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如何选出合适的陪审团? – 译学馆
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如何选出合适的陪审团?

The big problem with how we pick juries

2014年10月
In October of 2014,
一名白人芝加哥警察 杰森·范·戴克
Jason Van Dyke – a white Chicago police officer
射杀了黑人少年拉泉·麦克唐纳
shot and killed Laquan McDonald – a black teenager.
射击事件一年后
A year after the shooting,
政府公布了这起事件的录像
the city released the graphic video that captured the incident.
录像中麦克唐纳拿着一把刀
It shows McDonald walking down a busy roadway,
走下繁忙的公路
holding a knife.
正当他避开警察时
As he walks away from the officers,
范·戴克向他开了16枪
Van Dyke shoots him, 16 times.
“16枪!16枪!”
“16 shots! 16 shots!”
录像公布后立刻得到了广泛的回应
The response to the release of the footage was swift and widespread.
芝加哥的市民表示抗议
Chicago residents protested.
芝加哥警长被开除了
The police chief was fired.
该州检察官被罢免
The state’s attorney was voted out.
司法部开展调查
A Justice Department investigation
揭露了更多芝加哥警察因种族偏见
unearthed a pattern of excessive deadly force
而产生的致命的暴力执法行为
and racial bias among Chicago Police officers.
这是30多年来
And for the first time in more than 30 years,
芝加哥警员首次面临谋杀指控
a Chicago police officer faced murder charges.
背上官司的警员往往倾向选择
While police officers who end up in court
让法官审理他们的案件
often prefer a judge to hear their case,
范·戴克最终选择了陪审团
Van Dyke opted for a jury.
但是这个陪审团有些问题
But here’s the thing about that jury.
它的陪审员结构不符合库克县
It didn’t look like the population of Cook County,
即事发当地的人口比例
where the shooting took place.
库克县近四分之一是黑人
In County where almost a quarter of people are black,
但陪审团只有一名黑人
there was only one black juror.
说起美国的公正
When it comes to justice in America,
种族总是这个体系的一部分
race has always been a part of the equation…
一旦“同阶陪审团”不能真实代表人群结构
So what happens when a “jury of peers”
会发生什么?
doesn’t actually look like our peers?
[背景音乐]
[MUSIC]
“一名合格公民应履行基本的公民义务
A good citizen will perform basic civic duties.
你有权接受陪审团的判决
Your duty to serve on the jury
同时你也应履行陪审团义务”
goes with your right to trial by jury.
先说下陪审团是如何选出的
Here’s how jury selection works.
首先 从大型数据池中抽选预备陪审员
First, prospective jurors are picked for duty out of a large pool.
通常数据池由本地选民名单 驾驶执照持有者名单构成
Usually, a list of registered voters or licensed drivers.
接下来的程序是“预先审查”
Then comes a process called “voir dire”
也可以叫“说实话”
or “to speak the truth.”
双方律师质询预备陪审员
Prospective jurors are questioned by lawyers on both sides.
询问陪审员是否有偏见
They’re looking for bias.
就像《魔鬼代言人》影片中的场景
Like in this scene in “The Devil’s Advocate”
律师试图估计陪审团对银行家的偏见
where a lawyer is trying to gauge the jury for bias against bankers.
“作为陪审员 您能否搁置
Do you think as a juror you might be able to set aside
对储蓄和贷款行业的预设看法?”
any prior opinions you might hold of the savings and loan industry?
如果律师有足够的理由相信
If a lawyer has reason to believe
一名陪审员存在偏见
a juror will be biased,
可以申请让陪审员因故回避
they can ask the judge to dismiss the juror with cause.
辩护双方都有一定名额
Each side can also strike a certain
可以无理由要求陪审员回避
number of jurors without giving a reason.
这被称为“无因回避”
These are called “peremptory challenges”,
这就是事情变得棘手的地方
and this is where things get tricky.
虽然原则上不允许律师
While lawyers aren’t technically allowed to
使用“无因回避”制造性别或种族歧视
use these challenges to discriminate on the basis of race or sex,
但这不代表他们不会这样做
that doesn’t mean they don’t try.
比如电视节目《逍遙法外》里一样
Like in this scene in the TV show How to Get Away with Murder.
“我们需要找出倾向于质疑权威的陪审员
We have to look for jurors who are prone to distrust authority.
这有什么意义?”
What are some of the signifiers of this?
“首先是种族
Number one is race.
美国黑人对警察存在更大的不信任”
There’s a larger distrust of police among black Americans.
“住在我这片的人都不相信警察”
You don’t call the police in my neighbourhood.
陪审团的种族比例会影响判决
The racial balance of a jury can impact the verdict.
