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这是一只为铁路工作了9年的狒狒

The Baboon That Controlled a Railway for 9 Years

本视频由Ecosia赞助播出
This video was made possible by Ecosia.
每当你使用这个搜索引擎点击链接https://www ecosia.org/Internet Archive时
Start using the search engine that plants trees
就会为绿化贡献力量
is with every search you make at https://www ecosia.org/Internet Archive
猴子有样学样
Monkey see, monkey do.
狒狒模仿所见
Baboon see, baboon control a railway used
便可操控载有数千乘客的几吨重的火车
by multi-ton trains and thousands of passengers
这就是19世纪末南非火车的运营方式
That’s how it worked in the late 1800’sin South Africa.
回到无线电通讯还没有出现的年代
Back in the old days radios didn’t exist and
由于火车噪音太大
since trains were loud, you couldn’t
无法大声向司机喊话 告诉他们该做什么
just shout at the driver to tell them what to do.
因此 在19世纪末
Therefore, in the 1800s,
人们开始使用信号指挥引导进站火车
signals were developed as a way to tell incoming trains to stations what to do.
起初 信号员用灯笼和手势
At first, lanterns and hand signals were used
来传达需告知的信息
by signalmen to convey the information needed
但是随着科技的进步
But as technology advanced signals that
信号可以用开关和杠杆控制
could be controlled by switches and levers were
来简化操作流程
installed to ease the process.
这些信号旗和风向标类似
These signals were similar to weathervanes
并且它们由装在固定杆子上的可移动的指示牌
and that they consisted of fixed posts with
或由开关控制的指示标志组成
movable discs or signage that could be controlledvia a switch.
使用各种颜色表示发车或谨慎前行
Various colors meant to stop or go or proceed with caution,
不同标杆上有着不同形状的叶片
and there were other vanes on
不同的角度表示火车一旦进站
different axes to indicate which tracks to pull
应该停靠在哪条车道
into once arriving at the stations and
其他信号用以指挥火车转向
various other signs meaning to take it to the left, right,
还有旋转跳跃 恰恰恰
to criss-cross, to cha cha now,
继续跳恰恰 大家一起拍手……
to cha cha again, and for everybody to clap their hands.
随着世界火车事业的疯狂发展
With the world going loco
那段时期需要大量的信号员
for locomotives at the time tons and tons of signalmen were
来确保火车准时驶进驶出
needed to ensure that the trains stuck to schedules,
使其保持工作状态 同时
were in working condition, and
还要行驶在正确的路线上
stuck to the proper tracks.
信号员 人如其名
Signalmen, as their names imply,
职责就是在信号屋操控着操作杆件
were also responsible for operating the levers that
为外面的火车发送信号
would set off the signals for the trains out of the signal house.
在19世纪70年代 在南非
In the 1870s, one of the signalman
开普敦开往伊丽莎白港铁路系统主干线上
for the Cape Town to Port Elizabeth Mainline Railroad
有一位叫做詹姆斯·王尔德的男人
in South Africa was a man named James Wilde.
王尔德还有个外号叫做“贾沐博”因为
Wilde went by the nickname”Jumper” becausehe had a habit of jumping between the cars
他习惯在火车来临时跳过轨道
that would pass on the tracks and
在一次不可预见的命运转折中
in a totally unforeseen and completely unpreventable twist
贾沐博蹦跳着躲闪火车时跌倒了
of fate, Jumper once jumped a moving railcar and fell
在这次事故中 他失去了双腿
under it losing both of his legs in the process.
之后 贾沐博一瘸一拐地戴着
After this, Jumper continued working hobbling around
木桩做的假腿继续工作
on a pair of peg legs although he found
但是他发现他无法及时地向火车发出信号
himself limited in his ability to signal trainsproficiently.
原因是失去了双腿
Not having legs does that.
然而一天在市场上
One day at the market, though,
贾沐博看见一只训练过的狒狒
Jumper came upon a chacma baboon who’d been trained to
正在指挥一辆牛车
lead an ox-drawn wagon.
虽然令人印象深刻 但它的聪慧并不足以让现代人感到特别惊讶
Though impressive, its intelligence isn’tparticularly surprising by today’s standards.
我们现在都知道狒狒的
We now know that baboons aren’t so different
脑容量和人类差异不大
from humans in their brain capacity.
狒狒能按计划行事 用自己的语言与同类交流
Baboons can keep schedules, communicate withtheir own language
区别于潦草的书写和书面上的的文字
differentiate between scribbles and the written word,
罗契斯特大学最近得出结论表明
and the University of Rochester recently concluded that baboons
狒狒确实能在一定限度内数数
are actually capable of counting to an extent
尽管我不懂为什么值得惊讶
although I’m not sure what all the fuss
因为数数这事儿
is about since I’ve been able to do that since
我在11或12周岁时就能办到了
at least since I was double-one or twelve-teen.
贾沐博一再恳求
Jumper begged and begged and finally convinced the owner
最终说服了狒狒的主人让他带走狒狒
to let him take the baboon and thus
一对奇妙的灵长类搭档就此诞生了
the prodigious primate pair was born.
不过狒狒原主人告诫贾沐博
The original owner warned Jumper, however,
