The 50 years prior to the War had seen military medicine advance more slowly than other branches
发展更慢 坏疽在没有抗生素的情况下尤为肆虐 而这不过是众多致死疾病中的一种
of science, and without antibiotics, gangrene was a massive killer, but only one among many.
子弹 疾病 淹溺 平民的谋杀等等和冬日的降临与屠杀的继续
Bullets, disease, drowning, murders of civilians, and more, and as winter began and the carnage
一起 这些能想象得到的最恐怖的景象 不仅仅真实存在
continued, scenes of the worst horror imaginable were now not only very much real, they were
every day happenings.
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周我们看到 奥匈帝国军队在德军的帮助下 击退了庞大的俄军
Last week we saw the Austrians, with German help, pushing back the Russian colossus. Further
south in the Balkans, other Austrians had taken Belgrade but were now on the run, the
在中东地区 不列颠印度军队正向古尔奈靠近 而在西线
British Indian troops were nearing Qurna in the Middle East, and on the western front
it was unusually quiet after the interminable battles of the autumn.
The Western Front wasn’t especially quiet this week, though, as the British and French
made attacks that didn’t have any specific physical goal, but were intended to tie down
德军的主力拖住 以防德军回援东线同 俄军作战
German forces and prevent them from being transferred to the Eastern Front to fight the Russians.
German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn had committed to sending three divisions from west to east,
但拒绝调遣更多军队前往东线 即便鲁登道夫将军一再要求 他们
but refused to send more, even though General Ludendorff in the east repeatedly asked for them.
十一月 鲁登道夫率先对俄军发动一场攻势 这导致了
In November, Ludendorff had launched a pre-emptive offensive against the Russians that had resulted
罗兹战役的爆发 这是一场真正的大战 双方参战军队超过五十万人
in the Battle of Lodz, a truly colossal engagement, with over half a million troops involved.
This attack had ruined Russian plans for an invasion of Germany, but the Germans had been
unable to take the city itself, which was a well-supplied strategic railway center.
This week they tried again, and after a series of frontal assaults using those three transferred
divisions managed to capture Lodz on December 6th.
The Germans advanced another 50 kilometers before they came up against Russian troops
堑壕中的俄军部队 德军亦开始挖掘战壕 而当冬日全面来袭
that had dug themselves in to trenches. The Germans dug in as well and as winter came
on in force we see the whole center section of the eastern front frozen, physically and
militarily. It would remain so until the summer of 1915.
但当东西两线的战事似乎都陷入僵局时 南方有事 发生
But if things seemed stalled in the west and the east, they were anything but that in the south.
The Austrians seemed to have the Serbs beaten only a week ago when they took the Serbian
但不可思议的是 仅仅数日之后 塞军就将奥军打得四处逃亡
capital, but incredibly, only a few days later the Serbs had the Austrian army on the run.
The Austrians had fallen back to Valjevo, but the Serbs managed to surround them there
在仅仅战斗数日之后 塞军俘虏了超过20000名奥军士兵 到了12月10日
and in just a few days of fighting had taken over 20,000 Austrian prisoners. By December
10th, most of the remaining Austrian soldiers had left the country. Belgrade held out for
a few more days, but on December 15th the Serbian High Command issued a proclamation
that stated “Not one enemy soldier remains at liberty on the soil of the Serbian kingdom”.
This was an enormous defeat for the Austrians and an equally enormous victory for Serbia.
这是对奥军自尊心和自信心的重大打击 我的意思是 如果奥军无法击败塞军
It was a huge blow to Austrian pride and confidence- I mean, if they couldn’t beat Serbia, what
would happen against Russia? And for Serbia it meant being in the news headlines all over
报纸头条 其结果是塞尔维亚收到了政治上和人道主义上的援助 而且来自
the world. The result was political and humanitarian aid, and people from around the world even
coming to fight for the underdog.
