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深度睡眠对大脑的好处,以及怎么能进行深度睡眠 – 译学馆
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深度睡眠对大脑的好处,以及怎么能进行深度睡眠

The brain benefits of deep sleep -- and how to get more of it | Dan Gartenberg

如果你能让自己的睡眠更有效率会怎样?
What if you could makeyour sleep more efficient?
作为一名睡眠专家
As a sleep scientist,
在过去的十年里 我一直在
this is the question that has captivated me
研究这个问题
for the past 10 years.
随着灯泡和技术开启了
Because while the lightbulband technology have brought about a world
一个不停运转不停生产的世界
of 24-hour work and productivity,
我们也相应的付出一些代价:
it has come at the cost
我们身体自然的昼夜节律
of our naturally occurring circadian rhythm
以及我们的身体对睡眠的需求
and our body’s need for sleep.
昼夜节律会影响我们一整天的精力水平
The circadian rhythm dictatesour energy level throughout the day,
最近 我们
and only recently we’ve been
在全球对此节律开展了一项实验
conducting a global experiment on this rhythm,
节律(失调)会极大影响我们的睡眠健康
which is putting our sleep health
最终危及我们的生活质量
and ultimatelyour life quality in jeopardy.
正因如此 我们不能获得充足的睡眠
Because of this, we aren’t getting the sleep we need,
平均每个美国人比起二十世纪四十年代
with the average Americansleeping a whole hour less
少睡了整整一个小时
than they did in the 1940s.
出于某种原因
For some reason,
我们决定把睡眠不足当做一枚荣誉徽章戴着
we decided to wear it as a badge of honor
这枚“徽章”是用睡眠不足换来的
that we can get by on not enough sleep.
这些睡眠不足将会导致真正的健康危机
This all adds up to a real health crisis.
我们大多数人都知道睡眠不足会导致疾病
Most of us know that poor sleepis linked to diseases
比如老年痴呆症 心脑血管疾病
like Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease,
中风和糖尿病
stroke and diabetes.
如果你得了像睡眠呼吸中止症这样的睡眠疾病
And if you go untreated
而不去接受治疗
with a sleep disorder like sleep apnea,
那么你更有可能得这些疾病
you’re more likelyto get many of these illnesses.
然而你了解睡眠对你的精神状况有什么影响吗?
But did you know about sleep’s impacton your mental states?
睡眠不足会让我们做出冒险 轻率的决定
Poor sleep makes usmake risky, rash decisions
并且降低我们理解他人的能力
and is a drainon our capacity for empathy.
睡眠不足时确实可以让我们
When sleep deprivation literally makes us
对我们自己的痛苦更加敏感
more sensitive to our own pain,
这没有什么好惊讶的
it’s not so surprising
我们在睡眠不足的时候
that we have a hard time relating to others
还要在与其他人相处时做一个善良的 健康的人
and just generallybeing a good and healthy person
是不容易的
when we’re sleep-deprived.
现在 科学家们开始慢慢的清楚
Scientists are now starting to understand
不仅睡眠的时长
how not only the quantity
而且其质量也会影响我们的健康和幸福
but also the quality of sleepimpacts our health and well-being.
我的研究关注的是
My research focuses
很多科学家认为的睡眠中最具有再生力的阶段:
on what many scientists believe is the most regenerative stage of sleep:
深度睡眠阶段
deep sleep.
一般来说 目前我们认为
We now know that generally speaking,
睡眠有三个阶段:
there are three stages of sleep:
浅层睡眠阶段 快速眼动阶段(或称REM)
light sleep, rapid eye movement or REM
和深度睡眠阶段
and deep sleep.
我们把电极连接到头皮 下巴和胸部上来测量这些阶段
We measure these stages by connecting electrodes to the scalp, chin and chest.
在浅层睡眠和快速眼动阶段
In light sleep and REM,
我们的脑电波和醒着时候的脑电波非常相似
our brain waves are very similar to our brain waves in waking life.
但我们
But our brain waves
在深度睡眠时的脑电波波动很大
in deep sleep have these long-burst brain waves
这种波动跟我们醒着时候的脑电波截然不同
that are very differentfrom our waking life brain waves.
我们把这些大波动脑电波叫做三角电波
These long-burst brain wavesare called delta waves.
当我们所需要的深度睡眠不足时
When we don’t get the deep sleep we need,
这会抑制我们的学习能力
it inhibits our ability to learn
抑制细胞和身体的修复能力
and for our cells and bodies to recover.
深度睡眠时我们才能把白天产生的
Deep sleep is how we convertall those interactions
所有相互作用转化为我们长期的记忆和个性
that we make during the day into our long-term memory and personalities.
随着我们年龄的增加
As we get older,
我们更可能失去这些具有可再生力的三角电波
we’re more likely to lose these regenerative delta waves.
也可以这么说 深度睡眠和三角电波
So in way, deep sleep and delta waves
实际上是生理方面处于青年时期的标志
are actually a markerfor biological youth.
所以 很自然地我想让我自己的深度睡眠时间长一些
So naturally, I wanted to getmore deep sleep for myself
