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让机器做运动员会怎样 – 译学馆
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让机器做运动员会怎样

The astounding athletic power of quadcopters | Raffaello D'Andrea

(掌声)
(applause)
机器做运动员是什么意思呢
So what does it mean for a machine to be athletic?
我们将借助这些叫做四轴飞行器
We will demonstrate the concept of machine athleticism
简称四轴器
and the research to achieve it
来展示机器运动的概念
with the help of these flying machines called quadrocopters,
及实现机器运动的相关研究
or quads, for short.
四轴器很早就已经出现
Quads have been around for a long time.
现在四轴器非常流行 因为他们零件简单操作方便
They’re so popular these days because they’re mechanically simple.
通过控制四个螺旋桨的速度
By controlling the speeds of these four propellers,
可以让四轴器翻滚 倾斜 摇摆
these machines can roll, pitch, yaw,
并能沿着同一个方向加速
and accelerate along their common orientation.
飞行器上装有电池 电子计算机
On board are also a battery, a computer,
多种传感器和无线电台
various sensors and wireless radios.
四轴器相当灵活 但这种灵活是有代价的
Quads are extremely agile, but this agility comes at a cost.
他们先天不稳定
They are inherently unstable,
需要通过一些自动反馈控制的形式
and they need some form of automatic feedback control
才能飞起来
in order to be able to fly.
那么 它是怎么做到的呢
So, how did it just do that?
天花板上的摄像机与笔记本电脑配合
Cameras on the ceiling and a laptop
成为室内整体的定位系统
serve as an indoor global positioning system.
来定位这个空间内
It’s used to locate objects in the space
有反射标记的物体
that have these reflective markers on them.
随后 收集到的数据被发送到
This data is then sent to another laptop
另一台正在运行估算和控制算法的电脑上
that is running estimation and control algorithms,
电脑反过来再把指令反馈给四轴器
which in turn sends commands to the quad,
同时 四轴器也在运行估算和控制算法
which is also running estimation and control algorithms.
我们研究的大部分内容就是算法
The bulk of our research is algorithms.
它是让机器有生命的魔法
It’s the magic that brings these machines to life.
那么如何设计出创造机器运动员的算法?
So how does one design the algorithms that create a machine athlete?
我们采用通常被称为 “基于模型设计” 的方法
We use something broadly called model-based design.
首先要用一个
We first capture the physics
表达机器运动方式的数学模型捕捉物理现象
with a mathematical model of how the machines behave.
然后用一个叫做“控制理论”的数学分支
We then use a branch of mathematics called control theory
分析这些模型
to analyze these models
同时合成控制他们的算法
and also to synthesize algorithms for controlling them.
比如 我们就是用这种方法让四轴器悬停
For example, that’s how we can make the quad hover.
首先我们用一组微分方程式捕捉到它的动态
We first captured the dynamics with a set of differential equations.
然后用控制理论处理这些方程式
We then manipulate these equations with the help of control theory
最终生成算法使四轴器稳稳停住
to create algorithms that stabilize the quad.
我来展示下这种方法的优势
Let me demonstrate the strength of this approach.
假设我们不只想让四轴器悬停
Suppose that we want this quad to not only hover
还要让它保持这根杆子的平衡
but to also balance this pole.
只要稍加练习
With a little bit of practice,
一个人可以很容易地平衡杆子
it’s pretty straightforward for a human being to do this,
我们的优势来源于两只脚都在地上以及
although we do have the advantage of having two feet on the ground
我们全能的双手
and the use of our very versatile hands.
然而如果我们
It becomes a little bit more difficult
单脚站立
when I only have one foot on the ground
不用双手就会很困难
and when I don’t use my hands.
请注意 这根杆子顶部有一个反射标记
Notice how this pole has a reflective marker on top,
这就意味着可以在这个空间里定位它
which means that it can be located in the space.
(观众)哇!
(Audience) Oh!
(掌声)
(Applause)
(掌声停)
(Applause ends)
你会发现四轴器做了很棒的调整
You can notice that this quad is making fine adjustments
来保持杆子平衡
to keep the pole balanced.
这样做的算法是怎么设计出来的呢
How did we design the algorithms to do this?
我们把杆子的数学模型
We added the mathematical model of the pole
加入到四轴器的数学模式上
to that of the quad.
一旦得出四轴器与杆子组合系统的模型
Once we have a model of the combined quad-pole system,
就可以运用控制理论生成控制它的算法
we can use control theory to create algorithms for controlling it.
现在你看 它稳定了
Here, you see that it’s stable,
即使我稍微推它一下
and even if I give it little nudges,
它也能回复过来–
it goes back —
保持很好的平衡
to the nice, balanced position.
我们还可以扩大这个模型
We can also augment the model
包括指定四轴器在这个空间的位置
to include where we want the quad to be in space.
用这个由反射标记做成的指示器
Using this pointer, made out of reflective markers,
在离我一定范围内
I can point to where I want the quad to be in space
任意指定四轴器的位置
a fixed distance away from me.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
四轴器如此辗转腾挪的关键就是算法
The key to these acrobatic maneuvers is algorithms,
它的设计借助于数学模型
designed with the help of mathematical models
和控制理论
and control theory.
