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4分钟解释宇宙大爆炸理论

The Big Bang explained in under 4 minutes| Michelle Thaller | Big Think

I know every scientist understands that we cannot see the entire universe right now.
每个科学家都知道 目前人类不能“看尽”宇宙的全貌
And that’s because there’s such a thing that we quantify as the observable universe.
因为有“可观测宇宙”这一概念
The universe has existed, we think, since the Big Bang,
我们认为自从大爆炸以来
about, say, 13.8 billion years.
宇宙大约存在了138亿年
So as you look farther and farther out into space,
所以在你遥望太空深处的时候
you necessarily have to look back in time.
看到的的必然是过去
If something is a million light years away from you,
如果有个事物距离你一百万光年
like the Andromeda galaxy is about two million light years away,
比如仙女座星云离你大约200万光年远
the light that you see through binoculars tonight,
你今晚通过双筒望眼镜看到的光
as you look up at the Andromeda galaxy left two million years ago.
其实是仙女座星云在200万年前发出的
We now have instruments that see so far,
我们目前拥有的仪器
we can actually look back to about 400,000 years after the Big Bang.
可以观测到宇宙大爆炸后的40万年左右
We can see so far out into space
我们可以看到很远的太空
that the light has taken that long to get to us.
光需要很长时间才能到达地球
“大爆炸”之前有什么?
The whole idea of the Big Bang has been given I think a real disservice.
我认为宇宙大爆炸理论一直没有被正确理解
There are so many misconceptions,
公众对其有很多误解
and certainly, one of the biggest misconceptions
当然最大的误解之一就是
is that people think that scientists feel that the Big Bang came out of nothing.
人们认为科学家提出的大爆炸是从虚无创生
you’re saying it just came out of nothing.
然后你说 就是凭空产生
No, I don’t think any scientist actually believes that.
不 我觉得没有科学家会这么认为
The problem is when you think about the condition the universe was in at that point,
问题是当你考虑到宇宙当时的状态
where, I mean, take our observable universe, right?
以可观测宇宙为例
I mean, you can look from one side of the universe to the other,
宇宙大爆炸距今
you’ll back 13.5 billion light years or more.
已经135亿多年
All of the stuff that we see was actually compressed
我们所见的事物都被压缩到
into a space smaller than an atom,
一个比原子还小的空间里
volume smaller than an atom.
体积比一个原子还小
We don’t have the physics that describes
我们无法用物理解释
how that would work.
那是怎么回事
That is so much mass, so much energy and so little volume,
质量无限大 能量无限多 体积无限小
at this point, there wasn’t even mass, just basically pure energy,
微波辐射中甚至没有质量 基本只有纯粹的能量
that right now, our physics doesn’t go there.
目前为止 物理还无法解释
As we get a better idea about how gravity works
随着我们逐渐了解重力在极端情况
under very extreme circumstances, huge energy densities,
以及在高能量密度下的工作原理
we may have some idea what set off the Big Bang,
可能会对大爆炸的起源有更好的理解
and possibly what came before the Big Bang.
也有可能知道大爆炸之前有什么
So today we actually have telescopes that are so powerful,
如今我们拥有如此强大的天文望远镜
they can see back to a time about 400,000 years after the Big Bang.
可以看到大爆炸40万年后的光
That’s amazing, we can see so far away in space
太棒了 我们能在太空看得那么远
that the light has taken that long to get to us,
可以看到历经近138亿年
nearly 13.8 billion years.
沧桑岁月的光
And when we look back to that time, the universe looks very different.
那时候的宇宙看起来如此不同
For one thing, it’s very hot.
一方面 温度极其高
It’s actually about as hot as the surface of the sun.
和太阳表面温度差不多
And it’s so dense and hot
炙热密实的宇宙状态
that we actually can’t see any farther.
让我们无法看到更遥远的过去
Literally, in any direction you look around the sky, anywhere you look,
实际上 无论从哪个方位看天空 看向哪里
if you look to that distance,
只要看得够远
you see the universe as it was at that time,
你就能看到大爆炸40万年后
400,000 years after the Big Bang,
宇宙的模样
and everything becomes just hot hydrogen gas.
万物都变为极热的氢气
That’s incredible.
太不可思议了
But what that means is that there’s a limit.
但这也意味着有限制
There’s a bubble around us that we can see
有一个泡状物笼罩着我们
just because there’s been time for light to come to us from those areas.
只是因为光从那些区域照射到我们需要时间
Think about my arm being the universe before the Big Bang,
假设我的胳膊是大爆炸之前
in some kind of state that we can’t even describe through modern physics.
现代物理解释不了的某种状态下的宇宙
The entire observable universe that we can see now
这整个现在可见的可观测宇宙
used to be a tiny volume of it, maybe an atom in my arm.
原本的体积非常小 可能就我胳膊上的一个原子大
One atom expanded
一个原子膨胀
and became the entire observable universe that we see.
变成我们看到的整个可观测宇宙
But that’s not the whole universe.
但这并不是宇宙全貌
There are trillions of atoms in my arm.
我手臂上有上万亿个原子
Each one of those could expand
每一个都有可能膨胀
to actually be its own entirely observable universe.
成自己的可观测宇宙
So we can’t tell yet how big
所以我们还不知道
the universe was before the Big Bang,
爆炸之前的宇宙有多大
or even what shape the universe is,
甚至之前的宇宙是什么形状的
because all we’re seeing is a tiny little bit of it
因为我们看到的一切都是
that expanded to become everything that we see,
由一个极小的点膨胀而成
but that’s not the whole universe.
但这并不是宇宙的全貌
That’s our observable universe.
那是我们可观测的宇宙
There’s far more out there than what we can see.
宇宙 远比我们可观测到的多得多
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观看世界最伟大思想家的视频 让你快速变聪明
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想向更多有深度的人学习
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赶紧订阅《大思想+》吧

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视频概述

对大爆炸理论的解释,宇宙究竟是什么样,看完视频你就明白了

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBPrpoHhdrE

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