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运动给大脑带来的改变 – 译学馆
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运动给大脑带来的改变

The brain-changing benefits of exercise | Wendy Suzuki

What if I told you there was something that you can do right now
如果我告诉你 有件事你现在做了
that would have an immediate, positive benefit for your brain
马上就能对你的大脑 包括你的情绪和注意力
including your mood and your focus?
起到立竿见影 积极的好处 那会怎么样?
And what if I told you that same thing could actually last a long time
如果我告诉你 这件事还可以长时间
and protect your brain from different conditions
保护你的大脑免受不同情况的影响
like depression, Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
比如抑郁症 阿尔茨海默氏症或痴呆症
Would you do it?
你会去做吗?
Yes!
是的!
I am talking about the powerful effects of physical activity.
我说的就是体育锻炼的强大效果
Simply moving your body,
简单地动动你的身体
has immediate, long-lasting and protective benefits for your brain.
对你的大脑有即时 持久 保护性的好处
And that can last for the rest of your life.
这种好处可以持续你的余生
So what I want to do today is tell you a story
今天我想给你们讲一个
about how I used my deep understanding of neuroscience,
作为一名神经科学教授
as a professor of neuroscience,
我是如何运用自己对神经科学深刻理解的故事
to essentially do an experiment on myself
在我自己身上做了一个实验
in which I discovered the science underlying
为什么运动 能够作为当今你能为大脑做的
why exercise is the most transformative thing
最具变革性的事情 在这个实验中
that you can do for your brain today.
我发现了背后的科学基础
Now, as a neuroscientist, I know that our brains,
作为一名神经学家 我知道我们的大脑
that is the thing in our head right now,
也就是现在我们大脑中的东西
that is the most complex structure known to humankind.
是人类已知的最复杂的结构
But it’s one thing to talk about the brain,
但谈论大脑是一回事
and it’s another to see it.
看到它又是另一回事
So here is a real preserved human brain.
这是一个真的 保存完好的人类大脑
And it’s going to illustrate two key areas that we are going to talk about today.
它将说明我们今天要讨论的两个关键区域
The first is the prefrontal cortex, right behind your forehead,
第一个是前额叶皮质 就在你额头后面
critical for things like decision-making, focus, attention and your personality.
它对你的决策力 专注力 注意力和个性都至关重要
The second key area is located in the temporal lobe, shown right here.
第二个关键区域位于颞叶 如图所示
You have two temporal lobes in your brain, the right and the left,
你的大脑中有两个颞叶 左右各一个
and deep in the temporal lobe is a key structure
在颞叶深处有一个关键结构
critical for your ability to form and retain
对你形成和保留
new long-term memories for facts and events.
新的对事物的长期记忆的能力至关重要
And that structure is called the hippocampus.
这个结构被称为海马体
So I’ve always been fascinated with the hippocampus.
我一直痴迷于海马体
How could it be that an event that lasts just a moment,
一个仅仅持续一瞬间的事件
say, your first kiss,
比方说 你的初吻
or the moment your first child was born,
或者你第一个孩子出生的时刻
can form a memory that has changed your brain,
怎么就形成了一段能改变你大脑的记忆
that lasts an entire lifetime?
并被铭记一生呢?
That’s what I want to understand.
这就是我想了解的东西
I wanted to start and record
我打算开启研究并记录
the activity of individual brain cells in the hippocampus
受试者形成新的记忆时
as subjects were forming new memories.
海马体中单个脑细胞的活动
And essentially try and decode how those brief bursts of electrical activity,
从本质上讲 就是试图破解那些短暂的电活动
which is how neurons communicate with each other,
也就是神经元之间的交流方式
how those brief bursts either allowed us
这些短暂的电活动是如何让我们形成
to form a new memory, or did not.
或没形成新记忆的
But a few years ago,
但是几年前
I did something very unusual in science.
我做了一件在科学上很不寻常的事情
As a full professor of neural science,
作为一名神经科学的全职教授
I decided to completely switch my research program.
我决定彻底改变我的研究计划
Because I encountered something that was so amazing,
因为我遇到了一些令人惊叹的事情
with the potential to change so many lives
这有可能改变很多人的生活
that I had to study it.
所以我必须去研究它
I discovered and I experienced the brain-changing effects of exercise.
我发现并体验到了运动改造大脑的效果
And I did it in a completely inadvertent way.
