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盲鱼-洞穴鱼

The Blind Cavefish | JONATHAN BIRD'S BLUE WORLD

欢迎来到《乔纳森•伯德的蓝色世界》
Next on Jonathan Bird’s Blue World, Jonathan goes
今天乔纳森将潜入尤卡坦地下世界 寻找一个罕见难寻的
deep underground looking for a rare and elusive
洞穴盲鱼!
blind cavefish in the Yucatan!
我是乔纳森·伯德欢迎来到我的世界!
Hi!I’m Jonathan Bird andwelcome to my world!
(音乐)
( ♪ music )
乔纳森·伯德的蓝色世界
Jonathan Bird’s Blue World
从山峰的最高处到海洋的最深处
From the highest mountains to the depths of the ocean,
生命几乎存在于地球上每种环境中
life exists in nearly every environment on Earth.
但是这些环境中有些是难以想象的
But some of these environmentsare surprising.
在这个丛林的地下深处生活着一种
Deep beneaththe floor of this jungle lives a creature
为了在残酷的水生环境中生存而特殊地改变的生物
uniquely adapted for survival in a harsh aquatic environment
为了发现它 我正朝着位于墨西哥尤卡坦半岛的
To find it, I have traveled to the Riviera Maya
里维埃拉玛雅方向旅行
in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula.
尤卡坦充满了水下洞穴系统
The Yucatan is full of underwatercave systems.
我的猎物是盲的洞穴鱼
My quarry is the blind cavefish,
一种一生都生活在完全黑暗洞穴中的动物
an animal that lives in the complete and total darkness of caves for its entire life.
为了开始我的寻找
To begin my quest,
我向着位于卡门海滩的尤卡坦潜水员工作处出发
I head on over to Yucatek Divers in Playa del Carmen,
在那我遇见克莉斯汀·洛
where I meet Christine Loew.
她将是我寻找这种异常罕见的鱼的向导
who’ll be my guide to search for the exceptionally rare fish.
天一亮 我们就将物资装上货车
We load the van in the early morning,
因为我们到这片丛林里一个偏远的天然井之间
because we have a long drive
有一段漫长的车程
to a remote cenote in the jungle.
旅途中我们越过几英里崎岖不平的泥路
Our travels take us over roughdirt roads for miles.
最后我们到达了这个位于丛林深处洞穴的入口
Finally we arrive at the entrance to the cave, deep in the jungle.
克莉斯汀是一位洞穴潜水教员
Christine is a cave diving instructor,
她知道怎么样让我在这个危险的洞穴里
someone who knows how to keep me out of trouble in
摆脱麻烦
a dangerous cave.
我们在检查这个洞穴入口的途中
We discuss our plan for the dive
讨论了我们潜水的计划
as we walk over to check out the entrance.
它可能看起来不是很大
It might not look like much,
但是流出的清水通向一个被称为宠物墓园的
but this sliver of clear water leads into a vast cave system
巨大洞穴体系
called Pet Cemetery.
我真的不想知道他们为什么这样称呼它
I really don’t want to know why theycall it that.
克莉斯汀在地图上向我展示
Christine shows me on the map
我们将只能看见这个巨大的系统的很微小的一部分
that we will only be seeing a tiny fraction of this massive system.
我们有希望能找到这种洞穴鱼
Hopefully we can findthe cavefish.
克莉斯汀—事实上你已经看见了周围的路线
Christine:”And actually youalready see the line going
around.
它正形成一个环 这就是我们前往的地方
It’s forming a loop andthis is where we head in.
我们将逆时针方向行进因为在那个区域
We will go counter clockwise because inthat area
很有可能我们可以看见这个洞穴鱼
very likely we going to see thecave fish.”
我对克莉斯汀的简述投以特别的注意力
I pay special attention toChristine’s briefing.
在洞穴里潜水是一件严肃的事情接下来
Diving incaves is serious business. Next,
到了穿上潜水服的时间 克莉斯汀背着
it’s time to suit up.Christine wears
两个巨大的为了洞穴潜水的氧气瓶 这样她就有额外的空气 只是以防万一
massive double tanks for cave diving so she has extra air—just in case.
这是一个洞穴潜水的协议
This is a cave diving protocol.
我们向下到了一个方便的地方
We climb down a convenient set of steps and
进入这个天然井暖和的 清澈的水里
into the warm, clear water of the cenote,
这个命名是一个通向
the name for an opening to
流动在丛林下面深处下的
an underwater cave system
洞穴系统
that flows deep beneath jungle above.
我抓着我的相机 做了一些最后的检查
I grab my camera, do a few last checks,
点亮我的灯 跟随克莉斯汀进入黑暗中
fire up my lights, and follow Christine into the darkness.
(在此之间暂停)
(pause between these)
刚刚进到入口 我们就已经被美丽的礁石环绕
Just inside the entrance, we are already surrounded by beautiful sculptures of rock.
我对洞穴形成的难以置信的美丽而惊奇
I’m always astonished by the incrediblebeauty of cave formations.
在冰河时代的最后