研究表明 全是白人的陪审团当面对黑人被告时更严格
Studies have shown that all-white juries are harsher on black defendants,
会出现更多的错误
make more errors,
讨论时更少关注案件事实
and discuss less of the case facts.
在另一项研究中
And in another study,
当被告是黑人 受害者是白人时
in cases with a black defendant and white victim,
有一个以上黑人男性陪审员
having one or more black male jurors
会很大程度降低被判死刑的可能性
lowered the likelihood of a death sentence by a lot.
“OJ·辛普森谋杀案审判中 陪审团陷入僵持”
A difficult day for jurors in the OJ Simpson murder trial.
这也是为什么像辛普森案这样 高调的种族主义审判
It’s why in high-profile, racially charged, trials like that of OJ Simpson
会因为陪审团中有9名黑人
so much attention was given to the fact that
而受到广泛关注
the jury had nine black members on it.
“陪审团宣读结果”
The jury has spoken.
辛普森被无罪释放
and Simpson was acquitted.
“……对谋杀做出无罪判决”
… not guilty of the crime of murder.
一个同样令人不安的案例 爱默特·提尔案
There’s also the disturbing case of Emmett Till.
1955年两个密西西比州男性
In 1955, two Mississippi men
罗伊·布莱恩和J·W·米拉姆
Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam
被控绑架和残忍地谋杀了
were accused of kidnapping and brutally murdering
名叫爱默特·提尔的14岁黑人男孩
a 14-year-old black boy named Emmett Till.
布莱恩的妻子声称
Bryant’s wife alleged that
黑人男孩摸了她的手和腰部
the boy had touched her hand and waist,
并在杂货店向她吹口哨
and whistled at her in a grocery store.
几天后有人在塔拉哈奇河中发现了爱默特·提尔的尸体
Emmett Till’s body was found days later in the Tallahatchie River,
他受到了殴打 枪击
beaten, shot, and
并被铁丝网绑在轧棉机上
tied to a cotton gin with barbed wire.
布莱恩和米拉姆被逮捕
Bryant and Milam were arrested
并被指控犯有谋杀罪
and charged with murder.
但布莱恩和米拉姆的审判将由陪审团决定……
But the trial of Bryant and Milam would be decided by a jury…
一个由12名白人男性组成的陪审团
a jury that consisted of 12 white men.
尽管有多名目击者看到这两个男人带走了男孩
Despite multiple witnesses seeing the two men take the boy,
还有一个人看到米拉姆的卡车后面滴着鲜血
and one that saw the back of Milam’s truck dripping with blood
这个由被告的十二个白人邻居组成的陪审团
a jury of twelve white neighbors of the defendants reached the verdict
经过一小时五分钟的审议后达成了判决
after one hour and five minutes of deliberations
被告无罪 当庭释放
The men would walk free.
几十年后 布莱恩的妻子
Decades later, Bryant’s wife
这个最先指控爱默特·提尔的人
who made that first accusation against Emmett Till
宣称她当年的口供无效
recanted her story.
从爱默特·提尔案快进30年
Fast forward thirty years from the case of Emmett Till
全由白人构成的陪审团依然存在
and all-white juries still weren’t a thing of the past.
在1986年 巴特森诉肯塔基案中
In the 1986 case Batson vs. Kentucky,
检察官利用了无因回避
a prosecutor used his peremptory challenges
从预备陪审团中排除了全部4名黑人陪审员
to remove all four black jurors from the pool.
被告一直上诉至最高法院
The defendant’s appeal made it all the way to the Supreme Court.
终于赢了
And won.
现在 如果一方怀疑另一方
Today, if one side suspects the other of
使用无因回避进行种族歧视
using peremptory strikes to racially discriminate,
他们可以提出“巴特森质疑”
they can file what’s called a Batson challenge.
但是……问题是……
But…the problem is….
“更普遍的观点是 巴特森的案子打输了”
Yeah so Batson is pretty much widely regarded as a failure.
如果律师指责对方因种族排除陪审员
If a lawyer accuses the other side of excluding a juror because of race,
法官就必须裁定是否具有歧视性
the judge then has to decide whether it’s discriminatory.
被指责的一方必须提出理由
The accused would have to come up with a reason
任何他需要排除该陪审员的理由
any reason – that’s race neutral,
以证明提出回避与种族无关
for why they don’t want that juror.
“法院确实允许任何理由
Courts have really allowed kind of any reason.
比如 律师可能会说
For example, like an attorney might say
我需要排除所有不信任警察的人
“Well… I struck all the people who seem suspicious of the police.”
这个理由看上去无关种族歧视
And so that would on its face be racially neutral
这种影响种族比例的行为依然被默许”
but it’s still kind of allows for that disproportionate impact.
你可以在这个被泄露的1987年培训视频中看到
You can see that in this leaked 1987 training video
律师杰克·麦克马洪解释了
in which attorney Jack McMahon explains
如何不受限制的排除黑人陪审员
how to exclude black people and get away with it.