这是我无意中做到的
I was actually at the height of all the memory work that I was doing —
我当时正处在我所有记忆工作的巅峰时期——
data was pouring in,
数据源源不断地涌入
I was becoming known in my field for all of this memory work.
我在我的领域里因为这些记忆工作而闻名
And it should have been going great.
本来应该进行得很顺利的
It was, scientifically.
确实顺利 从科学角度来讲的话
But when I stuck my head out of my lab door,
但是当我把头探出实验室门外时
I noticed something.
我注意到一件事
I had no social life.
我没有社交生活
I spent too much time listening to those brain cells
我花了太多时间独自待在黑暗的房间里
in a dark room, by myself.
去听那些脑细胞的声音
I didn’t move my body at all.
我的身体压根没动过
I had gained 25 pounds.
我重了25磅
And actually, it took me many years to realize it,
事实上 我花了很多年才意识到
I was actually miserable.
我其实很痛苦
And I shouldn’t be miserable.
我不应该感到痛苦
And I went on a river-rafting trip –
于是我进行了一次漂流之旅——
by myself, because I had no social life.
独自一人 因为我没有社交生活
And I came back — thinking, “Oh, my God,
当我回来时 我心想“哦 天哪
I was the weakest person on that trip.”
我是那次旅行中最弱的人”
And I came back with a mission.
于是我带着使命回来了
I said, “I’m never going to feel like
我说 “我再也不想觉得
the weakest person on a river-rafting trip again.”
自己是漂流旅行中最弱的人了”
And that’s what made me go to the gym.
这就是我去健身房的原因
And I focused my type-A personality
我把我的A型性格
on going to all the exercise classes at the gym.
尽数运用在去健身房参加的所有运动课上
I tried everything.
我什么都试过了
I went to kickbox, dance, yoga, step class,
我报了跆拳道 舞蹈 瑜伽 舞步班
and at first it was really hard.
一开始真的很难做到
But what I noticed is that after every sweat-inducing workout that I tried,
但我注意到 在我尝试的每一次汗流浃背的锻炼之后
I had this great mood boost and this great energy boost.
我的情绪和精力都得到了极大的提升
And that’s what kept me going back to the gym.
这就是我坚持去健身房的原因
Well, I started feeling stronger.
嗯 我开始觉得自己更强壮了
I started feeling better, I even lost that 25 pounds.
我开始感觉好多了 我甚至减掉了25磅
And now, fast-forward a year and a half into this regular exercise program
现在 快进到这个常规锻炼计划的一年半
and I noticed something that really made me sit up and take notice.
我注意到 让我惊讶并真正引起我注意的事情
I was sitting at my desk, writing a research grant,
当时我正坐在办公桌前 写着一份科研补助报告
and a thought went through my mind that had never gone through my mind before.
一个从未有过的想法在我的脑海中闪过
And that thought was,
这个想法是
“Gee, grant-writing is going well today.”
“哎呀 今天的补助申请写得顺利”
And all the scientists —
所有的科学家——
yeah, all the scientists always laugh when I say that,
是的 当我这么说的时候 所有的科学家都笑了
because grant-writing never goes well.
因为补助申请从来都不顺利
It is so hard; you’re always pulling your hair out,
这太难了 你总是要绞尽脑汁
trying to come up with that million-dollar-winning idea.
想方设法想出那个赢得百万美元的点子
But I realized that the grant-writing was going well,
但我意识到补助申请进行得很顺利
because I was able to focus and maintain
因为我能够比以前更长时间地
my attention for longer than I had before.
集中和保持注意力
And my long-term memory —
我的长期记忆力——
what I was studying in my own lab —
我在自己的实验室里研究的东西——
seemed to be better in me.
似乎变得更好
And that’s when I put it together.
就在那时 我把这些拼凑在一起
Maybe all that exercise that I had included
也许我生活中曾做过的所有运动
and added to my life
以及额外增加的所有运动
was changing my brain.
都在改变我的大脑
Maybe I did an experiment on myself without even knowing it.
也许我不知不觉中在自己身上做了个实验
So as a curious neuroscientist,
因此 作为一名好奇的神经学家
I went to the literature
我去查阅文献
to see what I could find about what we knew about the effects of exercise on the brain.
看看我能找到哪些关于运动影响大脑的知识
And what I found was an exciting and a growing literature
我发现的是令人兴奋且不断增加的文献
that was essentially showing everything that I noticed in myself.
它基本上点出了我在自己身上发现的所有改变
Better mood, better energy,
更好的心情 更高的精力
better memory, better attention.
更好的记忆力 更佳的注意力
And the more I learned,
我学得越多
the more I realized how powerful exercise was.
就越意识到运动的力量有多强大
Which eventually led me to the big decision
这最终让我下定决心
