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对日常饮食和癌症的建议

The Best Advice on Diet and Cancer

饮食与癌症的最佳建议
“The Best Advice on Diet and Cancer”
1982年 美国国家科学院发表了一份
In 1982, a landmark report on diet, nutrition, and cancer
关于饮食 营养和癌症的里程碑式报告
was released by the National Academy of Sciences, the first major,
也是该领域第一份以科学为基础的重要机构性报告
institutional, science-based report on the topic.
报告的开头说道 诚然
The report started out saying that, yes,
无论何时 科学家们在对自己的结论不是绝对肯定时
scientists must be careful in their choice of words
在措辞上必须严谨
whenever they are not totally confident about their conclusions.
不过在那个时候 人们已经很清楚
But, for example, by that time it had become absolutely clear
吸烟会致死
that cigarettes were killing people.
但要是肺癌和吸烟的关联首次被报道时
But had the population been persuaded to stop smoking
就开始劝诫公众戒烟的话
when the association between lung cancer was first reported,
这些癌症死亡病例就根本不会发生了
these cancer deaths would not now have been occurring.
如果你在等一个绝对确凿的说法
If you wait for absolute certainty,
可能几百万人就会在等待的过程中死去
millions of people could die in the meanwhile.
这正是为什么你必须援引预防原则
That’s why sometimes you have to invoke the precautionary principle.
例如 多吃水果和蔬菜可能
For example, emphasizing fruits and vegetables may reduce
降低几种常见癌症的风险
the risk of several common forms of cancer.
我们虽不能完全确认 但还是有一些有力证据证明
We’re not completely sure, but there’s good evidence,
再说多吃水果和蔬菜又有什么坏处呢?
and what’s the downside of eating more fruits and vegetables?
那么我们为什么不尝试一下呢?
So why not give it a try?
1982年国家科学院报告接下来讲到
The 1982 National Academy of Sciences report continued.
公众询问那些
the public is now asking about the causes of cancers
与吸烟相关癌症之外的癌症成因
that are not associated with smoking.
得癌原因是什么? 如何避免这些癌症?
What are these causes and how can these cancers be avoided?
不幸的是 关于饮食和癌症之间的联系
Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to make firm scientific pronouncements
如今还不能做出确切的科学声明
about the association between diet and cancer.
我们对这件事的了解
We’re in that interim stage of knowledge similar to
就和20年前对香烟的了解一样不足
that for cigarettes 20 years ago.
因此 委员会认为
Therefore, in the judgment of the committee,
是时候提供一些关于饮食和癌症的临时指南了
it is now the time to offer some interim guidelines on diet and cancer.
例如 他们引起了人们对加工肉的关注
For example, they raised concern about processed meats.
在30多年后得到证实
And 30 years later, it was confirmed,
加工肉被正式宣布为人类致癌物质
processed meat was officially declared carcinogenic in humans.
如果我们当时就能听从的话
Maybe if we would have listened back then,
也许就不会有Lunchables
maybe we would have been spared Lunchables,
如菲利普·莫里斯的一位首席执行官曾说的
which if taken apart, a CEO of Philip Morris describes reading,
“打开餐盒 里面最健康的东西就是纸巾”
“the most healthy item in it is the napkin.”
这份饮食和癌症报告中的发现引起了
The findings of this diet and cancer report generated
癌症群体的极度怀疑
a striking level of disbelief from the cancer community,
和来自受质疑的加工肉行业
and outright hostility from people and the industries
及其从业人员的极大敌意
whose livelihood depended on the foods being questioned,
甚至指责这份报告其中一位作者是在杀人
to the point of accusing one of the authors of the report of killing people,
并且正式组织请愿
with formally organized petitions to expel the researchers
专业协会将这些研究人员开除
from their professional societies,
报告显然触及了某些敏感的神经
clearly a very sensitive nerve was touched.
美国肉类科学协会和
The American Meat Science Association
农业科技委员会的其他成员
and other members of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
批判了这份报告
criticized the report.
他们说:没错 这份报告也许能拯救生命
Yeah, maybe it would save lives,
但它建议减少肉类消费
but the recommended reductions in meat consumption
会使畜牧业和肉类加工业的收入大幅下降
would sharply reduce incomes to the livestock and meat processing industries.
如果消费者们遵循这个指南
The fruit and vegetable industries would clearly benefit
果蔬产业会明显受益
if consumers were to implement the guidelines.
然而水果和蔬菜在现金收入中占比不到15%
However, fruits and vegetables account for less than 15 percent of cash receipts.
