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最大的教育误区

The Biggest Myth In Education

This video is about learning styles.
这期视频是关于学习风格的
What kind of learner are you?
你是哪种风格的学习者?
-I’m a visual person, so I have to see things, yeah. – Oh yeah, same.
– 我是个偏视觉的人 我必须看到图像 – 对 我也一样
– I think visual learner. -Visual.
– 我应该是视觉学习者 – 视觉
I mean, like, I remember formulas like auditory.
我记公式是靠听的
I need to be like, interacting with the material.
我需要动手操作
I like to learn by doing it myself.
我喜欢在做中学
Very hands-on.
必须动手
Hands-on learner.
动手型学习者
Hands-on?
动手型?
So like, if I have a model, I’d like to look at that and look it over.
如果有个模型 我喜欢拿过来反复看
Part of this video was sponsored by Google Search.
本期部分视频由谷歌搜索赞助
There is this idea in education that
教育界有一个观念
everyone has their own preferred way of learning,
每个人都有自己偏好的学习方式
their so-called learning style.
即所谓的“学习风格”
If information is presented in accordance with the learning style,
如果信息呈现方式与本人学习风格一致
well, then they’ll learn better.
他们会学得更好
Now, there are dozens of different learning style theories,
如今 有数十种不同的学习风格理论
but the most common one identifies four main learning styles,
但最常见的理论把学习风格分为4类
visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic or VARK for short.
视觉 听觉 读写 动觉 即VARK分类法
Visual learners learn best from images, demonstrations, and pictures.
视觉学习者通过形象 演示和图片学得最好
People may say things, but I can’t really take it in.
可能会有讲解 但我总是听不进去
I just gotta see ’em act it out or write it or something.
我得看他们演示 或者写下来什么的
Auditory learners learn best from listening to an explanation.
听觉学习者通过听讲解学得最好
Like in school, I was always engaged in the lecture
比如在学校时 我经常听讲座
and that was usually good enough to pass a test.
这样通常就足以通过测试了
Reading-writing learners learn best from reading and writing.
读写型学习者通过读和写学得最好
Like I can get pretty much anything out of reading a textbook or something.
我通过读课本什么的就能学的挺好
And kinesthetic learners learn best by doing,
动手型学习者最好实际操作一下
physically interacting with the world.
即亲身与世界互动
Hands-on. You have to touch things,
要动手 要摸得到实物
you have to play with things, you know, it’s a contact sport.
能上手操作 这是接触性运动
You have to do it yourself.
你要亲身实践
I want to try something with you, a little experiment.
我想请你做个小实验
I want to show you 10 pictures of things
我会向你展示10张图片
and I don’t want you to say anything while you’re looking at them,
你在看的过程中不要说话
and at the end of the 10 you tell me how many you can remember.
看完后 告诉我你能记住几个
– Okay. – Okay? – Okay. – Okay.
– 好的 – 好吗? – 好的 – 好的

Now, learning styles make intuitive sense
从直觉上看 学习风格是有道理的
because we know everyone is different.
因为我们知道 人人都是不同的
Some people have better spacial reasoning.
有些人空间推理能力比较好
Others have better listening comprehension.
另一些人听力理解比较好
We know some people are better readers
我们知道有些人善于阅读
while others are good with their hands.
而另一些人善于动手
It’s sort of very much fits with a broad strain of thought
这与最近西方传统中的一系列理念
in the recent Western tradition is,
是相契合的 也就是
we’re all unique, we’re all different.
我们都是独特的 各不相同
And so you don’t want to say, like, everybody learns the same way.
没人想说 每个人学习方式都一样
That sort of conflicts with our feelings about what it means to be human.
这与人类认为自己有独特意义的感觉相冲突
So doesn’t it make sense that people should learn better
那么 用自己偏爱的方式学习效果更好
in their own preferred learning style?
这种说法有道理吗?
Well, teachers certainly seem to think so.
当然 老师们似乎是这样想的
A survey of nearly 400 teachers
一项对来自英国和荷兰的
from the UK and the Netherlands found that
近400名老师的调查表明
over 90% believed that individuals learn better
超过90%的老师相信 当学生们
when they receive information in their preferred learning style.
