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温泉煤油溪里的食脑阿米巴虫

The Brain-Eating Amoebas of Kerosene Creek

现在很早
It is very early
Kerosene Creek的凌晨真的是非常的冷
in the morning and the air is very cold here at Kerosene Creek,
这是位于新西兰北岛的罗托鲁瓦附近的一个天然温泉
a natural hot spring near Rotorua on the North Island of New Zealand.
它是天然的泳池 也是一个天然形成的瀑布
It’s a natural swimming pool and waterfall
全年温暖舒适 适于泡澡
at a warm and comfortablebathing temperature year-round
这是因为这边附近有地热活动
because of the geothermalactivity that’s around here.
这里空气中也有着一种奇怪的气味
There is also a questionablesmell in the air,
不过还好 相机完全拍不出来
but fortunately that doesn’treally come across on camera.
这个地方不再像以前一样是个秘密了
This place is not the local secret that it used to be.
现在游客蜂拥而至 这就是为什么我这么早就在这里拍摄的原因
Tourists flock here now, which is why I’m filming here so early.
我不是很想去
I didn’t really want to turn
一个满是人的游泳池
up to a swimming pool full of people
然后尴尬地对着他们进行拍摄
and awkwardlypoint a camera at them.
不过我可以跟你们分享一个景象
But there’s one view that I can show you
这是游客们看不到的
that the tourists won’t get to see
因为当地政府已经发出了一条很明确的警告:
because there’s a rule here that the government warnings are very clear about:
保持你的头部一直高于水面
keep your head above water.
在热水池和诸如此类的地方存在着食脑的变形虫
– The brain-eating amoeba can be found in hot pools and things like that.
如果你把头伸入水中或者吸入水
So these organisms enter the nose
这些小生物会进入你的鼻腔
if you put your head under or you snort the water in.
然后它们可以从鼻子通过嗅觉神经进入大脑
They can then go from the nose through the olfactory nerves to the brain.
一旦它们进入大脑 就会开始吞噬神经细胞和星形胶质细胞
And then once in the brain they start to eat the neurons and astrocytes.
并且它们会引发严重的炎症
And they cause massive inflammation.
然后你会就得这种可怕的变形虫病
And then you get thishorrible amoeboid disease.
刚开始 它可能会使你的嗅觉和味觉发生变化
It starts sometimes with a change in your sense of smell, sense of taste
紧接着就会发展成为头痛 呕吐
And then that can progress to headaches, vomiting,
发烧 最后会导致癫痫发作和死亡
fever, and thenultimately to seizures and death.
治疗中可能会使用几种药物
There are potentially acouple of drugs that are used,
但是其中有一种药物是不允许使用的
one of which is not licenced for use,
该药的使用非常地难控制
and is actually verydifficult to get hold of.
总之 这病一般无法治疗
So in general there is no treatment,
这就导致了死亡率高达97%
and 97% of people die.
食脑虫在这里甚至在新西兰都并不稀罕
– Brain-eating amoeba aren’t unique to here or even to New Zealand.
它们只要在温暖以及未经过处理的水中都十分常见
They’re common anywhere thatthere’s warm, untreated water.
1980年 在佛罗里达州的迪士尼世界
There was even a fatal case
就有一个致命的案例
at Disney World in Florida in 1980,
当时他们在湖上建了个水上乐园
back when they had awater park built into a lake.
并且还有更多奇怪的案例
And there are more odd cases too.
当你得了感冒
– When you’ve got a coldand you’re really bunged up
鼻子完全堵住了 你可以将它们冲洗出来
in your sinuses, you can flush them out.
很重要的是
It’s really important,
你是否将水冲进鼻子中
if you’re going to shove water up your nose,
因为有这样一个惊人的事实
because of the fact thatthere is this amazing–
这些神经连接着你的鼻子和大脑
these many nerves connectingyour nose to your brain,
所以你只能用煮沸的水
that you use only boiled water.
也有着一些人
And so there have been cases
他们使用的洗鼻壶中的水只是取自自来水
of people who’ve used neti pots just taking tap water. And,
啊!他们……
ugh! They…
食脑的变形虫并不是人类唯一的感染源
Brain-eating amoeba is notthe only infection people have had.
还有着其他的感染源 但食脑变形虫是人类潜在感染源之一
There are other things, but that is one potential thing people can get.
但除去这骇人的名字 可怕的故事
– But despite the terrifying name,the grisly stories,
以及被感染后 90%以上的死亡率
and the 90-something percentchance of death if you’re infected,
感染真的很罕见
infection is really rare.
这其中又有多少是由于政府的警告呢
How much of that is down tothe government warnings though? Well,
最好还是不要有该实验的对照组吧
probably best not to have a control group for that experiment. Although,
虽说如此
that said,
曾经在这里的警告信号已经不复存在了
the warning signs that were once here aren’t here any more.
那么发生这种情况的概率是多少呢
– So what are the odds of it happening?
它们非常非常非常罕见
They’re very, very, very rare.
我们最近的一次案例发生在新西兰
The last case we had in New Zealand was,
我记得 是在2000年
I think, in 2000.
但我想重点是 只要它发生 那都是灾难性的
But I guess the point is when it does happen, it’s pretty catastrophic.
即使从微生物的角度来看
There will be things that we’re doing
我们日常中所做的事情
in our daily lives that are way more dangerous than this,
也会比这更危险
even from a microbial point of view.
我们被微生物覆盖
We are covered in microbes,
每天都有非常讨厌的微生物
we have really nasty microbes living in us and
生活在我们体内和体外
on us on a daily basis,
大多数时候都是没关系的
and most of the time it’s okay.
大概有三分之一或四分之一的人
Maybe one in three, one in four people
会有金黄色葡萄球菌住在他们的鼻子里
will have staph aureusliving up their nose.
一直在那里都是没关系的
Pretty fine up there, but if you get that
但如果你的血液中含有这种物质 最后就会受到可怕的感染
in your bloodstream you can end up with horrible infection.
坦白说 比起被变形虫吃掉你的大脑
You’re more at risk, frankly,from shoving your finger
你更有可能因为用手指推了下鼻子
up your nose and thentouching a cut accidentally
然后不小心碰到伤口导致的伤害更危险
than you are from havingyour brain eaten by amoeba.
感谢奥克兰大学的Wiles教授
– Thanks to Dr. Wiles atthe University of Auckland
所给予的专业知识分享
for all her expertise.
下拉列表可以看到她在研究中使用的参考文献
Pull down the description for the references she used in her research.

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视频概述

温泉的危害

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Layla

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQ7uq04fEjs

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