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黑洞炸弹和黑洞文明 – 译学馆
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黑洞炸弹和黑洞文明

The Black Hole Bomb and Black Hole Civilizations

黑洞是宇宙中最大的能量收集站
Black holes are the largest collections of pure violent energy in the universe.
如果你考得太近
If you come too close,
他们会吞掉你并且把你的能量据为己有然后
they’ll devour you and add your energy to their collection.
这些能量就永远消失了或者
And so, the energy is lost to us forever.
把它转变为宇宙的一个欺诈程序
Or is it? It turns out there’s a universe cheat code.
转变为一个可以延续到宇宙完全死亡的能量文明
A way of powering civilizations until the very death of everything,
或者制造一场宇宙中最大的爆炸
or of constructing the largest bomb in the universe.
但是要怎么做?
But how?
我们知道黑洞会吸收一切接近的能量
Didn’t we learn that all energy is trapped forever
即便是光也不能避免
in black holes, even light?
这是正确的
This is true.
因为一个原因 你所知道的关于宇宙的最
Everything you think you know about the weirdest thing in the universe is
奇怪的事情会变得更奇怪
about to get weirder, for one simple reason:
黑洞是会打滑的
Black holes are spinning.
当质量非常大的恒星死去时
When really really massive stars die,
他们的核会在自身重力的作用下塌陷为黑洞
their cores collapse under their own gravity into black holes.
这意味着一个质量很大的物体变得非常小
This means something very big becomes very, very tiny.
小到变成宇宙中最小的物体
Like the tiniest anything can be in this universe.
但是恒星会转动而且我们宇宙中的
But stars are rotating and a fundamental property
基本法则告诉我们
of our universe is that things that are
转动的东西自身不会停止转动
spinning don’t want to stop spinning.
我们称这为角动量
We call this: angular momentum.
这个角动量不会消失
And this angular momentum can’t go away.
一个转动物体会随着体积变小而转动越快
A big thing that spins and becomes smaller, spins faster. So,
所以 随着横行塌陷
as the core of a star collapses,
它的角动量让他转动的越来越快
its momentum makes it spin faster and faster and faster,
直到它塌陷为黑洞
until it collapses into a black hole.
然后黑洞以无限大的角速度保持转动
And the black hole keeps on spinning, inconceivably fast.
有些黑洞每秒转动数百万圈
Some of them spin millions of times a second.
就像不旋转黑洞
Just like non spinning black holes, …
旋转黑洞有事件视界和一个奇点在
spinning black holes have an event horizon and a singularity at their core,
他们的质量核内
where all of their mass is concentrated.
这个奇点通常被描述为一个无限小的没有
The singularity is usually described as a single infinitely small point
面积的点
with no surface area.
但是点不能旋转
But points can’t rotate,
所以旋转奇点不能是一个点的确
so a rotating singularity can’t be a point. Instead,
他是一个旋转环
it’s a RINGularity.
旋转环的厚度为零
A ringularity is a ring with a thickness of
没有面积 转速极高并且
zero and no surface, spinning extremely fast,
包含了黑洞的所有质量
containing all the mass of the black hole.
黑洞转动的如此之快以至于使
The black hole is spinning so fast,
它自己的空间和时间发生了形变
that it morphs space and time itself.
它用它的力量确确实实的能拖拽空间
It literally drags space with it, such is its power.
这创造了一个包裹黑洞的奇怪的时间空间区域:
This creates a new and super weird region of space-time: the Ergosphere, which envelops the black hole.
能层如果时间和空间在事件视界中完全崩环
If space and time are completely broken inside the event horizon,
那他们在能层中只会半崩坏
then they’re only half broken inside the ergosphere.
在能层中 没有什么东西说得通
Inside the ergosphere, nothing makes sense.
它是一个可进可出的区域
It’s possible to enter it and then leave it again,
但这可能不是一个好的体验
but it’s probably not a great experience.
你可以把落进一个静止的黑洞比喻成滑进一个洞
You can imagine it like this: Falling into a static black hole is like sliding down a hole.
在旋转黑洞的能层中就像螺旋
Being inside the ergosphere of a spinning black hole is
落入死亡漩涡
like spiraling down a deadly drain.