以喜欢的学习风格接受信息时学得更好
Just like every professor has a different style of teaching,
正如每个教授都有不同的教学风格
you have a different style of learning.
你也有不同的学习风格
But when his teacher starts using visuals,
当老师用视觉材料上课时
Johnathan finds it easier to focus
若乔纳森感觉更容易集中注意力
and understand the material
更能理解学习材料
so he might be a visual learner.
那他可能就是视觉学习者
Can you tell me what that means to you?
能告诉我您的看法吗?
Like, what does it mean to be a visual learner?
比如 视觉学习者是什么样的?
To me it means that for me to learn something
对我来说 要学什么东西
sometimes you need to draw it or I need to write it down
有时需要画下来或写下来
or I need to see a picture or a movie.
或者要看到图片或视频
For example, science classes, I get bored easily just listening
比如上科学课 光听讲我很容易无聊
and I think it’s more interesting for me to actually be able to do it.
我感觉能实际操作要更有趣一些
How do you know that you’re a visual learner?
你是怎么知道自己是视觉学习者的?
I don’t, I just assumed.
不知道 我猜的
To take advantage of learning styles
要利用学习风格理论教学
then teachers need to do two things.
老师们需要做两件事
First, identify the learning style of each of their students.
首先 要识别出每个学生的学习风格
And second, teach each student in accordance with their learning style.
然后 按学生各自的学习风格分类教学
On the VARK website it says, once you know about VARK,
VARK的网页上写着 一旦你懂VARK
its power to explain things will be a revelation.
它强大的解释力会让你豁然开朗
But before you take an online learning styles quiz,
但在你做在线学习风格测试之前
it’s a good idea to ask, do learning styles even exist?
最好先问一下 学习风格真的存在吗?
I mean, do you have one?
你真的有学习风格吗?
And if you’re taught in accordance with it,
如果按你的学习风格教你
would you learn better?
你会学得更好吗?
Well, you could test this by running a randomized control trial
你可以通过随机对照实验测试一下
where first you would identify learners
首先要识别学习者
with at least two different learning styles,
分为至少两个学习风格类型
say visual and auditory
比如视觉和听觉
and then randomly assign learners to one of two educational presentations,
然后随机指定学习者到两个教学演示课里
one visual, one auditory.
一个视觉的 一个听觉的
So for half of the students
这样对一半学生来说
the experience will match their learning style
听课体验与他们的学习风格相符
and for the other half it won’t.
而另一半则不符
And then you give everyone the same test.
然后给所有人相同的测试
If the learning style hypothesis is correct,
如果学习风格的假设成立
the results should show better performance
那么测试的成绩应该是
when the presentation matches the learning style
课程演示与学习风格相符的学生
than when they’re mismatched.
高于不相符的学生
I tried a very unscientific version of this experiment on the street.
我在大街上做了个不太严谨的类似测试
For some people, I matched their learning style
对一些人 我的测试与他们学习风格相符
so I showed visual learners pictures of 10 items,
向这些视觉学习者展示10个物品的简图
but for other visual learners I read out the items instead.
但对其他视觉学习者 只念物品的名称
– Bell, penguin, sun. – Okay, I’m maxed out.
– 钟 企鹅 太阳 – 好了 我记不住了
– How many can you remember? – I don’t know.
– 你能记住几个? – 我不知道
Hair, knife, duck, heart, butterfly.
头发 匕首 鸭子 心型 蝴蝶
Apple, bicycle, guitar.
苹果 自行车 吉他
There was a spider. Did I say eye already?
有蜘蛛 眼睛我说过没有?
– Trumpet, pear. – Pear.
– 喇叭 梨 – 梨
– Butterfly. – Duck. – Knife.
– 蝴蝶 – 鸭子 – 匕首
– Knife. – Boat.
– 匕首 – 小船
– Heart. – Knife. – Heart.
– 心型 – 匕首 -心型
I couldn’t tell you the rest, that’s all I got.
其余说不出来了 我只记得这几个
Most people could remember only about five or six things.
大部分人只能记住5到6个图片上的物品
– Yeah, yeah. All right. – Six, six is not bad.