除非给它足够的白兰地喝
that the baboon would refuse to work unless
不然这个狒狒可能不愿意工作
he had been given plenty of brandy to drink.
他们确实和我们人类差不多
They’re really just like us.
这只叫杰克的狒狒
The baboon, named Jack,
最初被训练为观察并做出特定的动作
was first taught to observe and then respond to certain commands
当贾沐博举手表明特定数字时
When Jumper would hold up a certain number of fingers,
杰克就把相应的控制杆 拉下来
Jack was to pull the corresponding lever.
从那起 杰克学到了
From there, Jack learned
火车汽笛的响起次数与贾沐博
that the trains were giving similar orders by the number of blats
所给命令相似
from their whistle.
渐渐地 杰克意识到
Over time, Jack realized
哪条轨道需要哪个信号
on his known which tracks needed which signals and would double-check
并会再检查一遍
his own work as he was doing it.
他也意识到司炉需要进入煤炭屋
He also realized that conductors needed access to the coal sheds
并从贾沐博那找到钥匙
and would retrieve the key from Jumper unbidden
然后主动把它交给要进站的火车司机
to give to the incomingengineers
如今 若你的职位能被一只猴子代替
Now, if your job is replaceable by a monkey
你真的不要奢望有个铁饭碗
you really shouldn’t be expecting much job security so surprise surprise
但令人惊讶的是杰克和贾沐博的工作最终还是被叫停了
both Jack and Jumper’ s jobs eventually came under threat.
杰克曾是铁路系统中的宠儿
Jack was a beloved fixture of the railroad
直到一些势利的上流贵族
until some snobby high-society aristocrat
注意到它 实际上 杰克和渣酿白兰地都被盯上了
noticed that he was, in fact, a monkey and narc’d on the pair
铁路系统的老板们知道
The bosses at the railway were aware
贾沐博找了个助理
that Jumper had found an assistant but were totally
但完全不知道那是他的狒狒
in the dark about his baboon-ness
在开普敦行政当局开始调查之后
After the Cape Town executives launched an investigation,
他们才发现关于 猴子事件的真相
they found out the truth about the monkey business
所以 他们自然想要解雇贾沐博和杰克
So, naturally, they tried to fire both Jumperand Jack.
贾沐博恳求要展示杰克的聪慧
Jumper begged to demonstrate Jack’s cleverness and
所以老板们同意给他进行测试
so the rail managers agreed to put him to the test.
杰克完美地展示了它的信号处理能力
Jack perfectly performed his signaling abilities,
甚至不同方向都进行核查
even checking both directions
确保进站火车在站内进入指定的轨道
to make sure the incoming trains were heading to separatetracks at the station.
老板们印象深刻并为杰克转正
They were so impressed that they made Jack an official employee
每天支付它20分币工资
paying him 20 cents a day
每周给它半瓶啤酒
and half a bottle of beer every week.
据说杰克在身为信号指挥员的九年间
It’s been said that in the nine years Jack worked as a signalman
从未出过差错
he never made a single mistake
尽管它总喝醉还是只猴子
despite being constantly drunk anda monkey.
后来 “信号员杰克”逐渐被人知晓
Jack became known as “ Jack the Signalman”
它与贾沐博一起工作生活
and worked and lived with Jumper in a small cottage
住在离信号房不远的小房子里
not far from the signal house.
他始终住在那里为铁路系统工作
He stayed there and worked for the railroad
直到1890年因肺结核去世
up until his death from tuberculosis in 1890
现在他的头盖骨陈列在格雷厄姆斯敦
and his skull is now displayed at a museum in Grahamstown at South Africa
一座离他工作地方不远的南非博物馆里
not far from where he worked.
猴子可以做许多事情 像拉小提琴
Monkeys can do a lot like play the violin,
骑单车 滑旱冰
ride bicycles, roller-skate,
但是他们阻止不了自然栖息地上
But what they can’t do is stop the systematic
大规模肆意的砍伐
and widespread deforestation of their natural habitat.
幸运的是 你能做到
Luckily, you can and you don’t even
甚至不必花钱毫不费力地做到
have to spend any money or effort to do it.
Ecosia是一个非营利性的搜索引擎
Ecosia is a nonprofit search engine
其广告所得收益被用来恢复包括
that uses the money generated from advertising to reforest
坦桑尼亚 埃塞俄比亚
areas including places like Tanzania, Ethiopia,
以及布基纳法索这些狒狒栖息地的生态
and Burkina Faso where there are native baboons.
种植一棵树仅需要50次的搜索
It only takes about 50 searches to plant one tree
所以你能很轻易地让情况大有改善
so you can really easily make a difference.
用浏览器打开https://www ecosia.org/Internet Archive并收藏
Head to https://www ecosia.org/Internet Archive to add it to your browser
然后你就可以在每次搜索时种树了
so you can start planting trees one search

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视频概述

狒狒是很聪明的灵长类动物,和人类一样,它们最引以为傲的就是学习能力,文中的狒狒便是如此,它不仅学会了操纵信号以控制铁路,还成为了铁路系统颇有名誉的明星信号员。快来看看这个聪明的“信号员杰克”吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

summer

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OpoLkMcQh24

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