During the last ice age,
当时海平面降低了很多 地下水位也降低了
when sea levels were much lower, the water table was also lower.
这个洞穴非常的干燥
This cave was bone dry,
但是水持续的从上面向下滴 形成了数以千计的
but the constant dripping of water from the ceiling formed thousands
钟乳石 它们看起来像冰锥
of stalactites. They look like icicles,
除了它的本质是钙以外 几乎以同样的方式形成
and form nearly the same way, except out of calcium
除了碳酸盐—一种质软的石头
carbonate—a kind of soft stone.
它们非常的精美
They are incredibly delicate.
如果我碰撞它们 它们
If I bump them, they
将破裂 再也不会长回去
will break and never grow back.
缓慢小心地移动是我的义务
Moving slowly and carefully ismy responsibility.
克莉斯汀和我使用了一种特殊蛙式蹬腿
Christine and I use a special kind of kick called a frog kick.
取代踢腿
Instead of kicking
我们上下挥动着手臂 就像在海里做的一样
our fins up and down like we do in the ocean,
此时我们轻轻靠着侧面滑动
here we gently scull them out to the side.
这可以防止洞穴地面上的淤泥沉积
This keeps from disturbing the silty sediment on the floor of the cave.
这种细小的沉淀物很容易踢起
This fine sediment is easy to kick up
它将完全地破坏能见度
and it will absolutely destroy the visibility.
如果我们看不见
If we can’t see,
就更难找到出去的路
it’s a lot harder to find out way out.
潜水者经常来这里
Divers come here often and
来自外面明亮天然井里的鱼已经知道
these fish from the well-lit cenote outside have learned to
跟随潜水员的灯光进入黑暗中在洞穴中狩猎
follow divers’ lights into thedarkness to hunt in the cave.
这明显对原始脆弱的洞穴系统
It definitely poses a threat
构成了威胁
to pristine and fragile caveecosystems.
我们几个旅行者在一起
With our little hitchhikers in tow,
我们最后抵达了 克莉斯汀说的那个
we finally reach the part of the cave where Christine
之前已经在那里看见过这个洞穴鱼的地方
has seen the cavefish before.
现在她正在小心地在附近寻找一条盲鱼
Now she is carefully pokingaround looking for one.
因为我从来没见过一条
Since I have never seen one,
所以我不是很确定要去寻找什么
I’m not exactly sure what to look for!
黑暗慢慢笼罩洞穴 我惊奇的看到了
I’m surprised to see what looks like a bush growing
一团像灌木丛般生长的东西
in the pitch darkness of the cave.
但是实际上它是一棵在这个丛林的地面上
But it’s actually the roots of a tree living
活着的树的根部
in the jungle up above.
上面的树
The trees up there
能够轻易地获得充足的水分
have no problem getting plentyof water!
克莉斯汀正在缠绕的混乱的树根中寻找
Christine is hunting in thetangled maze of roots.
有时候这个洞穴鱼躲藏在这里
Sometimes the cavefish hide inthere.
我帮不上忙只能注意到我的头顶上的空气
I can’t help but notice that there is air above my head!
这个洞穴实际上有一些
This cave actually has some
特别大的气穴
very large air pockets.
因为它们通过小裂缝
Since they are connected to the surface
与水面相联系
through tiny cracks
这里的空气是无害的
the air is safe to breathe,
所以我把头伸上去环顾四周
so I stick my head up and take a look around.
那里有更多的钟乳石
There are morestalactites
在水面上 因为这些在空气中 所以它们仍然在生长
above water. Because these arein air, they are still growing.
在底部
On the bottom,
克莉斯汀指出一些特别稀薄的脆的钙的碎片
Christine points out some extremely thin and fragile flakes of calcium.
这形成了
Thisforms
水面以下滴落的钟乳石表面的薄膜
as a film on the surface of the water below dripping stalactites.
当它变得足够厚了
When it gets thickenough,
它沉到了底部
it sinks to the bottom.
在一些地方 小薄片堆积起来有几英寸厚
In someplaces, the flakes are stacked
up several inches thick.
这些小堆有几百年了
This little pile is hundreds ofyears worth.
在我继续寻找这个洞穴鱼的时候
As I continue looking for the cavefish,
我偶然发现了来自一些动物的一个下颚骨
I stumble across a jawbone from some kind of
它们曾来到这里 很早以前就死去了
animal that walked in here and died a long time
之前当时它还是干涸的
ago when it was dry.
这应该是数千
This has to bethousands
年了 但是它处于令人惊讶的良好状态
of years old but its inamazingly good condition.
我从沙表面掠过 发现一只洞穴小虾
Skittering across the sand Ifind a cave shrimp.
这个物种不是盲的—但是在
Thisspecies is not blind—but moves
between
洞穴的黑暗和光线之间移动
the dark and light portions ofthe cave.
它可能会吃来自树根的
It probably feeds onorganic material that originates