我们让四轴器回来这里
Let’s tell the quad to come back here
把杆子取下来
and let the pole drop,
接下来我将展示
and I will next demonstrate the importance
理解物理模型
of understanding physical models
和物理世界的运行方式的重要性
and the workings of the physical world.
注意看我把这杯水放到四轴器上后它有所下降
Notice how the quad lost altitude when I put this glass of water on it.
与平衡杆子不同
Unlike the balancing pole,
我没有把这杯水的数学模型包括进
I did not include the mathematical model of the glass
系统里
in the system.
事实上 系统甚至不知道这个杯子在那
In fact, the system doesn’t even know that the glass is there.
和刚才一样 我可以用指示器指挥四轴器
Like before, I could use the pointer to tell the quad
到这个空间内我指定的地方去
where I want it to be in space.
(掌声)
(Applause)
(掌声停)
(Applause ends)
好了 你心里应该在疑惑
Okay, you should be asking yourself,
为什么水不会从玻璃杯里洒出来?
why doesn’t the water fall out of the glass?
两个原因
Two facts.
第一 所有物体都以一样的方式受重力影响
The first is that gravity acts on all objects in the same way.
第二 螺旋桨
The second is that the propellers
都指向玻璃杯这一个方向 也就是向上
are all pointing in the same direction of the glass, pointing up.
二者相加
You put these two things together,
最终结果就是作用在玻璃杯上的所有横向力都很小
the net result is that all side forces on the glass are small
主要被空气动力效应所支配
and are mainly dominated by aerodynamic effects,
而这个速度下 空气动力效应可以忽略不计
which at these speeds are negligible.
因此不再需要给玻璃杯建立模型
And that’s why you don’t need to model the glass.
自然而然 不管四轴器怎么做 水都不会洒
It naturally doesn’t spill, no matter what the quad does.
(观众)噢!
(Audience) Oh!
(掌声)
(Applause)
(掌声停)
(Applause ends)
这一部分内容
The lesson here
讲的是一些高性能的任务比别的要更容易些
is that some high-performance tasks are easier than others,
而理解这个问题背后的物理学
and that understanding the physics of the problem
你就会知道哪些容易 哪些困难
tells you which ones are easy and which ones are hard.
这种情况下 放一杯水很容易
In this instance, carrying a glass of water is easy.
平衡一根杆子比较难
Balancing a pole is hard.
我们都听过运动员带伤完成壮举的故事
We’ve all heard stories of athletes performing feats while physically injured.
在机体严重受损情况下 机器也能如此吗
Can a machine also perform with extreme physical damage?
传统观念认为
Conventional wisdom says
要想飞 至少需要四个固定的电动螺旋桨
that you need at least four fixed motor propeller pairs in order to fly,
因为要控制四个自由度:
because there are four degrees of freedom to control:
翻滚 倾斜 摇摆和加速
roll, pitch, yaw and acceleration.
六轴飞行器有六个螺旋桨 八轴飞行器则有八个
Hexacopters and octocopters, with six and eight propellers,
有更多能力
can provide redundancy,
但四轴飞行器却更受欢迎
but quadrocopters are much more popular
因为他们满足固定电动螺旋桨的最低值:四个
because they have the minimum number of fixed motor propeller pairs: four.
或者 真的是最小值吗
Or do they?
(观众)啊!
(Audience) Oh!
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们来分析下机器的数学模型
If we analyze the mathematical model of this machine
如果它只有两个可用的螺旋桨
with only two working propellers,
我们就会发现它有不同寻常的飞行方式
we discover that there’s an unconventional way to fly it.
我们无法控制摇摆
We relinquish control of yaw,
但仍可以控制翻滚 倾斜和加速
but roll, pitch and acceleration can still be controlled
用的就是利用新的配置生成的算法
with algorithms that exploit this new configuration.
数学模型准确地告诉我们这种情况何时发生为何发生
Mathematical models tell us exactly when and why this is possible.
这种情况下 这方面的知识能让我们设计出
In this instance, this knowledge allows us to design
新奇的机器结构
novel machine architectures
或者设计出聪明的算法 让机器像人类运动员一样
or to design clever algorithms that gracefully handle damage,
从容地处理损伤
just like human athletes do,
而不必造一个有多余部件的机器
instead of building machines with redundancy.
当我们看到
We can’t help but hold our breath
跳水运动员翻转着跳入水中
when we watch a diver somersaulting into the water,
或撑杆跳运动员在空中转体
or when a vaulter is twisting in the air,
然后极速降落时 我们会不由地屏住呼吸
the ground fast approaching.
跳水运动员能压水花入水吗?
Will the diver be able to pull off a rip entry?
撑杆跳运动员会平稳落地吗?
Will the vaulter stick the landing?
假设我们想让四轴器空翻三圈
Suppose we want this quad here to perform a triple flip
结束时与开始时位置完全一致
and finish off at the exact same spot that it started.
