day
但是 一天他在幻象中看到了光
which involved a stag and a crucifix.
光里有雄鹿和十字架
Christians might tell you that this man then lost everything,
基督徒或许会跟你说这个男人会失去一切
which was one of those tests of God.
这是上帝对他的考验之一
He lost his cash, his servants,
他失去了金钱和仆人
and his wife and kids were taken away from him by of all things a lion and a wolf.
他的妻子和孩子们都被狮子和狼带走了
Yet his faith remained strong throughout.
但是他的信仰依旧坚定
There are a few different stories as to what happened to this man,
关于他的事情 有个几不同版本的故事
but some people will tell you he got his wealth back as well as his family,
一些人会跟你说 他的财富和家人失而复得
but in the end he, his wife and children were all roasted to death
但最终 在皇帝Hadrian的命令下
in the brazen bull on the orders of emperor Hadrian.
他 他的妻子和孩子们都在铜牛刑中被烧死了
We looked at some Christian sources and they seem to back that up,
我们看了一些基督教资料 印证了这件事
although they don’t say his family got the treatment, too.
但他们并不认为他的家人也被烧死了
We also found this piece of Christian history, written in the 1800s.
我们也发现了这段记载于19世纪的基督教历史
It seems to suggest that when Eustace and his family got roasted they died,
研究似乎表明 他和家人被烧死
but some miracles did happen.
但是奇迹的确发生了
This is from that text: “The holy martyrs,
文中写道 “这些神圣的殉道士
by Divine power, remained alive for three days,
依靠神的力量存活了三天
praising and blessing the great Giver of life and death.
赞美并祝福伟大的造物主
At last, when their voices ceased,
最后当他们没有了声音
the bull was opened, and all four were found without life,
大家打开铜牛 发现四人都死去了
but also without any injury to their bodies or garments.”
但身体和衣服没有一点损伤”
It’s written that other Christians close to him at this time went the same way,
据记载 那时跟他亲近的基督徒走上了同样的道路
for instance a man known as St. Attipas.
比如这个叫做St. Attipas的人
This is written about him: “They became enraged
关于他的记载写道 “人们怒不可遏
and dragged him to the temple of Artemis,
把他拖到阿耳忒弥斯神庙
and there they threw him into a glowing, red-hot copper or brazen metal bull
扔进灼热的 炙热的铜或黄铜牛里
where they normally put their sacrifices to the idols
通常 他们把给神的祭品放在铜牛里
to cast demons out of their own people.
以此驱散恶魔
He loudly prayed God to receive his soul
他大声地祈求上帝接受他的灵魂
and strengthen the faith of the Christians,
对基督教的信念更加坚定
and begged God to forgive those who were inflicting on him this torment.
并乞求上帝原谅这些折磨他的人们
He then departed as peacefully as if he fell asleep.”
然后他平静地死去了 好像睡着了一样”
We should say that there are people who don’t believe these stories
我们要说的是 有人并不相信这些故事
and relate them more to legend than truth.
认为他们更像是传奇而不是事实
It’s not for us to say what is true or not,
我们并不是要说什么是对或不对
but most serious historians will at least tell you
但严肃的历史学家至少要告诉你
that the stories from the bull’s surprising beginnings in Greece to Christian martyrs
从希腊让人惊讶的铜牛开始到基督殉道者
not feeling any pain while being roasted are hard to verify.
很难查证这些故事里被烧死的人是否感到疼痛
What is very much true is that stories of the brazen bull
事实是关于铜牛刑的故事
have been passed down through the ages
代代相传
and those manuscripts can still be read today.
现在仍然可以读到这些手稿
By the way, while you might see a brazen bull in a museum in the world,
顺便说一下 你可能会在博物馆看到铜牛
it won’t be the real thing, only a depiction of one.
那不是真的 只是复刻
Have you seen worse in our other punishment shows?
你在我们的其它视频里见过更可怕的惩罚吗
Tell us in the comments.
评论区告诉我们
And then go watch “Eaten Alive (Scaphism) – Worst Punishments In History of Mankind”.
可以观看 “被生食(船刑)人类历史上最恶劣的惩罚”
Thanks for watching, and as always, don’t forget to like, share and subscribe.
感谢观看 不要忘记点赞 分享 订阅
See you next time.
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视频概述

这种刑罚源于古希腊,据说是一位雅典工匠所发明。先打造一只铜牛,内部大小足以容下成年人。当需要惩罚犯人时,将其装入铜牛内部,然后锁上,下面就开始生火加热,铜牛里面的人会慢慢感觉到烫,然后炙热、剧痛由皮肤传遍全身,尽管痛不欲生却无处可逃,最后被活活折磨死。最令人恐怖的是,铜牛设计者还在铜牛嘴部设计了声音转化器,将受刑人临死前绝望的哀嚎声放大,整个过程让人不寒而栗

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Y_y

审核员

审核员CH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UOc7xdRhAAY

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