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放屁甲虫和它的化学炮 – 译学馆
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放屁甲虫和它的化学炮

The Bombardier Beetle And Its Crazy Chemical Cannon | Deep Look

美国公共电视网 数码工作室
《微观深望》
放屁甲虫是大自然最不可思议的生物之一
The bombardier beetle is one of nature’s most improbable creatures.
有人说 它有悖于整个进化理念
For some, it throws a monkey wrench into the whole idea of evolution.
这个甲虫是行走的火药桶
This beetle is a walking powder keg.
你看到的那一团烟雾
That cloud you see
就是它体内闪电般完成的化学反应的结果
is the result of a lightning fast chemical reaction inside his body.
受到攻击时 甲虫便会引爆”炸弹”
When attacked, the beetle sets off the explosion.
释放出滚烫刺鼻的毒气 让敌人逃之夭夭
Releasing a boiling hot, stinging poison that sends his enemies running.
它甚至还能瞄准目标
He can even aim it.
甲虫体内强效混合气体由三种主要成分组成
This potent mixture inside the beetle is made up of three main ingredients.
将前两种成分混合后没有任何反应
Mix the first two of them together and nothing happens.
不过 一旦加入第三种成分就会发生爆炸
But throw in the third, and boom.
所以放屁甲虫也是有小伎俩的
So, the beetle has a trick.
它把这些成分在体内分别储存
He keeps these ingredients separate inside his body.
从进化的立场看 这确实很有趣
From an evolutionarystandpoint, that’s what’s interesting.
事实上 人们被这问题困扰几十年了
In fact, people have been scratching their heads over this for decades.
这个复杂的系统究竟是如何随着时间进化的呢?
How did this complex system evolve over time?
放屁甲虫
BOMBARDIER BEETLES
早期的放屁甲虫难道不会像一帮业余造弹者一样
Wouldn’t earlier generations of beetles have blown themselves up,
把自己炸个稀巴烂吗?
like a bunch of amateur bomb-makers?
对于一些人来说 放屁甲虫生存下来
To some, this beetle’s very survival
就证明了整个进化论是错的
is proof that the whole theory of evolution is wrong.
但结果也证明了这个系统或许是缓慢进化来的
But it turns out there is way this system could have evolved gradually.
还记得刚才的第三个成分吗? 它是种酶
Remember that third ingredient? It’s an enzyme.
如火花一般 它能引燃一场爆炸
It’s like a spark, it sets the explosion in motion.
酶是进化来的
And enzymes evolve.
起初 这个可能不那么危险
At first, maybe this one wasn’t so dangerous.
但慢慢的 它就变得更强效 更专业 更易爆
But gradually, it became more potent, more specialized, more explosive.
甲虫的身体也会为容纳它而做出调整
As the beetle’s body changed to contain it.
加州大学伯克利分校的科学家们
Scientists at UC Berkeley
正尽力研究这个系统是如何整合到一起的
are trying to figure how this system came together.
他们认为那些易爆化学物质的一种
They think one of those explosive chemicals
进化自 与甲虫的壳成分相同的材质
evolved from the same raw materials as the beetle’s shell.
这种情况在进化中经常出现
That happens a lot in evolution.
这种情况叫做”扩展适应”
It’s called “exaptation.”
即 身体的一部分被用作另一功能的现象
One body part repurposed for something else.
不可思议的放屁甲虫
The improbable bombardier beetle.
活生生的证据:杀不死你的只会令你更坚强
Living proof that what doesn’t kill you, only makes you stronger.
我是艾米 再次向你问好
Hi again, it’s Amy.
希望你觉得《深度观察》就是那个炸弹啊
I hope you think Deep Look is the bomb.
如果你也这么觉得 那就赶快订阅吧
If so, subscribe!
点击那个按钮就可以加入我们
Click that button and join us.
我们每两周就会出一期新节目
Every two weeks, you’ll have a new episode.
好了 结束 谢谢你们!
Bang, done. Thank you!

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视频概述

不可思议的放屁虫!它能在极短的时间内从体内发出滚烫刺鼻的毒气!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BWwgLS5tK80

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