– 对 对 好吧 – 6个 很不错了
– Six. – Six out of 10
– 6个 – 10个记住6个
– which is not bad, right? – Oh, all right, yeah.
– 很不错了 对吧? – 嗯 好吧 对
That’s a passing score.
已经及格了
– Oh. – Candle. – Everyone forgets the candle.
– 哦 – 蜡烛 – 都把蜡烛忘了
But a few could remember substantially more,
但有些人能记住的更多
say, eight or nine items.
比如 能到8到9个
Bug, I don’t know if I said bug.
虫子 不知道说过虫子没有
Guitar, bike, eye, bell, spoon, sun, chair.
吉他 自行车 眼睛 钟 汤匙 太阳 椅子
I’m forgetting the last two.
最后两个忘了
– That’s pretty good. Oh, cool. – Eight is really good.
– 那很不错了 很棒 – 8个很好了
– Nine? – Nine out of 10.
– 9个? – 10个记住9个
Nine, very impressive.
9个 太厉害了
But the reason didn’t seem to be because
但成绩好似乎不是因为
the presentation matched their preferred learning style
测试方式与他们偏好的学习风格相符
but because they employed a memory strategy.
而是因为他们用了记忆技巧
So as you were showing I was making an order in my head.
在你展示时 我会在心中排序
So as I saw more I would just add it to the list
这样看到新的 我就加进原来的列表里
and I was repeating the list as I was looking at them
并且边看边重复这个列表
so I could just say it out loud.
这样就能把它大声念出来
-Did you try a strategy while you were looking at those pictures? – Yeah, yeah.
– 你看图片时有用记忆技巧吗? – 对 是的
So I guess I tried creating a story
我试着把它们编成故事
’cause it’s easier to remember a story than just individual objects.
因为记故事比记每个物品要容易
So I tried to tie it all into one story.
所以我试着把它们编进一个故事
This is all obviously anecdotal evidence,
这些证据显然都不太严谨
but rigorous studies like the one
但类似我这种粗略测试的
I outlined have been conducted.
严谨研究也有人做过
For example, one looked at visualizers versus verbalizers
比如一项研究是关于“视觉型者与言语型者”
instead of visual versus auditory learners.
而非我做的“视觉与听觉学习者”
The study was computer-based,
研究是基于计算机的
so first students’ learning styles were assessed
首先 评估学生们的学习风格
using questions like, would you rather read a paragraph
用的问题如 “描述原子的一段文字或示意图
or see a diagram describing an atom?
你更愿意看哪个?”
The researchers also provided some challenging explanations
研究者也提供了一些挑战性的解释
with two buttons, visual help or verbal help.
设了两个按钮 “视觉帮助”或是“文字帮助”
The visual one played a short animation
视觉帮助会播放一个动画短片
whereas the verbal help gave a written explanation.
而文字帮助会给一段文字解释
From these measures combined, the researchers categorized
通过所有这些方法 研究者把学生们
the students as either visualizers or verbalizers
归类为视觉型者和言语型者
and then the students were randomly assigned
然后学生们被随机指定到两个班
to go through a text-based or picture-based
分别基于文字和图片
lesson on electronics.
上电子学课程
When a student hovered their mouse over key words
在上文字课的组里 当学生把鼠标
in the lesson in the text-based group,
放在一些关键词上时
a definition and clarification came up.
屏幕会弹出文字解释和说明
But in the picture group,
但在上图片课的组
an annotated diagram was shown instead.
却会弹出注释性图表
And after the lesson, the students did a test to assess their learning.
课后 学生参加了测试以评估学习效果
The students whose preferred learning style matched their instruction
上课方式与他们学习风格相符的学生
performed no better on the tests than those whose instruction was mismatched.
并不比不相符的学生表现得更好
The researchers ran the test again
研究者用61个没上过大学的成年人
with 61 non-college-educated adults
重做了该实验
and found exactly the same result.
结果完全一样
But learning styles are a preference
但学习风格是一种偏好
so how strongly do learners stick to their preference?
那么学习者有多依赖于这种偏好呢?