黑洞对每一个落入能层的物体
The black hole transfers its own kinetic energy in the form of rotation,
提供旋转的动能
to everything that enters the ergosphere.
不管你愿不愿意环会带着你旋转
The ringularity makes you dance whether you want to or not.
你需要像光一样快才能
You need to move faster than the speed
在其中保持静止但这是不可能的
of light just to stand still here, which is impossible.
但是这有一个漏洞 我们可以从中偷去能量而且这里有很多能量可以被偷取
But here’s our cheat code: We can steal this energy, and there’s a lot of energy to steal.
拿银河系中心黑洞举例
Take the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
我们可以偷取在十亿年间在银河系
We could steal as much energy from it as every single star
蒸发的恒星的能量
in the Milky Way emits in a billion years combined.
最简单古怪的方法取得
The easiest way to steal this energy is,
能量是丢进黑洞一些东西
oddly enough, to drop something into the black hole.
我们可以看到环会给调入能层
We’ve seen that the ringularity forces energy
的物体提供能量
on us when we enter the ergosphere, …
这很像漩涡中被时间空间
which is a lot like being in a whirlpool,
冲走一圈又一圈
with space-time rushing around and around.
如果你很聪明 你可以利用这水流
If you’re clever you can use the water to your advantage,
让你游的更快
and swim faster than before.
在实际中 这意味着发射一个火箭至能层
In practice, this means sending a rocket into the ergosphere,
和黑洞做一个交易
and making a trade with the black hole:
我们给他一些质量
We give it some mass-energy,
它给我们一些转动动量
and it gives us some of its rotational energy.
但这不是公平交易 我们得到的更多通常
But it’s not a fair trade, we get the better deal. Normally,
你启动火箭
if you fire a rocket,
你将化学能转化为动能
you exchange chemical energy for kinetic energy.
这像你将你自己推进游泳池
This is like pushing yourself forward in a swimming pool.
但如果你在能层中启动火箭
But if you fire a rocket inside the ergosphere,
这像将你推进一个波浪池
it’s like pushing yourself forward in a wave pool.
波浪的转动动量给你足够的
The rotational energy of the waves gives you a much stronger boost
推力推动你前进
than you could get just by pushing yourself.
这股推力如此之大
The boost from the rotation of the back hole
在你离开能层时所具有的
is so big, that you leave the ergosphere
能量大于你加入的能量
with much more energy than you entered it.
这个黑洞给了你一点点转动动能并且稍稍降低
The black hole gives a tiny amount of its rotational energy to you,
了一点转速
and slows down a little. Obviously,
显而易见 它需要很多食物
this requires a lot of food. Fortunately,
但幸运的是
black holes aren’t picky eaters.
它并不挑食在不久的未来文明可能会在他们需要能量
An advanced future civilization would probably harvest asteroids to drop them
推力时收集陨石投入黑洞
into the black hole when they needed an energy boost.
但有一个更好的方法从黑洞中
But there’s an even better way to get energy from
获取能量 而且也很奇怪
a black hole, and oddly enough, it builds the
它会造成一场前所未有的大爆炸
biggest bomb any living thing could ever hope to build:
我们只是要两件东西去制造黑洞大爆炸:旋转黑洞和大的镜子
We only need two things to build a black hole bomb: a fast-spinning black hole, and a big mirror.
这面镜子会完全覆盖黑洞
The mirror has to completely envelop the black hole, …
这个镜子和戴森球很像
which is similar to a Dyson Sphere,
这是一个极佳的形状去收集一整个恒星的能量
a mega structure that harvests the energy of an entire star. Although,
虽然这个镜子很容易建造
our mirror would be easier to build.
镜子很简单而且黑洞
Mirrors are simpler, and black holes are much,
远远小于恒星
much more compact than stars.
如果我们做十厘米厚的镜子
If we made the mirror 10 centimeters thick, the metal
一个太阳质量的黑洞可能仅仅需要
of a big asteroid would probably be enough material for a
一个大陨石的金属
black hole with the mass of our Sun.
一旦我们的镜子就为
Once our mirror is in place, we
我们只需要打开一个
only need to open a window, and
镜面并且往黑洞发射电磁波
shoot electromagnetic waves at the black hole.
