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黑奴贸易-无人讲述的故事

The Atlantic slave trade: What too few textbooks told you - Anthony Hazard

奴隶制度 把人当作财产
Slavery, the treatment of human beings
剥夺个人权利
as property, deprived of personal rights,
在世界各地以各种形式出现
has occurred in many formsthroughout the world.
其中一种范围之广 影响之深 使其广为人知
But one institution stands out for both its global scale and its lasting legacy.
这就是大西洋黑奴贸易
The Atlantic slave trade,
这场贸易发生于15世纪末到19世纪中
occurring from the late 15th to the mid 19th century
跨越三大洲
and spanning three continents,
将数千万黑人从非洲暴力贩卖到美洲
forcibly brought more than 10 million Africans to the Americas.
不仅对黑奴及其后代产生极大影响
The impact it would leave affectednot only these slaves
也影响了许多国家的
and their descendants, but the economies and histories
经济和历史
of large parts of the world.
在此之前 欧洲与非洲通过地中海
There had been centuries of contactbetween Europe and Africa
互通往来已长达数百年
via the Mediterranean.
但直到15世纪后期 葡萄牙殖民西非
But the Atlantic slave tradebegan in the late 1400s
西班牙紧接着殖民美洲之后
with Portuguese colonies in West Africa,
大西洋黑奴贸易才开始
and Spanish settlementof the Americas shortly after.
在新殖民地种植谷物 甘蔗
The crops grown in the new colonies, sugar cane, tobacco,
烟草 棉花等 需要大量人力
and cotton, were labor intensive,
而当地居民太少 也没有足够的契约工
and there were not enough settlers or indentured servants
来开垦荒地
to cultivate all the new land.
美洲原住民虽是奴隶 但很多死于疾病
American Natives were enslaved,but many died from new diseases,
另一些则在顽强抵抗
while others effectively resisted.
因此 为了满足大量劳动力的需求
And so to meet the massivedemand for labor,
欧洲殖民者们将目光集中到了非洲
the Europeans looked to Africa.
非洲各种形式的奴隶制已存在几个世纪之久
African slavery had existedfor centuries in various forms.
一些奴隶是契约劳工
Some slaves were indentured servants,
契约期有限 劳工还有机会赎身
with a limited termand the chance to buy one’s freedom.
另外一部分更像欧洲农奴
Others were more like European serfs.
在一些地方 奴隶可能是主人家庭的一份子
In some societies, slaves couldbe part of a master’s family,
他们拥有土地 甚至可能掌握一些权力
own land, and even riseto positions of power.
但当白人驾着船 带着手工艺品 武器
But when white captains came offeringmanufactured goods, weapons,
朗姆酒来到非洲换取奴隶时
and rum for slaves,
非洲酋长和商人们欣然接受了这一交易
African kings and merchantshad little reason to hesitate.
在他们眼里 这些被卖做奴隶的黑人不是同胞
They viewed the people they soldnot as fellow Africans
而是罪犯 债务人 或者敌对部落的俘虏
but criminals, debtors,or prisoners of war from rival tribes.
奴隶交易扩大了酋长们的势力范围
By selling them, kings enrichedtheir own realms,
提高了抵御外敌的能力
and strengthened themagainst neighboring enemies.
非洲各王国因奴隶贸易而兴盛
African kingdoms prosperedfrom the slave trade,
也因此互相产生了激烈的竞争
but meeting the European’s massive demandcreated intense competition.
奴隶制还代替了其他刑罚
Slavery replaced other criminal sentences,
人们为了争抢奴隶而兵戎相见
and capturing slavesbecame a motivation for war,
奴隶成了战争的诱因而非余殃
rather than its result.
为阻止他国抢夺本国的奴隶
To defend themselves from slave raids,
各邻国需要的欧洲武器
neighboring kingdomsneeded European firearms,
也是用黑奴购买的
which they also bought with slaves.
奴隶贸易实质上成了一场武器竞赛
The slave trade had become an arms race,
对整个非洲大陆的部落和经济造成了影响
altering societies and economiesacross the continent.
至于交易中的黑奴们 则面临着极残忍的命运
As for the slaves themselves,they faced unimaginable brutality.
他们的头发被剃光 以防将虱子带上船
After being marchedto slave forts on the coast,
身上被烙上标记 然后被带到海岸边的黑奴窟里
shaved to prevent lice, and branded,
随后便被赶上开往美洲的船
they were loaded onto shipsbound for the Americas.
大约20%的人从此再也见不到陆地
About 20% of themwould never see land again.
那时 大多船长都尽可能将人