Well, in a 2018 study during the first week of semester,
在2018年的一项研究中 学期第一周
over 400 students at a university in Indiana
印第安纳州一所大学的400多名学生
completed the VARK questionnaire
参加了VARK问卷调查
and they were classified according to their learning style.
他们按学习风格被分为4组
Then at the end of the semester
然后 学期结束时
the same students completed a study strategy questionnaire.
这些学生完成了学习策略问卷
So how did they actually study during the term?
那么这期间他们实际的学习方式是什么呢?
Well, an overwhelming majority of students used study strategies
绝大多数的学生所用的学习策略
which were supposedly incompatible with their learning style.
都与他们本来的学习风格不一致
And the minority of students who did
而少数学习策略与学习风格相符的学生
did not perform significantly differently on the assessments in the course.
测验表现与其他同学也没有太大不同
The visual auditory reading-writing, kinesthetic
视觉 听觉 读写 动觉
or VARK model came about from Neil Fleming,
也叫VARK模式 提出者尼尔·弗莱明
a school inspector in New Zealand.
是新西兰的一名学校督查员
Describing the origins of VARK he says,
他在解释VARK模式的起源时说
I was puzzled when I observed excellent teachers
当我观察到一些优秀老师教不好某些差生
who did not reach some learners and poor teachers who did.
而差的老师却可以时 我很困惑
I decided to try to solve this puzzle.
我决定要解开这个困惑
There are, of course, many reasons for what I observed.
当然 我观察到了很多种原因
But one topic that seemed to hold some magic,
但其中一种似乎有些”魔力”
some explanatory power,
有一点解释力的说法
was preferred modes of learning, modal preferences.
是“偏好的学习模式” 模式偏好
And thus, VARK was born.
这样VARK模式就诞生了
There was no study that revealed
尚无研究表明
students naturally cluster into four distinct groups.
学生按学习偏好天然可分为4个不同的组
Just some magic that might explain
只是有一些”神秘力量”可以解释
why some teachers can reach students while others can’t.
为什么有的老师教得好 有的教得不好
But how can this be?
但怎么会这样呢?
If we accept that some people are more skilled
如果我们承认 有些人比其他人更善于
at interpreting and remembering certain kinds of stimuli
理解和记忆某些种类的刺激
than others like visual or auditory,
如视觉和听觉刺激
then why don’t we see differences in learning
那为什么用不同的演示方式 我们看不到
or recall with different presentations?
学习效果和记忆力的差异呢?
Well, it’s because what we actually want people to recall
那是因为 我们实际想让人们记住的
is not the precise nature of the images
不是图片的准确细节
or the pitch or quality of the sound.
或声音的高低和质量
It’s the meaning behind the presentations.
而是演示背后所表达的意义
There are some tasks that obviously require the use of a particular modality.
有些任务显然是要用特定的感觉模式的
Learning about music, for example, should have an auditory component.
比如 学音乐的话 听的部分必不可少
Similarly, learning about geography will involve looking at maps.
同样地 学地理必须要看地图
And some people will have greater aptitude
而一些人学习某一技能时 会比其他技能
to learn one task over another.
有更好的天赋
Someone with perfect pitch, for example,
比如 有绝对音高的人
will be better able to recall certain tones in music.
更容易记住音乐中某些旋律
Someone with excellent visual-spatial reasoning
有出色的视觉空间推理能力的人
will be better at learning the locations of countries on a map.
更善于学习地图上的国家位置
But the claim of learning style theories
但是 学习风格理论断言
is that these preferences will be consistent across learning domains.
这些风格偏好在各学习领域都适用
The person with perfect pitch
有绝对音高的人
should learn everything better auditorily
靠听觉学什么都会更好
but that is clearly not the case.
但显然不是这样的
Most people will learn geography better with a map.
大部分人用地图学地理的效果更好
Review articles of learning styles consistently conclude
一些学习风格的评论文章的一致结论是
there is no credible evidence that learning styles exist.
没有学习风格存在的可信证据
In a 2009 review, the researchers note,
2009年一篇评论中 研究者指出
“The contrast between the enormous popularity of the learning styles approach
一方面学习风格理论在教育界备受推崇
within education and the lack of credible evidence for its utility is,
一方面又缺乏该理论的效用的可信证据
in our opinion, striking and disturbing.”