But there was a cost- the Serbs had suffered over 100,000 casualties in just a few weeks,
而且 奥军的失败显然并非是不可逆转的 塞尔维亚已经耗尽了
and the Austrian defeat certainly wasn’t irreversible. Serbia had drained her forces
她的全部力量来击退奥军 而国家已经满目疮痍 一些城镇
down to the last dreg to beat the Austrians, and the country was devastated. Whole towns
空无一人 难民们漂泊在破坏严重的乡野上 另一个常被忽略的情况是
were emptied, and refugees roamed the blasted countryside. One other thing often overlooked
– Serbia was now linked to the world by only a single-track railway to Salonika in neutral
来同外界相通 而经由此路的所有供给物资 运输过程既费力又缓慢
Greece, through which all supplies had to be transported painfully slowly.
Disease was rampant throughout the country – cholera, typhus, and dysentery killed thousands,
而贫穷和苦难只会愈演愈烈 一战期间 在15岁至55岁
and the poverty and misery would only get worse. In the First World War, over 60 percent
of Serbian men between the ages of 15 and 55 would die.
As for the Austrians, General Oskar Potiorek was finally relieved of his command for incompetence
因为截止到年末 在由他调度的总共450000部队中 伤亡人数
since by the end of the year his army had suffered close to 300,000 casualties out of
a total deployment of 450,000. But Conrad von Hotzendorf was still chief of staff, in
spite of the fact that against both Russian and Serb, his operations had pretty much uniformly
ended in disaster.
Another, far more successful commander did meet his end this week, though, on December
8th at the battle of the Falklands.
A few weeks ago at the Battle of Coronel, German Admiral von Spee had given the British
在海上首尝败绩 共计击沉两艘巡洋舰并俘虏1600人 愤怒的英军
their first defeat at sea for 100 years, sinking two cruisers and taking 1,600 lives. The outraged
British had subsequently redeployed their forces to try to intercept Spee wherever he
went, the Japanese navy had repositioned units to help, and two British battle cruisers,
the Invincible and the Inflexible had been sent to the South Atlantic.
斯佩在印度洋 太平洋和大西洋不断被追杀 而在这一周
Spee was being hunted in the Indian, the Pacific, and the Atlantic Oceans, and this week he
made the mistake of attacking the Falkland Islands, arriving at Port Stanley December
8th, which the battle cruiser squadron had also decided to visit.
The battle cruisers were stronger and faster than any of Spee’s ships and though Spee
试图逃离 但最终还是转回加入了战斗 他的军舰被击沉 而斯佩本人
tried to run and eventually turned to fight, his ships were destroyed, with 2,200 German
同2200名德国水兵一起葬身海底 而英军仅损失十人 德军只有“德累斯顿”号
sailors, including Spee himself, dying against ten British. Only the Dresden got away and
she would spend the next three months hiding in the sub Antarctic waters around Cape Horn
until cornered and forced to scuttle.
这场战役标志着德国海军在公海上活动的终结 此后 其海上作战
This battle marked the end of the High Seas activity of the German navy. After this, surface
fighting was limited to landlocked waters like the Black Sea, the Baltic, or the Adriatic.
One area of the world that was really just heating up though was the Middle East, where
the British Indian Army won the Battle of Qurna[ad], where the Ottomans had retreated
after losses at Fao and Basra.
Thing is, the British had pretty much secured their coastal oil production with those battles,
but the Ottoman defenses had been quite weak so they’d moved further in land. Qurna,
though, which is supposed to be a possible site of the Garden of Eden, was anything but
不适合作为基地的选址 无尽的狂风裹挟着遮天的尘土 而这片洪泛平原
good as a base. Endless winds stirred up clouds of dust and the flood plain meant that when
意味着当你挖掘战壕 堑壕内只会充满水 恶劣的卫生条件 除了两河流域
you dug trenches, they just filled with water. Bad water, bad sanitation, the total lack
一带 与其他地方的人缺乏交流 当地的阿拉伯人无穷无尽
of communication except along the Tigris and Euphrates, and endless small raids by the
local Arab population further complicated things, and you could really see that this
campaign was going to be no picnic for anybody. The British also now began to wonder how strong
the enemy was actually going to be and just how big was the threat to the oil fields.
