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黑洞撕碎恒星

The Biggest-Ever Supernova, Debunked!

最大超新星的纪录保持者刚刚丢掉了它的王位
The record holder for the largest supernova ever recorded just lost its title.
今年早些时候 我们告诉过你们一个发现
Earlier this year, we told you about the discovery
当时推测是有史以来最大的恒星爆炸
of what seemed to be the biggest-ever star explosion,
根据是一个来自遥远星系的信号
based on a signal coming from a distant galaxy.
我们也说过
We also told you there was a slight possibility
这根本不是超新星
that this wasn’t a supernova at all,
而且来自另外的某个东西的可能性很低
and that the signal was coming from something else.
在《自然天文学》杂志本周的
And in a paper published this week in the very first issue
头版头条的论文上
of the journal Nature Astronomy,
一个研究团队声称
a team of researchers announced that in the end,
最终它很有可能真不是超新星
it probably wasn’t a supernova.
它只是一只很亮的鸟儿飞到望远镜前面了而已
It was just a really bright bird that flew in front of a telescope.
其实不是这样的
…it was not that.
根据他们知道破纪录超新星的消息后
Based on the data they’ve collected
收集到的数据
since the record-breaking supernova was announced,
他们得出结论 这个信号是来自另外一种剧烈的
they’ve concluded that the signal is coming from a different vicious,
恒星毁灭过程——俗称的潮汐中断事件
star destroying process — what’s known as a tidal disruption event,
恒星被巨大的黑洞扯成碎片
where a star gets ripped to shreds by a supermassive black hole.
此次这个恒星的尺寸和我们的太阳相当
In this case, that star was about the size of our sun.
这个不幸的恒星路过黑洞
As this unlucky star passed near the black hole,
靠近黑洞的那边受到了
the side of the star closest to it would have felt a stronger pull
来自黑洞的更大的引力
from the black hole’s gravity.
最终 作用于恒星两侧的引力差
Eventually, the difference between the gravitational pull on each side of the star
比恒星自身的重力还要强
would have become stronger than the gravity holding the star together.
此时恒星就被外力扯碎了
And that’s when the star would have been violently torn apart.
如果这就是此次事件的真相
If that’s what happened in this case,
那它将会释放出巨大的能量
it would release a staggering amount of energy,
发出会被误认为是超新星的闪光
causing the bright flash that was originally thought to be a supernova.
也有一些证据表明这个信号
And there are a few lines of evidence that point to this signal
确实是来自被黑洞扯碎的恒星
coming from a star being ripped apart by a black hole,
而不是超新星
rather than from a supernova.
第一 这个事件发生在恒星系的中心
For one thing, the event took place at the center of the star’s galaxy,
这正是大黑洞会存在的地方
exactly where a supermassive black hole would live,
同时你也更不可能在这发现
and where you’d be less likely to find the kind of star
超新星爆炸
that would explode in a supernova.
这个团队观察到的闪光 在年内的更好的时机
The flash, which the team has now observed for the better part of a year,
偶尔更亮偶尔更暗 总之
has also brightened and dimmed in ways you wouldn’t expect
这不是超新星的特征
to see during a supernova.
所有这些新数据都有助于揭示这些东西的自然特征
All this new data is also helping uncover the nature of the objects involved.
举个例子 论文说
For example, the paper argues
这个黑洞的质量肯定要比
that this black hole must be more than a hundred times more massive
银河系中心的那个恒星的质量大100倍以上 而且自转相当快
than the one at the center of the Milky Way, and spinning really fast.
所以那个破纪录的超新星很有可能根本不存在
So, that record-breaking supernova probably never happened.
只不过是一个恒星被一个巨大的旋转着的黑洞扯碎而已
It was just a star being torn apart by a huge, spinning supermassive black hole.
还是很酷!
Still pretty cool!
旋转在这周的《自然天文学》杂志上刊登的
Rotation also played a big role in another discovery
另外一个发现中也很重要
announced this week in Nature Astronomy.
宇航员们首次可以研究
For the first time, astronomers have been able to study the weather
太阳系外的气体行星的气候
on a gas giant planet outside of our solar system.
随着我们发现了越来越多绕着恒星公转的行星
As we’ve discovered more and more planets around other stars,
了解它们的世界是什么样的
understanding what those worlds are like
已经变得越来越重要而且也越来越有可能
has become increasingly important and increasingly possible.
研究行星的一个重要途径就是研究它的大气层