你可以想想接下来会发生什么
You can imagine what happens next, by imagining
想象一下投一个球到墙上然后
tossing a ball at a wall, and it
它像子弹一样反弹回来
coming back faster than a bullet.
波以光速打在黑洞上
The waves hit the black hole at light speed.
小部分的波掉落在事件视界内并且永远消失
A small proportion of the waves falls past the event horizon to disappear forever.
但大部分会在能层中搅动
But a much larger amount sloshes through the ergosphere, …
当黑洞将一些转动动量加给他们
where the black hole forces some of its rotational energy
并且放大
on them, and amplifies them.
他们开始超辐射散射 他们的意思是
They now begin superradiant scattering, which are fancy science words meaning:
他们在镜面和黑洞之间反射并且变得更强
“Bouncing around between mirror and black hole and getting stronger.”
每次反射他们都指数性的增强
Every time they go around, they are getting exponentially stronger.
通过打开一些镜面我们
By opening some windows in the mirror,
可以在他们变快的时候捕捉一些能量
we can extract the energy from the waves as fast as they grow.
在理论上这些能量可以
Which we could use, in theory, to create
成为上千亿年里无限的
what would be for all practical purposes, an endless
能源满足所有活动或者
source of energy for trillions of years. Or,
我们可以吹爆它
we could blow it up.
如果波不被释放
If the waves are not released,
他们会变得越来越强
they will continue to get stronger and stronger, …
从黑洞取得越来越多的能量知道
and take more and more energy from the black hole,
镜面破坏
until the mirror shatters.
一个超质量黑洞可以释放等同于
A supermassive black hole would release
超新星的能量
as much energy as a supernova, …
造成一场前所未有的大爆炸
making the bomb the largest explosion any living being could ever create.
这美丽的黑洞大爆炸被
The beauty of the black hole bomb, the
称为彭螺丝过程和超肤色散射
Penrose process, and the super radiant scattering,
这不是科幻小说
is that they are not science-fiction.
在遥远的宇宙
In the far far future,
这可能会成为唯一的手段在我们将死的宇宙中生存下去
this might be the only way to survive in our dying universe.
在所有的红矮星冷却
After all the red dwarfs have cooled down,
所有的白矮星变为黑洞
and all the white dwarfs transformed into black dwarfs,
宇宙将永远黑暗
the universe will turn dark forever.
旋转黑洞可能会成为
Rotating black holes might be the only sources
我们唯一的能量来源
of energy in the entire universe that life could harvest.
如果可能
If so, the last living being
最后的生命可能会在黑洞周围
in existence might one day end its life around a black hole.
令人既惊又喜
Which is equally chilling and uplifting.
它说明即使没有光
It turns out that even without any light,
我们也有能去的地方
there are places we can go.
黑洞既迷人又神秘 但这的确有些
Black holes are as interesting as they are mysterious,
惊奇的东西我们可以知道
but there’s actually a surprising amount we do know.
通过数学我们可以得出如果我们
Using math we can calculate things and come up with theories
落入黑洞会如何死亡
about how we die if we fall into them.
如果你有兴趣用
If you’re the sort of person who gets excited
数学自己计算他们
about maths and calculating these things for yourself, …
我们的朋友在Brilliant上放了
our friends at Brilliant have put together a fantastic
一些关于黑洞的问题帮助你了解他们
black hole quiz to help you get your head around them.
Brilliant是一个问题解决网站 你可以在其中
Brilliant is a problem-solving website that teaches you to think like a scientist,
学到科学和解决你的问题
by guiding you through the problems.
他们的理念是打碎问题
They take concepts like these, break them up into
仔细咀嚼
bite-sized pieces, present clear thinking in each part,
得出结论
and then build back up to an interesting conclusion.
如果你访问Brilliant.org/nutshell
If you visit Brilliant.org/nutshell or click the link in
并且关注 你就可以免费
the description, you can sign up for free
注册并且找到一些酷炫的东西
and learn all kinds of cool stuff.
作为Kurzgesagt的观众的回馈
And as a bonus for Kurzgesagt viewers,
前688名登录的人注册年度会员可得到八折优惠
the first 688 people will also get 20 % off their annual membership.
如果你想真正了解黑洞
If you want to truly learn about black
并支持我们
holes and support Kurzgesagt, this is one
这是一个不错的方法
of the best ways to do it.

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