In other foreshadowing news, we see that the mobilization of Russian students began December
动员学生参军 这将提供更多的士兵 但同时也给予学生中的俄共积极分子
1st. This provided many more soldiers, but also gave Bolshevik student activists access
to the army.
当然 当成千上万的你国男儿阵亡 你终究需要征募更多的士兵
Of course, when hundreds of thousands of your men are dying, eventually you need to recruit
more, whether too old or too young to traditionally serve. And one thing to consider too- though
so many troops of all ages died, even more were taken as prisoners of war.
The ICRC- the Red Cross- arranged visits to POW camps in all of the warring nations, and
they determined that the Germans, French, and British were following humanitarian guidelines
而俄国的和奥匈帝国的战俘营则没有 现在 我们在之前已经提到
for military POWs, but not the Russians or Austrians. Now, we’ve already mentioned
before that many Austrian officers took pride in the atrocities committed in the Serbian
campaign, but John Reed, an American war correspondent, was at this point traveling through the Balkans
getting material for his soon to be published book, which would confirm for Allied readers
the barbarism of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, such as a photograph Reed was shown from Leknica,
showing over 100 women and children chained together, whose heads had been cut off.
But as awful and shocking as scenes like that may be, they really were just a drop in the
比如 想想在西部前线的生活 首先 除去被数英里之外的大炮
bucket. Think of life on the front lines in the west, for example. First off the destruction
轰击后所留下的断壁残垣 一长条土地上散落着尸体 农场
from artillery fire from miles away: a huge belt of land littered with corpses; farms
和村落的石墙上现在布满了熏黑的痕迹 田地和树木惨遭破坏 到处是
and villages now just blackened masonry, the fields and trees destroyed, and the bodies
马 牛 羊七零八落的尸体 它们被肢解 被遗弃或是处于饥饿之中 而
of horses, cattle, and sheep scattered throughout, dismembered, abandoned, or starving, while
the wounded men and animals cried out endlessly in pain. Thousands more die of disease or
rot in the mud and rain. The conditions would only worsen as the winter came on.
整个欧洲都已进入冬季 在本周的周末 我们仍然能看见零星的
And winter was coming on all over Europe, and at the end of the week we still see sporadic
战斗在佛兰德斯进行 德军被俄军所阻截并驻扎下来 奥军被
fighting in Flanders, the Germans being stopped by the Russians and settling in, the Austrians
处于劣势的塞军驱逐出境 德国的太平洋海军被摧毁 而英军又一次
being expelled from underdog Serbia, the German Pacific navy destroyed, and the British again
victorious in the Middle East. It’s two weeks to Christmas.
With all the battle talk and maps and strategy, it’s very easy to overlook what was going
on on an individual level in the war, and I’d like to end this week with a quote,
a scene of horror from 1914 recounted by Alois Lowenstein, “among a bunch of corpses lay
躺在一堆尸体中 他们中的第一个双腿被打断了 第二个人的腹部被撕开
three wounded Frenchmen. One man had both legs shattered; the second’s stomach was
torn open; the third had tried to shoot himself until one of our chaps took away his revolver.
他向自己的头部开枪两次来逃避痛苦 但由于动作笨拙 瞄准得稍高了一点
He fired twice at his own head to escape pain, but aimed clumsily, a little too high. The
他的无檐帽被掀起来了 他长吁短叹以缓解内心的痛楚 另一个人躺在那里
skullcap was uplifted and he moaned in a fashion to melt the heart. Another man lay apparently
显然已经死了 但他的一条腿仍在抽搐 就像一只尚未死亡的松鸡一样
dead, but with one leg still twitching like that of a partridge that is unable to die.”
This was modern war.
Now, if you’ve recently started watching our series
and you’re wandering how this whole war began, you should check out our three-part prelude-to-war
series of specials. Right here.
And don’t forget to subscribe.
We’ll see you next week.