And one way to learn more about a planet is by studying its atmosphere.
但这其实是个很大的挑战
But that’s a big challenge,
因为当你分析来自恒星系统的光的时候
because when you’re analyzing the light coming from a star system,
很难分离出关于行星的大气层的细节
it’s hard to separate details about a planet’s atmosphere
毕竟有那么多的其他信息
from all the other information you’re getting.
但是研究者能够了解到许多有关
But the researchers were able to learn a lot
行星HAT P 7 b s的大气层的信息
about the planet HAT-P-7 b’s atmosphere,
包括气候如何如何
including what the weather might be like.
这个行星是热木星的一个范例
The planet is an example of a hot Jupiter,
它们是一堆至少和木星等大的行星
a class of planets at least as big as Jupiter
但是公转轨道比水星对于太阳的轨道都要近
that orbit closer to their star than Mercury does to the Sun.
开普勒天文望远镜花了四年时间观察这个世界
The Kepler Space Telescope spent four years observing this world
反复测算它绕着的恒星的亮度
by repeatedly measuring the brightness of its star.
当HAT- P-7b经过这个恒星的跟前
When HAT-P-7 b passes in front of the star,
它遮挡住了恒星的一小部分可探测到的光
it blocks a small-but-detectable fraction of its light.
然而甚至当它不在我们和这个恒星之间的时候
But even when it’s not between us and the star,
它照样也改变着这个恒星的光强
it still changes the star’s brightness,
因为它反射给我们一部分恒星背对着我们的那部分的光
because it reflects some of the star’s light back to us
并且自己也发出一些光
and emits some of its own.
如果这个行星上的气候始终不怎么改变
If the weather on the planet stayed pretty much the same all the time,
它对恒星的光强的影响将呈现稳定的周期性变化
its contribution to the star’s light would repeat a nearly exact pattern,
一圈又一圈
orbit after orbit.
但我们观察到的不是这样的
But that’s not what we’re seeing here.
相反 开普勒数据揭示了HAT-P-7b光强增大的
Instead, Kepler data reveals that the point where HAT-P-7 b shines brightest
时间点一直在变化 很有可能是因为这个行星
changes over time — probably because the planet always keeps
总是用同一个面对着它的恒星
the same face towards the star,
这就是通常所说的 被周期性锁定
in a configuration known as being tidally locked.
始终对着恒星的那一面自然比另外一面要热的多
The side that’s always facing the star is naturally much hotter than the other
这个温度上极大不平衡导致了高速的对流风
and this big imbalance in temperature leads to high-speed winds
绕着这个行星表面吹个不停
that circle the planet.
风把较冷的夜侧上空形成的云
These winds sweep clouds that form on the cooler nightside
吹到了比较热的昼侧
to the much hotter dayside.
这些云改变了行星的反射特性
And those clouds change the reflectivity of the planet.
因为就像在地球上那样 云的形成其实是某种程度上的随机事件
Since, like on Earth, cloud formation is a somewhat random process,
这导致了开普勒望远镜探测到一大堆各种各样的光亮
this leads to the variable brightness that Kepler detected.
未来的观测设备 比如詹姆斯韦伯天文望远镜
Future observatories like the James Webb Space Telescope
应该能对这个过程进行更仔细的研究
should be able to study this process in more detail,
将揭开关于外星行星的组成和结构
which will reveal more about the composition and structure
的更多细节
of exoplanet atmospheres.
在此期间 我们知道了
In the meantime, we now know what the weather is like
太阳系外的气体巨星的气候
on a gas giant outside the Solar System.
而且根据天气预报你大概不会想去那野餐
And based on the forecast, you probably wouldn’t want to have a picnic there.
谢谢观看这一期的 天文科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space,
如果你想要知道更多的每周天文新闻
if you want more space news every week you can go to
你可以访问youtube.com/scishowspace并点击订阅
youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.
想要看更多的科学秀节目
And if you want more SciShow, in person,
我们的地址是美国Massachusetts的
we will be at Nerdcon Nerdfighteria in Boston,
Boston的
America,
Nerdcon Nerdfighteria
Massachusetts
时间是二月25到26号
on February 25 and 26.
登录nerdconnerdfighteria.com了解更多
Check out nerdconnerdfighteria.com to learn more.
底下有链接
Link in the description.

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视频概述

有一些天文学的专有名词可能翻译的不准确,大体上不会影响观看

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Yuno

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Px-xk4PdHAU

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