to completely shift my research focus.
彻底转移我的研究重点
And so now, after several years of really focusing on this question,
所以现在 在真正关注这个问题数年之后
I’ve come to the following conclusion:
我得出了以下结论:
that exercise is the most transformative thing
锻炼是你今天能为你的大脑做的
that you can do for your brain today
最具变革性的事情
for the following three reasons.
原因有三
Number one: it has immediate effects on your brain.
第一:它对你的大脑有立竿见影的效果
A single workout that you do
你做的单次锻炼
will immediately increase levels of neurotransmitters
会立即增加神经递质的水平
like dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline.
比如多巴胺 血清素和去甲肾上腺素
That is going to increase your mood right after that workout,
这会让你在锻炼之后情绪高涨
exactly what I was feeling.
这和我当时的感觉一模一样
My lab showed that a single workout
我的实验室表明 单次锻炼
can improve your ability to shift and focus attention,
可以提高你转移和集中注意力的能力
and that focus improvement will last for at least two hours.
而且这种专注力改善将持续至少两个小时
And finally, studies have shown
最后 研究表明
that a single workout will improve your reaction times
单次锻炼会改善你的反应时间
which basically means
这基本上意味着
that you are going to be faster at catching
你能更快地接住
that cup of Starbucks that falls off the counter,
从柜台上掉下来的那杯星巴克
which is very, very important.
这一点非常非常重要
But these immediate effects are transient,
但这些立竿见影的效果是短暂的
they help you right after.
它们只在运动结束后帮助你
What you have to do is do what I did,
你要做的就是像我一样
that is change your exercise regime, increase your cardiorespiratory function,
改变你的锻炼方式 增加你的心肺功能
to get the long-lasting effects.
以获得持久的效果
And these effects are long-lasting
这些效果之所以持久
because exercise actually changes
是因为运动实际上改变了
the brain’s anatomy, physiology and function.
大脑的解剖结构 生理机能以及功能
Let’s start with my favorite brain area, the hippocampus.
我们从我最喜欢的大脑区域——海马体开始
The hippocampus —
海马体——
or exercise actually produces brand new brain cells,
或者说运动实际上产生了全新的脑细胞
new brain cells in the hippocampus,
这些海马体中的新脑细胞
that actually increase its volume,
实际上增加了海马体的体积
as well as improve your long-term memory, OK?
同时也改善了你的长期记忆力
And that including in you and me.
这种改变对你我皆是如此
Number two: the most common finding in neuroscience studies,
第二:神经科学研究中最常见的发现
looking at effects of long-term exercise,
即长期锻炼的效果
is improved attention function dependent on your prefrontal cortex.
是注意力功能的改善依赖于你的前额叶皮质
You not only get better focus and attention,
你不仅能获得更好的专注力和注意力
but the volume of the hippocampus increases as well.
而且海马体的体积也会增加
And finally, you not only get immediate effects
最后 你不仅可以通过锻炼
of mood with exercise
获得情绪的即时效果
but those last for a long time.
这些效果还会持续很长一段时间
So you get long-lasting increases in those good mood neurotransmitters.
所以这些好心情的神经递质会持续增加
But really, the most transformative thing that exercise will do
但实际上 运动最具变革性的
is its protective effects on your brain.
是它对大脑的保护效应
Here you can think about the brain like a muscle.
你可以把大脑想象成一块肌肉
The more you’re working out,
你锻炼得越多
the bigger and stronger your hippocampus and prefrontal cortex gets.
你的海马体和前额叶皮质就会变得越大 越强壮
Why is that important?
为什么这很重要?
Because the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus
因为前额叶皮质和海马体
are the two areas that are most susceptible to neurodegenerative diseases
是最容易受到衰老时神经退行性疾病和
and normal cognitive decline in aging.
正常认知衰退影响的两个区域
So with increased exercise over your lifetime,
所以 增加你一生中锻炼
you’re not going to cure dementia or Alzheimer’s disease,
并不能治愈痴呆症或阿尔茨海默氏症
but what you’re going to do is you’re going to create
你要做的是创造出
the strongest, biggest hippocampus and prefrontal cortex
最强壮 最大的海马体和前额叶皮质
so it takes longer for these diseases
这些疾病就需要更长的时间
to actually have an effect.
才能对你产生实际的影响
You can think of exercise, therefore,
你可以把锻炼想象成
as a supercharged 401K for your brain, OK?
对你大脑的401K的增压
And it’s even better, because it’s free.
