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拥有一个双语大脑的好处 – 译学馆
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拥有一个双语大脑的好处

The benefits of a bilingual brain - Mia Nacamulli

¿Hablas español? Parlez-vous français?你会说中文吗?
¿Hablas español? Parlez-vous français?你会说中文吗?
如果你回答 “si” “oui” 或”会”而且用英文观看这视频
If you answered,”sí,””oui,” or”会”and you’re watching this in English,
你很可能是属於这世上双语或多语的大多数之一
chances are you belong to the world’sbilingual and multilingual majority.
除了旅行的时候比较容易
And besides havingan easier time traveling
或是看电影不用字幕
or watching movies without subtitles,
会两种以上的语言 意谓你的大脑
knowing two or more languages means that your brain
运作的方式和你单语的朋友不同
may actually look and work differently than those of your monolingual friends.
怎样才叫真的会一种语言?
So what does it reallymean to know a language?
语言能力通常以说和写二个
Language ability is typically measured in two active parts,
主动部分
speaking and writing,
和听和读二个被动部分衡量
and two passive parts,listening and reading.
平衡双语的人
While a balanced bilingual has near equal
两种语言的掌握能力是接近的
abilities across the boardin two languages,
世上大多数的双语者以不同的比例
most bilinguals around the worldknow and use their languages
了解和使用他们的语言
in varying proportions.
根据他们的状况和每个语言不同的掌握
And depending on their situationand how they acquired each language,
双语者可以分成三种类型
they can be classified intothree general types.
让我们以 Gabriella
For example, let’s take Gabriella,
为例她两岁的时候 家里从秘鲁移民到美国
whose family immigrates to the US from Peru when she’s two-years old.
作为一个复合双语者 Gabriella 对一个概念的两种语言码
As a compound bilingual, Gabriella develops two linguisticcodes simultaneously,
是同时发展的
with a single set of concepts,
她同时学习英语和西班牙语 来理解身边的世界
learning both English and Spanish as she begins to process the world around her.
他十几岁的哥哥
Her teenage brother, on the other hand,
从另一方面来说算是协调双语者
might be a coordinate bilingual,
用两组概念理解世界
working with two sets of concepts,
在学校学习英语
learning English in school,
在家还有跟朋友是说西班牙语
while continuing to speak Spanish at home and with friends. Finally,
Gabriella 的父母可能最后一种
Gabriella’s parents are likelyto be subordinate bilinguals
从属双语者通过他们的母语 来学习第二者语言
who learn a secondary language by filtering it through their primary language.
除了口音和
Because all types
发音之外 所有类型的双语者
of bilingual people can become fully proficient in a language
最终都能透过学习流利使用语言
regardless of accent or pronunciation,
因此如果只是随意观察他们的差别并不明显
the difference may not be apparentto a casual observer.
但是最新的大脑成像技术
But recent advancesin brain imaging technology
让神经语言学家得以窥见
have given neurolinguists a glimpse
学习语言对双言者的大脑有哪些影响
into how specific aspects of languagelearning affect the bilingual brain.
众所周知 大脑的左半部
It’s well known that the brain’sleft hemisphere is more dominant
擅於逻辑进程的分析
and analytical in logical processes,
右脑则是对於情绪和
while the right hemisphere is more active
社交较於活跃
in emotional and social ones,
不过这是程度上的问题不是绝对的划分
though this is a matter of degree,not an absolute split.
事实上语言和左右脑两边的功能都有关连
The fact that language involvesboth types of functions
随著年纪增长 大脑发展会侧重一边
while lateralization developsgradually with age,
这是关键期假说的来由
has lead to the criticalperiod hypothesis.
根据关键期假说理论
According to this theory,
小孩学语言比较容易 因为他们发展中的大脑较有弹性
children learn languages more easily because the plasticity of their developing brains
让他们同时运用左右脑学习语言
lets them use both hemispheresin language acquisition,
大部分的成人的语言学习
while in most adults, languageis lateralized to one hemisphere,
是侧重於左脑
usually the left.
如果这是事实 在小时候学习语言
If this is true, learning a languagein childhood
更能掌握社会和情感脉络相反地
may give you a more holistic grasp of its social and emotional contexts. Conversely,
最近的研究显示
recent research showed
在长大这学习第二语言的人
that people who learneda second language in adulthood
在第二语言上面临问题时会采用更理性的方式
exhibit less emotional biasand a more rational approach
相对於母语
when confronting problemsin the second language
比较不会有情绪偏见
than in their native one.
不过不论你何时学习语言
But regardless of when you acquireadditional languages,
多语能力都能给予大脑相当好的益处
being multilingual gives your brainsome remarkable advantages.
有些甚至看得见
Some of these are even visible,
像是大脑中的灰质呈现较高的密度
such as higher density of the grey matter
包含脑中的神经元和突触
that contains most of your brain’sneurons and synapses,
投入第二语言时大脑的特定区域也会更活跃
and more activity in certain regionswhen engaging a second language.
而双语者大脑终生受到的锻炼
The heightened workout a bilingualbrain receives throughout its life
可延缓一些疾病的发生像是阿尔茨海默氏症
can also help delay the onset of diseases,
和痴呆症
like Alzheimer’s and dementia
达五年之久
by as much as five years.
对於双语好处的认知
The idea of major cognitivebenefits to bilingualism
现在看来直观 稍早却会让专家们感到讶异
may seem intuitive now, but it would have surprisedearlier experts.
六十年代以前 人们认为双语
Before the 1960s, bilingualismwas considered a handicap
会阻碍孩童的发展
that slowed a child’s development
因为强迫孩童花太多精力在区别两种语言
by forcing them to spend too much energy distinguishing between languages,
但是这是基於有缺陷的研究
a view based largely on flawed studies.
愈来愈多的近期研究指出
And while a more recent study did show
在跨语言的测试中
that reaction times and errors increasefor some bilingual students
有些双语学生的反应时间和错误都增多
in cross-language tests,
同时也指出转换语言需要更多的心力和注意力
it also showed that the effortand attention needed
将触发大脑更多的活动
to switch between languagestriggered more activity in,
并有可能加强背外侧前额叶皮层
and potentially strengthened,the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
这是大脑用来执行功能
This is the part
、解决问题、
of the brain that plays a large role
在不同任务间转换 和专注在过滤不相干资讯
in executive function, problem solving,switching between tasks,
的主要部位因此
and focusing while filtering outirrelevant information. So,
双语可能不必然让你更聪明
while bilingualism may notnecessarily make you smarter,
但确实会让你的大脑更健康、健全和更能专注
it does make your brain more healthy,complex and actively engaged,
即使你小时候未能
and even if you didn’t havethe good fortune
学习第二种语言
of learning a second language as a child,
帮助自己永远不迟跨语言
it’s never too late to doyourself a favor
就从 “Hello”
and make the linguisticleap from,”Hello,”
开始到 “Hola”、”Bonjour” 或
to,”Hola,””Bonjour” or”你好’s”
“你好”这让我们的大脑做一些小小的运动
because when it comes to our brains a
从而带给我们长远的帮助
little exercise can go a long way.

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