大部分的钱都花在牛肉 猪肉 禽类
Most of the money is in cattle, hogs, poultry products,
谷物和油料作物上
feed grains, and oil crops.
这让我想起了烟草行业备忘录里
That reminds me of the tobacco industry memos
菲利普·莫里斯曾说过烟草业要破产了
where Philip Morris spoke of the tobacco industry going bankrupt.
行业评论文章中还说
Maybe it’s not the meat that’s causing cancer,
也许不是肉类
the industry critique continued,
而是如今人们吸食的大麻导致了癌症
but all the marijuana people are smoking these days.
怎么能说如此丰富的饮食会导致癌症呢?
How can one argue that such an abundant diet causes cancer?
也许你们就是嫉妒我们所吃的美食
Maybe you’re all just jealous of all the good food we’re eating,
就像清教徒谴责逗熊游戏一样
like the Puritans that condemned bear baiting,
他们谴责的并不是因为熊的痛苦
not because of the pain for the bear
而是观众的快乐
but because of the pleasure of the spectators.
你不能叫我们少吃肉
You can’t tell us to cut down on meat,
“餐桌乐事是人类为数不多的享乐之一”
“one of mankind’s few remaining pleasures is that of the table.”
托马斯·胡克斯说:美国国家科学院的报告
The day the National Academy ofSciences report was published was
发表之日 也是食物被成为毒药之日
“The Day That Food Was Declared a Poison,” declared Thomas Jukes,
而正是此人发现了
the guy who discovered you could speed up
给小鸡喂食抗生素可以加速它们生长
the growth of chickens by feeding them antibiotics.
美国国家科学院怎么能建议
How dare the National Academy of Sciences recommend
人们每天都吃水果 蔬菜和全谷类食品呢
people eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains daily,
虽然含有的化合物据说可以预防某些癌症
which were said to contain as yet unidentified compounds
但具体成分尚不明确
that may protect us against certain cancers.
人们怎么能选择含有未知化合物的食物?
How can one select foods that contain unidentified compounds?
这项建议并不科学
This is not a scientific recommendation;
听起来更像是“健康食品商店”编造的
it sounds like ‘health food store’ literature.”
我觉得最逗的还是关于人类哺乳的这条:
My favorite though was think about the human breast.
要是动物脂肪有害
How can animal fat be bad for us
哺乳期女性为什么还分泌那么多?
if breast feeding women create so much of it?
女人是动物 她们的乳腺分泌脂肪用于母乳
Though women are animals; their mammary glands make fat for breast milk.
因此 我们不应该少吃汉堡吧 嗯?
Therefore, we shouldn’t have to cut down on burgers. Huh?
不管怎么说 最新关于营养和癌症的科学研究是怎么讲的呢?
So anyway, what does the latest science tell us about nutrition and cancer?
其他五项建议是什么?
What are the other five recommendations?
我们说过要多吃水果和蔬菜
We talked about eating more fruits and vegetables.
食用豆制品不仅可以
Consumption of soy products may not only
降低患乳腺癌的风险
reduce the risk of getting breast cancer
还可以增加乳癌存活的机会
but also surviving it.
然后 关于哪些食物要少吃
And then in terms of dietary guidance suggestions on foods
这方面证据足够确凿 包括
to cut down on where evidence is sufficiently compelling include
限制或避免乳制品 以降低患前列腺癌的风险
limiting or avoiding dairy products to reduce the risk of prostate cancer,
限制或避免饮酒
limiting or avoiding alcohol to reduce the risk of cancers
以减少患口腔癌 喉癌 食道癌 结肠癌 直肠癌和乳腺癌的风险
of the mouth, throat, esophagus,colon, rectum, and breast,
避免食用红肉及加工肉类以减低患结肠癌及直肠癌的风险
avoiding red and processed meatto reduce the risk of cancers of the colon and rectum,
避免食用烧烤和油炸肉食 以减少
and avoiding grilled, fried, and broiled meats to reduce
患结肠癌 直肠癌 乳腺癌 前列腺癌 肾癌和胰腺癌的风险
the risk of cancers of the colon, rectum, breast, prostate, kidney, and pancreas.
这里他们说的是包括家禽和鱼在内所有的肉
And in this context, they’re talking about all meat including poultry and fish.
我们每天都要决定吃什么
Look, we all have to make dietary decisions every day.
我们不能等到科学上有新共识
We can’t wait for the evolution of scientific consensus,
自己懂得更多了才来保护自己和家人
until we know more to protect ourselves and our families,
我们现在能做的 就是按照目前掌握的最好证据而行动
All we can do is act on the best available evidence we have right now.

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视频概述

我们不能等着科学建议的完善来预防癌症,但我们可以根据现有的已知的知识来预防。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

AkumaSensei

审核员

审核员ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_JcftkFUEc

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