甚至比那更好 因为它是免费的
So this is the point in the talk where everybody says,
在这个演讲中 每个人都会谈到的一点是
“That sounds so interesting, Wendy,
“听起来很有趣 Wendy
but I really will only want to know one thing.
但我真的只想知道一件事
And that is, just tell me the minimum amount of exercise
那就是 你只要告诉我 要实现所有这些改变
I need to get all these changes.”
需要的最小运动量是多少”
And so I’m going to tell you the answer to that question.
所以我要告诉你们这个问题的答案
First, good news:
首先 好消息是:
you don’t have to become a triathlete
你不必成为铁人三项运动员
to get these effects.
就能获得这些效果
The rule of thumb is you want to get three to four times a week exercise
经验法则是 你应该每周锻炼三到四次
minimum 30 minutes an exercise session,
每次至少30分钟
and you want to get aerobic exercise in.
并且你应该进行有氧运动
That is, get your heart rate up.
也就是说 提高心率的运动
And the good news is, you don’t have to go to the gym
好消息是 你不必去健身房
to get a very expensive gym membership.
就能获得非常昂贵的健身房会员资格
Add an extra walk around the block in your power walk.
在你健步走时多绕街区步行一圈
You see stairs — take stairs.
你看到楼梯——就走楼梯
And power-vacuuming can be as good as the aerobics class
吸尘可以和你在健身房上的
that you were going to take at the gym.
有氧运动课一样好
So I’ve gone from memory pioneer to exercise explorer.
我已经从记忆先驱变成了运动探索家
From going into the innermost workings of the brain,
从深入大脑的内部运作
to trying to understand how exercise can improve our brain function,
到试图了解运动如何改善我们的大脑功能
and my goal in my lab right now
我现在实验室的目标是
is to go beyond that rule of thumb that I just gave you —
超越我刚才给你们的经验法则——
three to four times a week, 30 minutes.
每周三到四次 一次30分钟
I want to understand the optimum exercise prescription
我想了解最适合你的运动处方
for you, at your age, at your fitness level,
在你的年龄 你的健康水平
for your genetic background,
你的遗传背景下
to maximize the effects of exercise today
最大限度地发挥今天运动的效果
and also to improve your brain
同时也为了改善你的大脑
and protect your brain the best for the rest of your life.
在你的余生中最好地保护你的大脑
But it’s one thing to talk about exercise,
但是谈论运动是一回事
and it’s another to do it.
做运动又是另一回事
So I’m going to invoke my power
因此 我将调用我作为一名
as a certified exercise instructor,
获得认证的运动教练的力量
to ask you all to stand up.
请你们所有人站起来
We’re going to do just one minute of exercise.
我们只做一分钟的运动
It’s call-and-response,
这是一种呼唤和响应
just do what I do, say what I say,
照我做的做 照我说的说
and make sure you don’t punch your neighbor, OK?
确保你不会打到身边的人 好吗?
Music!
音乐!
Five, six, seven, eight, it’s right, left, right, left.
五 六 七 八 右 左 右 左
And I say, I am strong now.
我说 我现在很强壮
Let’s hear you.
让我听见你们的声音
Audience: I am strong now.
听众:我现在很强壮
Wendy Suzuki: Ladies, I am Wonder Woman-strong.
Wendy Suzuki:女士们 我是神奇女侠–强壮
Let’s hear you!
让我听见你们的声音!
Audience: I am Wonder Woman-strong.
观众:我是神奇女侠–强壮
WS: New move — uppercut, right and left.
WS:新动作——上勾拳 右拳和左拳
I am inspired now. You say it!
我现在受到鼓舞了 你们说!
Audience: I am inspired now.
观众:我现在受到鼓舞了
WS: Last move — pull it down, right and left, right and left.
WS:最后一步——把它往下拉 右 左 右 左
I say, I am on fire now! You say it.
我说 我现在热情似火!到你们说了
Audience: I am on fire now.
观众:我现在热情似火
WS: And done! OK, good job!
WS:完成了!好 干得好!
Thank you.
谢谢
I want to leave you with one last thought.
我想给你们留下最后一个建议
And that is, bringing exercise in your life
那就是 把运动带进你的生活中
will not only give you a happier more protective life today.
不仅会让你今天的生活更快乐 更有保障
but it will protect your brain from incurable diseases.
还会保护你的大脑免受不治之症的侵害
And in this way it will change the trajectory of your life for the better.
这样一来 你的生活轨迹就会变得更好
Thank you very much.
谢谢大家
Thank you.
谢谢

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视频概述

每天简单做做运动,就能提高你的决策力,专注力和注意力。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

千思与

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHY0FxzoKZE

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