我的确尝试了几乎所有的小东西 小玩意
and I literally tried almost every gadget, gizmo,
设备 还有各种消费级的
device and hack out there — consumer-grade,
临床级的东西 不一而足
clinical-grade, what have you.
我学到了很多东西
I learned a lot,
我发现我确实像大多数人一样
and I found I really do need, like most people,
需要八个小时的睡眠
eight hours of sleep.
我甚至通过改变我的三餐 锻炼和曝光量
I even shifted my circadian component
来改变我昼夜节律的构成
by changing my meals,exercise and light exposure,
然而我仍然没能找到
but I still couldn’t find a way
让我深睡一整夜的方法……
to get a deeper night of sleep…
直到我遇见了哈佛大学医学院的
that is until I metDr. Dmitry Gerashchenko
德米特里·格拉先科博士
from Harvard Medical School.
德米特里将文献中新的发现告诉了我
Dmitry told me abouta new finding in the literature,
德国一实验室在此发现中表示
where a lab out of Germany showed
你如果能在人们睡觉时
that if you could play certain sounds
合适的时间 播放某种声音
at the right time in people’s sleep,
那么确实可以让人们睡得更深 更有成效
you could actually make sleepdeeper and more efficient.
另外 该实验室还表示
And what’s more, is that this lab showed
实际上你能通过这种声音来改善
that you actually could improvenext-day memory performance
次日的记忆效果
with this sound.
我和德米特里合作
Dmitry and I teamed up,
并且开始着手开发这项技术
and we began working on a way to build this technology.
在宾州的研究室合作伙伴的帮助下
With our research labcollaborators at Penn State,
我们来设计实验去证实我们的系统
we designed experimentsin order to validate our system.
我们已经收到国家科学基金会
And we’ve since received grant fundingfrom the National Science Foundation
和国家健康协会的补助金
and the National Institute of Health
去开发这套深度睡眠刺激技术
to develop this deep-sleepstimulating technology.
下面是它的工作原理
Here’s how it works.
人们进入到实验室
People came into the lab and we hooked
我们把许多实验设备挂在他们身上
them up to a number of devices,
我现在就穿戴着两个设备 有没有很时尚
two of which I have on right here — not a fashion statement.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
当我们检测到人们处在深睡中时
When we detectedthat people were in deep sleep,
我们就播放深睡刺激声音
we played the deep-sleepstimulating sounds
实验证明这种声音可以让你睡得更深
that were shownto make them have deeper sleep.
我现在就给你们演示一下这种声音
I’m going to demo this soundfor you right now.
(重复播放的声波)
(Repeating sound waves)
很奇怪 对吧?
Pretty weird, right?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
实际上 这种声音的
So that sound is actually
频率和你处于深睡状态时的
at the same burst frequency as your brain waves
脑电波频率是相同的
when your brain is in deep sleep.
实际上 那种声音模式让你的大脑
That sound patternactually primes your mind
产生更多的具有可再生力的三角电波
to have more of theseregenerative delta waves.
我们次日问参与者他们听到的声音时
When we asked participantsthe next day about the sounds,
他们对我们所播放的声音一无所知
they were completely unawarethat we played the sounds,
而他们的大脑却(对此声音)回应了较多的三角电波
yet their brains respondedwith more of these delta waves.
这是一张我们的研究对象的
Here’s an image of someone’s brain waves
脑电波图像
from the study that we conducted.
看到底部的图了吗?
See the bottom panel?
这表示播放声音的频率
This shows the sound being playedat that burst frequency.
现在来看一下在图片上半部分的脑电波
Now look at the brain waves in the upper part of the graph.
你们可以从这张图片中看到
You can see from the graph
我们播放的声音确实刺激实验对象产生了较多的具有可再生力的三角电波
that the sound is actually producing more of these regenerative delta waves.
因此我们认为 不用将设备电极挂在人身上
We learned that we couldaccurately track sleep
就可以精确地追踪人们的睡眠状况
without hooking people up to electrodes
并且让人们睡得更加深沉
and make people sleep deeper.
我们将继续探索合适的声音和睡眠环境
We’re continuing to develop the right sound environmentand sleep habitat
来改善人们的睡眠健康状况
to improve people’s sleep health.
虽然我们的睡眠没有了从前那样的修复能力
Our sleep isn’tas regenerative as it could be,
但是 也许不久会有这么一天 我们可以穿戴着小型设备
but maybe one day soon, we could wear a small device
来获得更多的深度睡眠
and get more out of our sleep.
谢谢大家
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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本视频介绍了什么是深度睡眠,以及它带给我们的益处,怎样进行深度睡眠。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1U2qMRGihGg

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