这强烈的对比 让我们既震惊又不安
If classification of students’ learning styles has practical utility,
即便对学生进行学习风格分类有实际效用
it remains to be demonstrated.
那也还有待于证实
What we’re expecting is, if your style was honored
我们的预期是 如果你的确有学习风格
you’re going to perform better than if
你的表现应该会比
you had some experience that conflicted with your style.
学习经历与自身风格冲突时的表现要更好
And this is where we don’t see any support
就是在这一点上 我们看不到任何
for the learning styles theory.
支持学习风格理论的证据
One of the reasons many people find learning styles so convincing
许多人感觉学习风格有说服力的原因之一
is because they already believe it to be true.
是他们已经先入为主地相信它存在了
For example, they might already think that they’re a visual learner,
比如 他们可能已经认为自己是视觉学习者
and then when a teacher shows them a diagram of,
这样 当老师向他们展示出一幅
say, a bike pump and suddenly the concept clicks,
比如打气筒示意图时 他们突然灵机一动
well, they interpret this as evidence for their visual learning style.
就把这理解成自己是视觉学习者的证据
You already believe that learning styles is right.
你已经相信学习风格是存在的
When you have an experience the first thing you think is,
当你也有类似体验时 最先想到的是
is that in some way consistent with learning styles?
这是不是在某种程度上与学习风格相符?
And if it is, you don’t think further.
如果是 你就不再深入去想了
When in reality that diagram might just be
而事实是 那个示意图可能只是
a great diagram that would have helped anyone learn.
对任何人学习都有很好的帮助
When we already believe the world to be a certain way,
当我们已经认为世界按某些方式运行
then we interpret new experiences to fit with those beliefs
我们就会拿新的经历来套用这些观念
whether they actually do or not.
而不管是不是适用
So if learning styles don’t improve learning,
那么 如果学习风格理论不能帮助学习
then what does?
什么能呢?
Well, there’s a large body of literature that supports the claim that
有大量文献都支持这样一种观点:
everyone learns better with multimodal approaches
用多模式的方法 人人都能学得更好
where words and pictures are presented together
就是把文字和图片一起展示
rather than either words or pictures alone.
而不只是单独展示文字或图片
Now there’s gonna be words as well as the picture.
这次既有文字又有图片
We’re gonna see if this is any better.
看看会不会好一些
This is known as the multimedia effect,
这被称为“多媒体效果”
and it explains in part, at least,
这至少部分解释了
why videos can be such powerful tools for learning
视频为什么是如此强大的学习工具
when the narration complements the visuals.
因为解说是视觉图象的良好补充
– Duck. – Duck.
– 鸭子 – 鸭子
– Heart. – Heart.
– 心型 – 心型
In my PhD research, I found
做博士研究时 我发现
explicit discussion of misconceptions was essential
在做物理学导论的多媒体教学时
in multimedia teaching for introductory physics.
对错误观念进行明确讨论是至关重要的
– How many is that? – Six.
– 答对了几个! – 6个
Six, okay, that’s good.
6个 还不错
That is a whole 50% better.
整个提高了50%
Do you think that was easier?
你们觉得这样会更容易吗?
– Yeah, yeah, 100%, 100%. – Yeah, with the words, yeah.
– 对 绝对的 – 对 带文字更容易记
Ultimately, the most important thing for learning
归根结底 对于学习最重要的
is not the way the information is presented
不在于信息的呈现方式
but what is happening inside the learner’s head.
而在于学习者如何在头脑中思考处理问题
People learn best when they’re actively thinking
如果他们能积极地思考材料 解决问题
about the material, solving problems or imagining what happens
或想象不同变量改变会如何影响结果
if different variables change.
学习的效果才最好
I talked about how and why we learn best
在我的一期视频《思考的科学》中 我谈过
in my video, “The Science of Thinking” so check that out.
怎样学最好 为什么 大家可以找来看下
Now, the truth is, there are many evidence-based
如今事实是 有很多被证明有效的
teaching methods that improve learning.