Most captains of the daywere tight packers,
往甲板下的船舱里赶 越多越好
cramming as many menas possible below deck.
船舱卫生条件极差 许多人死于疾病
While the lack of sanitationcaused many to die of disease,
还有一些因生病或受到惩罚 而被扔进海里
and others were thrownoverboard for being sick or as discipline.
为了保障自己的利益
The captains ensure their profits
船长们还会割下黑奴的耳朵
by cutting off slave’s ears
以示已购买这些奴隶
as proof of purchase.
一些黑奴会选择自我了断
Some captives took mattersinto their own hands.
很多内陆的非洲人此前从未见过白人
Many inland Africanshad never seen whites before,
以为他们是食人族
and thought them to be cannibals,
不断地来回 带走一批又一批黑人
constantly taking people away and returning for more.
这些黑人害怕被吃掉 也不想遭受更多折磨
Afraid of being eaten,or just to avoid further suffering,
便会选择自杀或绝食
they committed suicideor starved themselves,
他们相信 死后灵魂就会回到故乡
believing that in death,their souls would return home.
而那些幸存的人们已完全被非人化
Those who survivedwere completley dehumanized,
他们在白人眼里只是货物而已
treated as mere cargo.
女人和小孩被安置在甲板上
Women and children were kept
遭受着船员的凌辱和虐待
above deck and abused by the crew,
男人们被迫表演跳舞
while the men were made to perform dances
以保持他们的运动量 减少反抗
in order to keep them exercisedand curb rebellion.
这些到达新世界的黑人后来怎么样了
What happened to those Africanswho reached the New World
以及奴隶制对他们的后代造成了什么影响
and how the legacy of slaverystill affects their descendants today
倒是为后人所熟知
is fairly well known.
但大西洋黑奴贸易
But what is not often discussed
对非洲未来的影响却很少有人探讨
is the effect that the Atlantic slave trade had on Africa’s future.
黑奴贸易不仅让非洲大陆
Not only did the continent lose tens
失去了上千万健康强壮的人口
of millions of its able-bodied population,
且由于大部分黑奴都是男性
but because most of the slavestaken were men,
长期的人口结构的影响更深远
the long-term demographiceffect was even greater.
奴隶贸易在美洲和欧洲
When the slave trade was finally outlawed
最终被禁止之后
in the Americas and Europe,
由此主导的非洲各王国的经济也随之崩塌
the African kingdoms whose economiesit had come to dominate collapsed,
使其面对外敌侵略和殖民毫无还击之力
leaving them opento conquest and colonization.
愈加激烈的武器竞争和欧洲武器的大量涌入
And the increased competitionand influx of European weapons
带来的战事和冲突一直持续到了今天
fueled warfare and instabilitythat continues to this day.
大西洋黑奴贸易还催生了种族歧视观念
The Atlantic slave trade also contributed to the development of racist ideology.
绝大部分黑奴制度只是一种法律制裁
Most African slavery had no deeper reasonthan legal punishment
或部族间的战事 但欧洲人鼓吹一种普世宗教
or intertribal warfare, but the Europeanswho preached a universal religion,
并且很久之前就在同族间废除了奴隶制
and who had long agooutlawed enslaving fellow Christians,
所以 他们需要一个正当的理由
needed justification for a practice
来解释黑奴贸易这一明显违背公平的做法
so obviously at oddswith their ideals of equality.
因此 他们编造出黑人在生理上处于弱势
So they claimed thatAfricans were biologically inferior
生来就应做奴隶的借口 花大力气为此说法辩护
and destined to be slaves, making great efforts to justify this theory. Thus,
如此 欧洲和美洲的奴隶贸易带上了种族歧视的色彩
slavery in Europe and the Americasacquired a racial basis,
黑奴和其后代们要想取得平等的社会地位
making it impossible for slavesand their future descendants
难比登天
to attain equal status in society.
从上述各方面来说
In all of these ways,
大西洋黑奴贸易是一场大规模的极不公正的贸易
the Atlantic slave trade was an injustice on a massive scale
即使废除后 其影响也一直延续至今
whose impact has continuedlong after its abolition.

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视频概述

我们或许很了解黑奴贸易的过去,但生活在黑奴贸易阴影下的非洲,未来又该何去何从呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小也

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NXC4Q_4JVg

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