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优质睡眠的价值 – 译学馆
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优质睡眠的价值

The benefits of a good night's sleep - Shai Marcu

现在是凌晨四点 八小时内有一场重要的考试
It’s 4 a.m.,and the big test is in eight hours,
接下来还有一场钢琴独奏
followed by a piano recital.
你已连日学习并苦练钢琴
You’ve been studying and playing for days,
但仍觉得什么都没准备好
but you still don’t feel ready for either.
那么 你能做什么呢
So,what can you do?
你可以再喝一杯咖啡
Well,you can drink another cup of coffee
用接下来所余不多时间继续苦读和练习
and spend the next few hours cramming and practicing,
但不管你信不信
but believe it or not,
你最好还是合上书本
you might be better off closing the books,
停止练习 去睡觉
putting away the music, and going to sleep.
睡眠几乎占了我们生命的三分之一
Sleep occupies nearlya third of our lives,
但让人惊讶的是 我们有很多人却很少关注睡眠
but many of us give surprisingly little attention and care to it.
这种对睡眠的忽视 来自于一个很大的误解
This neglect is often the resultof a major misunderstanding.
睡眠并非浪费时间
Sleep isn’t lost time,
或仅仅是完成重要工作后休息的一种方式
or just a way to rest when all our important work is done.
相反 睡眠有着很重要的功能
Instead,it’s a critical function,
睡眠期间 你的身体对各系统进行调节
during which your body balancesand regulates its vital systems,
呼吸系统 血液循环系统 免疫系统 与身体的成长都会受到影响
affecting respiration and regulating everything from circulation to growth and immune response.
听起来很棒 但你可以在考试之后再担心这些 不是吗?
That’s great, but you can worry about all those things after this test, right?
呃 没那么快
Well,not so fast.
事实证明 睡眠对你的大脑也很重要
It turns out that sleepis also crucial for your brain,
进入梦乡后 身体五分之一的血液
with a fifth of your body’scirculatory blood
会流向你的大脑
being channeled to it as you drift off.
你睡觉的时候 也正是大脑内部
And what goes onin your brain while you sleep
重新进行调整组合的时候
is an intensely active periodof restructuring
这段时间对我们的记忆功能十分重要
that’s crucial for how our memory works.
乍一看
At first glance,
我们的记忆能力并不值得惊叹
our ability to remember things doesn’t seem very impressive at all.
19世纪心理学家希曼•艾宾浩斯
19th century psychologistHerman Ebbinghaus
发现我们通常会在前20分钟内
demonstrated that we normally forget40% of new material
忘记40%的新事物
within the first twenty minutes,
这一现象被称为遗忘曲线
a phenomenon knownas the forgetting curve.
但这种遗忘可以通过记忆的巩固来避免
But this loss can be preventedthrough memory consolidation,
即信息从短暂的短期记忆
the process by which information is moved
转移到更持久的长期记忆的过程
from our fleeting short-term memory to our more durable long-term memory.
记忆巩固得益于
This consolidation occurs with the help
大脑的一个重要部位
of a major part of the brain,
这一部位被称为海马体
known as the hippocampus.
海马体在长期记忆形成中所扮演的角色
Its role in long-term memory formation
在1950年代被布伦达•米尔纳通过
was demonstrated in the 1950sby Brenda Milner
对叫作H.M病人的研究得到证实
in her research witha patient known as H.M.
H.M.的海马体被移除后
After having his hippocampus removed,
他形成短期记忆的能力受损
H.M.’s ability to form new short-term memorieswas damaged,
但他仍能够通过不断重复 学习体能任务
but he was able to learn physical tasksthrough repetition.
由于海马体被移除了
Due to the removal of his hippocampus,
H.M.形成长期记忆的能力也遭到破坏
H.M.’s ability to form long-term memories was also damaged.
这一案例反映 撇开其他
What this case revealed,among other things,
海马体在长期陈述性记忆的巩固中
was that the hippocampuswas specifically involved
作用至关重要
in the consolidation oflong-term declarative memory,
诸如你需要在考试中记住的事实和概念
such as the facts and concepts you need to remember for that test,
在程序性记忆中
rather than procedural memory,
包括你在钢琴独奏需要掌握的指法
such as the finger movements you need to master for that recital.
米尔纳的发现 还有埃里克•坎德尔在90年代的工作