教学方法可以帮助学习
Learning styles is just not one of them.
而学习风格论并不在其中
And it is likely, given the prevalence of the learning styles misconception
而且 鉴于学习风格论错误观念的泛滥
that it actually makes learning worse.
这很可能会损害学习效果
I mean, learning styles give teachers unnecessary things to worry about,
学习风格论让老师为一些没必要的事担心
and they make some students reluctant to engage with certain types of instruction.
也让学生们不愿意接受某些方式的指导
And all the time and money spent on learning styles
而且 所有花在学习风格及相关培训上的
and related training could be better spent on interventions
时间和金钱 本该花在真正能提高学习
that actually improve learning.
的辅导方法上
You are not a visual learner nor an auditory learner
你不是视觉学习者 或听觉学习者
nor a kinesthetic learner, or more accurately,
或动觉学习者 更确切地说
you are all these kinds of learner in one.
你融汇了所有这些学习风格于一身
The best learning experiences are those that involve
最好的学习体验应该包含
multiple different ways of understanding the same thing.
理解同一事物的多种不同方式
And best of all, this strategy works not just for
最好的是 这个策略不只对一类人有效
one subset of people but for everyone.
而是对所有人都有效
[Radio tuner chirping]
[无线调频声音]
This part of the video was sponsored by Google Search.
这部分视频是由谷歌搜索赞助的
Now, there are lots of topics out there that are controversial
如今 有争议的话题很多
like learning styles, for example.
比如关于学习风格的讨论
Most people believe learning styles are a thing
大部分人认为学习风格是存在的
whereas educational researchers
而教育研究者们发现
find no robust evidence for them.
没有其存在的有力证据
And if you search for learning styles,
如果你在谷歌上搜索“学习风格”
you’ll get lots of sites with resources and quizzes.
你会看到很多相关的资源和评测网站
But if you search for learning styles debunked,
但如果你搜索 “学习风格遭驳斥”
well, then you’ll find articles about about
也会找到很多文章告诉你
how there is very little evidence for the learning styles hypothesis.
支持学习风格假说的证据是多么的少
I think one of the most common traps people fall into
我认为人们容易掉入的最常见陷阱之一
is only searching for information that confirms what they already believe.
是只搜索与他们已相信的理论相符的信息
A common mistake is putting the answer you’re looking for
普遍的错误是 把你要找的答案
right in the search query.
直接输入搜索框
A better idea is to try another search,
更好的做法是 多搜索一次
adding debunked or false at the end and see what comes up.
在搜索词后加上“驳斥”或“虚假”再看结果
And Google makes it easy to get more detail
而且谷歌能让你很容易得到更多
about the source of the information.
有关信息来源的细节
Just click the three dots next to any search result
只需点击搜索结果页旁边的的三个点
and then you can judge for yourself
你就能自己判断
whether the information is trustworthy
该网页信息是否可信
and if you want to visit the site.
并决定要不要访问
A Google Search is meant to surface
谷歌搜索本意是要呈现
the most relevant information for your query.
与你的查询最相关的信息
But it’s up to you to formulate that query,
但怎样设置查询词取决于你
try a few different searches,
尝试一些不同的搜索
and assess whether the information is reliable.
评估搜索结果信息是否可靠
And the whole point of Veritasium is to get to the truth.
《Ve元素》全部的意义在于探究真相
So I’m excited to encourage everyone
所以 我特别鼓励大家
to think more critically about how we get information.
要更批判性地思考我们获取信息的方式
I want to thank Google for sponsoring this part of the video
感谢谷歌对这部分视频的赞助
and I want to thank you for watching.
并感谢大家的收看

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视频概述

在教育界盛行多年的学习风格理论把学生分为4类:视觉学习者,听觉学习者,读写学习者和动觉学习者。该理论认为根据学生的学习风格因材施教,就能事半功倍。但本视频通过做街头测试及介绍以往研究者做过的随机对照实验,说明教学方式与学习风格是否相符,并不影响学习效果。而且并不存在所谓的“学习风格”。学习风格论的泛滥其实对学习有害。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

melan

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhgwIhB58PA

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