“来自低收入地区的黑人不太可能做有罪判决
There’s the blacks from low-income areas are less likely to convict…
因此你不希望他们出现在陪审团里
and as a result you don’t want those people on your jury.
贝特森诉肯塔基案 我相信你们都发现了
Batson vs. Kentucky, I’m sure you’ve all become aware of that…
避免麻烦的最好办法就是保护你自己
The best way to avoid problems is to protect yourself.
当陪审团里出现了黑人陪审员
When you do have a black jury,
你要在这张表里找些问题问他们
you question them like them on this little sheet that
从回答里找到特征作为排除他们的原因
you have mark something down that you can articulate.
这位女士有一个与被告年龄相仿的孩子
Say well the woman had a kid the same age as defendant
我认为她会同情被告
and I thought she’d be sympathetic to him.
或者她失业了 我觉得失业者不是很可靠
Or she’s unemployed and I just don’t like unemployed people
所以想排除失业者”
because I find out they are not stable
这种策略造成全国范围内
This kind of strategy has led to a pattern
都在模仿他排除黑人陪审员
of excluding black jurors across the country.
在南卡罗来纳州1990年至2010年间
And in North Carolina, between 1990 and 2010 —
检查官排除掉黑人陪审员的次数
prosecutors struck black jurors 2.5 times
是非黑人的陪审员的2.5倍
as often as non black jurors.
另一份报告发现 在2005年至2009年期间
Another report found half of all juries that
尽管阿拉巴马州休斯顿县有27%的黑人人口
delivered death sentences in Houston County, Alabama,
但在这里被裁定死刑的所有案件中
between 2005 and 2009 were all white.
有一半案件中陪审团里面只有白人
The other half had a single black juror…
另外一半案件中陪审团只有一位黑人
even though the county is 27 percent black.
安·艾森伯格研究发现
And Ann Eisenberg did a study that showed
在南卡罗来纳州35%的黑人陪审员接受过“预先审查”
the prosecution struck 35 percent of black jurors in South Carolina
而被预先审查的白人陪审员只占12%
who made it through the voir dire process compared to 12 percent of white jurors.
“当我完成这项研究时
I asked a colleague of mine
我问我的一位同事
when I finished this study
我说 好了我已经证明这一点了
I said you know… okay, I’ve shown this
现在怎么样?
you know… what of it now?
证据实在太多了”
There’s so much evidence.
而他说 “没错 证明陪审团选择受种族歧视影响
And he said “yeah, proving that racial discrimination effects jury selection
就像证明太阳会升起一样”
is like proving that the sun rises.”
不过或许有些改变的迹象了
But there might be signs of change.
在杰森·范·戴克的案件中
In the case of Jason Van Dyke,
芝加哥警员射杀了拉泉·麦克唐纳
the Chicago police officer who shot Laquan McDonald,
白人占多数的陪审团判决范·戴克有罪
a majority white jury convicted him of murder.
这是50年来芝加哥第一次有警察被定罪
It was Chicago’s first murder conviction of a police officer in 50 years.
“陪审团裁定 被告杰森·范·戴克犯有二级谋杀罪”
We the jury find the defendant, Jason Von Dyke, guilty of second-degree murder.
陪审团认为他犯有二级谋杀罪 这是个较轻的罪名
They found him guilty of second degree murder, a lesser charge.
另外所有16枪都触犯了加重殴击罪
And guilty of all 16 counts of aggravated battery.
射在拉泉·麦克唐纳身上的每一枪
One for each shot at Laquan McDonald.
“陪审团裁定 被告杰森·范·戴克的16次射击
We the jury find the defendant Jason Van Dyke guilty of
全部犯下加重殴击罪”
aggravated battery with a firearm, 16th shot.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.
还有很多我没法放进视频的内容
There’s a lot I couldn’t fit into the video,
比如如何在挑选陪审团成员时
like how do we fix the problem
解决种族歧视问题?
of racial discrimination in jury selection?
多年来 法律从业者不断提出解决方案
Over the years lawyers have suggested solutions
比如从较大的数据池中选择不在选民登记名单或
like choosing from a bigger jury pool of underrepresented people
驾驶执照名单上的陪审团
that aren’t on voter registration lists or driver license lists.
或者直接禁止“无因回避”
Or getting rid of peremptory challenges altogether.
这是一个解决起来很复杂的问题
It’s a complicated problem to solve but there are
但进行程序调整可以使系统更加公平
procedural tweaks that could make the system a lot more fair.

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视频概述

外国的法庭经常会出现陪审团,陪审团的成员是如何来的?陪审团对案件判决会起到怎样的影响?律师和检查官可以自由选择陪审团成员吗?这里用几件影响了美国司法的典型案件讲述了陪审团起到的作用。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPRK_ABldIk

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