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地球上最大的生物,不是蓝鲸! – 译学馆
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地球上最大的生物,不是蓝鲸!

The Biggest Organism on Earth

蓝鲸是存在于这个地球上的最大的生物
Blue whales [Balaenoptera musculus] are the biggest animals ever to exist on earth. They
它们的体重能达到150吨以上,比最大的恐龙要重!但是蓝鲸
can weigh upwards of 150 tons, which is more than the largest dinosaurs! But the blue whale
不是最大的生物。
is not the biggest living thing.
那个标题是指……好吧,取决于你怎么理解“最大”
That title goes to…. well, it depends on what you mean by biggest.
最高的可能是加利福尼亚红杉树,外号“亥伯龙神”。
The tallest may be a California redwood nicknamed “Hyperion”.
这个巨人高达115米,比自由女神像还
At a towering 115 meters, this giant is taller than the statue of liberty [show it’s
高25%。
25% taller].
最宽广的生物体是一片古老巨大的真菌,它覆盖庞大的
The most extensive organism is a very old humongous fungus that covers a whopping
2385英亩(位于俄勒冈州的一片国家森林中)。在树根部,一束束蜜环菌
2,385 acres in a national forest in Oregon. At the base of the trees, bunches of honey
(奥氏蜜环菌)显现,它们是产自真菌的果实[?]
mushrooms [Armillaria solidipes] appear… they are the fruiting bodies produced by
——另一种生长在人视线范围之外的生物(指真菌)。你可以想象,这就像苹果树
the fungus, which otherwise lives out of sight – imagine if apple trees [Malus domestica]
长在地下,你只能看见苹果!对于真菌的一件基本的事情是,
grew underground and only the apples were visible to us! That’s basically what the fungus
除了在土壤和树根树皮上延伸它自己的菌丝,
does, except that it spreads its mycelia not just through the soil but also through
还要攻击它们并偷取其营养物质,
the roots and bark of trees in the forest, attacking them and stealing their nutrients
以使真菌自己能继续向外蔓延。
so it can continue spreading outwards.
不过,如果我们谈谈已知最古老又最重的生命体,奖项得颁给
However, if we’re talking about the good old heaviest organism ever found, that prize goes
生活在犹他州高原的大熊猫(黑白相间的大猫熊)……
to a giant panda [Ailuropoda melanoleuca] living high on a Utah plateau.
(#゚Д゚)我只是开个玩笑!这个生物是名为Pando的单独一 棵/颗 颤杨(美洲山杨)
Just kidding… It goes to a single quaking aspen [Populus tremuloides] named “Pando”
它体重超过6000吨,相当于40头蓝鲸。
that weighs over 6,000 tonnes – as much as forty blue whales.
如果你前去菲什莱克国家森林,你看不到巨人树的树干,
If you go to Fishlake National Forest, though, you won’t see a giant tree trunk – you’ll
你只会看到一片由普通大小的树组成的森林。但是,多亏基因检测,我们发现
just see a forest of regular-sized trees. But, thanks to genetic testing, we’ve learned
这些站立的覆盖106英亩土地的山杨,事实上是一个无性繁殖的体系。
that this stand of aspen covering 106 acres of land is actually a single clonal organism
这一切都仅仅来自于很久很久之前的一颗种子。这么一棵树能扩散如此之广,
that grew from a lone seed long ago. That single tree was able to spread so much because
仰仗于它的根向上生长出嫩枝,并重新生长为一棵独立的树。
its roots send up shoots that grow into what look like individual trees.
因为全部47000棵树都是统一组织的一部分,这个森林的行为有些不同寻常,
Since all 47,000 trees are part of the same organism, the forest behaves somewhat unusually,
比如说,整个森林同时从冬天过渡到春天,
for example, the entire forest transitions simultaneously from winter to spring and uses
并用其广阔的树根网来分配水、营养物质(从养分充足的树,
its vast network of roots to distribute water and nutrients from trees with plenty to trees
到有需求的树)。
in need.
说到水……如果你把水的重量也包含在这个庞大组织内,
Speaking of water… if you include water when weighing these giant organisms, then
之前那个巨大真菌实际上仍然比Pando重。不过林业工作者,至少
the humongous fungus might actually weigh more than Pando. But foresters, at least,
只关注生长中实际产生的质量,即干重。所以,因为真菌
care only about the mass actually produced during growth: the dry mass. And since fungi
含水量很高,Pando 赢了。
are mostly water ,Pando wins.
另外,看起来似乎某些位于地下的联系(无论是树根还是菌丝)
Either way, it’s likely that some of the belowground connections, whether roots or mycelia have
都在时间上隔绝[?],意味着这些巨人可能由更小的,但仍然
become severed over time, meaning these giants are probably made up of smaller, but still
规模庞大、遗传一致的“补丁”组成。
ginormous and genetically identical patches.
最后,因为大量考查要求证明最大[?]
And finally, because of the extensive testing required to confirm "biggest anything" claims,
真菌和山杨只能自称已知最大生物体了。
the fungus and aspen can only profess to be the largest living organisms ever found – there
没准有更大的怪物潜伏在我们脚下,正等着被发现呢!
may be even bigger monsters lurking right under our feet, just waiting to be discovered!

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