有机物
with the tree roots.
在黑暗中的生活是困难的
Life is tough in the darkness.
这是一条找不到出路的鲶鱼
This is a catfish that couldn’tfind its way out.
克莉斯汀寻找另一个很可能隐藏着洞穴鱼的树根
Christine searches for another mass of tree roots that might harbor a cavefish.
当我们发现一个的时候 我开始在树根里小心翼翼地看
When we find one, I startlooking carefully in the roots.
在最后我认出了它!
At last I spot it!
一个略带桃色的
A pinkish
白色的鱼藏在那里!
white fish hiding in there!
能看见很棒 但是不可能在
It’s great to see, butimpossible to film in
那样的缠绕的混乱里摄像
that tangled mess.
我很幸运 这条鱼乱跳
Fortunately for me, the fish shies away
远离灯光 游出了这个树根
from light and swims out of the roots.
虽然这种鱼在完全避光的情况下
Even though this species of fish has evolved for thousands
已经进化了数千年
of years in the complete absence of light
而且没有眼睛
and has no eyes,
它还可以通过使用它头颅里白化的皮肤的一个腺体
it can still detect the presence of light through its albino skin using a gland
察觉光的存在
in its head.
为什么?
Why?
这个鱼的唯一的防卫是黑暗
This fish’sonly defense is darkness.
如果它在这个洞穴内的
If itwanders out of the dark
黑暗外游荡
part of the cave,
其他鱼可以看见它—但它却不能看见它们
other fish can see it—but it won’t see them.
这个盲的洞穴鱼需要
The blind cavefish needs
待在安全的黑暗的地方
to stay in the dark where it’ssafe.
我的灯使得这个洞穴鱼为了掩盖气息和安全而游走
My lights make the cavefishswim for cover and safety.
跟着我一起从外面进入这个洞穴的鱼
Thefish that followed me into
对这个洞穴鱼感兴趣
the cave from outside take aninterest in the cavefish.
我必须赶走它们
I have to shoo them away.
事实上 在这个洞穴生态系统里
In fact, in the cave ecosystem,
这种小鱼是顶级捕食者
this little fish is the top predator—the
是这个洞穴的“大白鲨” 这么说也可以
great white shark if you willof the cave.
随着我们的任务完成
With our mission complete,
到了我和克莉斯汀转向反方向回去
it’s time for me and Christine to turn around and head back
到洞外的时候了
out to the light.
克莉斯汀了解这个洞穴就像了解她的手背一样
Christine knows this cave like the back of her hand,
但是为了安全起见
but for added safety,
我们跟随着一条线
we follow a line.
在这个线上是指着出去的路的小塑料三角箭头
On the line are little plastic triangular arrows that point the way out.
通过感知和触摸它们我们可以在
We could use these in complete darkness
完全的黑暗中通过
by feeling them and holding on
这个路线的全程
to the line the whole way.
克莉斯汀停下来指着一个令人惊异的钟乳石类型
Christine stops to point out anamazing type of stalactite.
不像大多数的钟乳石
Unlike most stalactites,
它看起来更像冰锥 这样独特地形态看起来像
which look more like icicles, these unique formations look like
大象的脚 在端头是石块而不是点
elephants feet, with bulbsinstead of points on the end.
当这个洞穴部分被水填满时
They are formed when the cave
它们形成了 钟乳石从
is partially filled with water and the stalactite grows
上面生长 最终到达水面
from above, eventually reachingthe water.
一旦钟乳石触碰到水
Once the stalactitetouches the water, it
逐渐变平 随着水位的变化 在不同的层次形成鳞茎
flattens out. As the water level changes, bulbs form at different levels.
最后我们接近这口天然井的入口 我们调头回到光中
Finally we are nearing the cenote entrance and we head back into the light.
克莉斯汀仅仅在我们调头回到台阶从水里出来之前
Christine explores the cenote just under the surface,
在这个天然井下探测这口井
before we head back to the steps to get out of the water

Wow,
那是一个如此美丽的天然井!
that is such a beautifulcenote!
钟乳石垂下来 还有其他的东西
All the formationshanging down and everything!
非常棒!
That was great!
很难去相信
It’s hard to believe
在水下的洞穴里 是一个有生命生存的世界
that there is an entire world living under the jungle in a submerged cave,
但在这个蓝色世界中 处处都有生命存在
but life survives everywhere in the blue world,
甚至是在完全的黑暗中
even in complete darkness.
(音乐)
( ♪ music )

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视频概述

本视频记录了乔纳森·伯德和克莉斯汀寻找盲鱼的过程以及介绍了钟乳石和盲鱼的形成过程。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Martin

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wD2ibiQLkTU

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