Milner’s findings, along with workby Eric Kandel in the 90’s,
给我们提供了这一巩固过程如何运行的现有模型
have given us our current model of how this consolidation process works.
感知数据会先暂时转录到
Sensory data is initially transcribed
短期记忆的神经元里
and temporarily recorded in the neuronsas short-term memory.
然后再传送到海马体
From there, it travels to the hippocampus,
而海马体再将其皮层区的神经元进行强化
which strengthens and enhancesthe neurons in that cortical area.
由于神经的可塑性
Thanks to the phenomenonof neuroplasticity,
新的突触芽形成 使得神经元之间建立新的联系
new synaptic buds are formed,allowing new connections between neurons,
从而强化相应的神经网络 并形成长期记忆
and strengthening the neural network where the information will be returned as long-term memory.
为什么我们能记住一些事却忘掉另一些呢?
So why do we remembersome things and not others?
其实 有几种方式会影响
Well,there are a few ways to
记忆形成的程度和效果
influence the extent and effectiveness of memory retention.
比如 那些在情感或压力强烈时 所形成的记忆
For example, memories that are formedin times of heightened feeling, or even stress,
会因海马体与情绪的联系更容易被记下来
will be better recorded due to the hippocampus’ link with emotion.
但巩固记忆一个最重要的因素是
But one of the major factors contributingto memory consolidation is,
你猜对了 正是一晚上的好睡眠
you guessed it, a good night’s sleep.
睡眠由四个阶段组成
Sleep is composed of four stages,
最深度的睡眠被称为慢波睡眠
the deepest of which are knownas slow-wave sleep
和快速眼动睡眠
and rapid eye movement.
脑电图机监测在这些阶段中
EEG machines monitoringpeople during these stages
点脉冲在脑干 海马体 丘脑
have shown electrical impulses moving between the brainstem, hippocampus,
以及大脑皮质间活动
thalamus, and cortex,
这些便是记忆形成的中转站
which serve as relay stationsof memory formation.
不同的睡眠阶段有助于巩固
And the different stages of sleep have been shown to help consolidate
不同类型的记忆
different types of memories.
在非快速眼动慢波睡眠阶段中
During the non-REM slow-wave sleep,
陈述性记忆被暂时存储
declarative memory is encodedinto a temporary store
在海马体前部
in the anterior part of the hippocampus.
通过大脑皮层和海马体的不断对话
Through a continuing dialoguebetween the cortex and hippocampus,
这些记忆被反复激活
it is then repeatedly reactivated,
它们逐渐被转入到大脑皮质的长期储存区域
driving its gradual redistributionto long-term storage in the cortex.
同时 快速眼动睡眠
REM sleep, on the other hand,
与大脑唤醒时很相似
with its similarity to waking brain activity,
与程序性记忆的巩固有关
is associated with the consolidationof procedural memory.
因此 基于这些研究
So based on the studies,
在记忆数学公式后去睡三个小时
going to sleep three hours after memorizing your formulas
练习钢琴后睡一个小时 再好不过了
and one hour after practicing your scales would be the most ideal.
希望你现在能明白牺牲睡眠时间
So hopefully you can see nowthat skimping on sleep
不仅有害你的长期健康
not only harms your long-term health,
更会使你很难
but actually makes it less likely
记住前晚所记的知识和练习
that you’ll retain all that knowledge and practice from the previous night,
这些都证明了这句话的智慧“睡一觉再说”
all of which just goes to affirmthe wisdom of the phrase,”Sleep on it.”
当你想象在你睡觉时
When you think aboutall the internal restructuring
你的大脑忙着重组 形成新连接等等
and forming of new connectionsthat occurs while you slumber,
你甚至可以说好的睡眠
you could even say that proper sleep
可以让你第二天
will have you waking up every morning
有一个全新的 更好的大脑
with a new and improved brain,
去迎接即将到来的挑战
ready to face the challenges ahead.

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视频概述

通过记忆形成来说明睡眠对于记忆的重要性

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收集自网络

翻译译者

14-15

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gedoSfZvBgE

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