这个动作将进行的很快
This maneuver is going to happen so quickly
我们无法用定位反馈来调整运动过程中的请求
that we can’t use position feedback to correct the motion during execution.
很简单 因为时间不够
There simply isn’t enough time.
因此 四轴器只能在没有指令的情况下执行操作
Instead, what the quad can do is perform the maneuver blindly,
观察它是怎么完成操作的
observe how it finishes the maneuver,
然后利用这信息调整它的行动
and then use that information to modify its behavior
以便下一个翻转做得好些
so that the next flip is better.
类似于跳水运动员和撑杆跳高运动员
Similar to the diver and the vaulter,
只有通过反复练习
it is only through repeated practice
才能学会并实施这个动作
that the maneuver can be learned and executed
并达到最高水准
to the highest standard.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
击打运动中的球是许多体育项目中的必要技能
Striking a moving ball is a necessary skill in many sports.
怎样才能造出一种机器
How do we make a machine do
能轻而易举的达到运动员的水准
what an athlete does seemingly without effort?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
(掌声停)
(Applause ends)
这个四轴器顶上绑有一个球拍
This quad has a racket strapped onto its head
有一个苹果大小的最佳击球位置 不太大
with a sweet spot roughly the size of an apple, so not too large.
接下来每20毫秒计算一次
The following calculations are made every 20 milliseconds,
或每秒50次
or 50 times per second.
先要算出球的去向
We first figure out where the ball is going.
然后计算四轴飞行器应该怎样击球
We then next calculate how the quad should hit the ball
才能使球返回
so that it flies to where it was thrown from.
第三 设计一个飞行轨线 让四轴器
Third, a trajectory is planned that carries the quad
从现在的位置飞到命中球的地方
from its current state to the impact point with the ball.
第四步 我们只执行20毫秒这个策略
Fourth, we only execute 20 milliseconds’ worth of that strategy.
二十毫秒以后 重复整个过程
Twenty milliseconds later, the whole process is repeated
直到四轴器击中球
until the quad strikes the ball.
(掌声)
(Applause)
机器不仅可以自己执行动态操作
Machines can not only perform dynamic maneuvers on their own,
还可以集体完成
they can do it collectively.
这三个四轴器在空中合作撑起一张网
These three quads are cooperatively carrying a sky net.
(掌声)
(Applause)
(掌声停)
(Applause ends)
他们动作灵敏 合作无间
They perform an extremely dynamic and collective maneuver
把球传回给我
to launch the ball back to me.
请注意 网完全展开时这些四轴器是垂直的
Notice that, at full extension, these quads are vertical.
(掌声)
(Applause)
事实上 当网完全张开时
In fact, when fully extended,
所受的力大约是蹦极的人在飞到最低时
this is roughly five times greater than what a bungee jumper feels
所受力的五倍
at the end of their launch.
这个动作的算法非常类似于
The algorithms to do this are very similar
单个四轴器击球回传给我所用的算法
to what the single quad used to hit the ball back to me.
使用数学模型对合作策略进行连续的重新规划
Mathematical models are used to continuously re-plan
每秒50次
a cooperative strategy 50 times per second.
之前我们都是在讲机器和它的性能
Everything we have seen so far has been about the machines and their capabilities.
如果把机器的运动
What happens when we couple this machine athleticism
和人的运动结合起来 会是怎样的?
with that of a human being?
我面前是一个商用的姿势传感器
What I have in front of me is a commercial gesture sensor
主要用于游戏
mainly used in gaming.
它可以实时识别我身体不同部位
It can recognize what my various body parts
的动作
are doing in real time.
类似于我之前用的指示器
Similar to the pointer that I used earlier,
我们可以用这些动作作为系统的输入指令
we can use this as inputs to the system.
现在我们有了一种自然的方式
We now have a natural way of interacting
让四轴器的原生动作和我的姿势互动
with the raw athleticism of these quads with my gestures.
(掌声)
(Applause)
交互作用并一定是虚拟的
Interaction doesn’t have to be virtual.
也可以是实体
It can be physical.
例如 以这个四轴器来说
Take this quad, for example.
它正设法固定在空间里的某个点上
It’s trying to stay at a fixed point in space.
如果我试图移动他 它会反抗
If I try to move it out of the way, it fights me,
重新移回到它想要呆的地方
and moves back to where it wants to be.
不过 我们可以改变这种行为
We can change this behavior, however.
我们能利用数学模型
We can use mathematical models
来判断我施加给四轴器力
to estimate the force that I’m applying to the quad.
一旦知道了这个力 就可以改变物理定律
Once we know this force, we can also change the laws of physics,
当然 只是就四轴器而言
as far as the quad is concerned, of course.
现在 四轴器像是在一种粘性液体中运动
Here, the quad is behaving as if it were in a viscous fluid.
现在我们有了一种亲密的方式与机器交互
We now have an intimate way of interacting with a machine.
我将用这个新的能力把
I will use this new capability to position
这个带有摄影机的四轴器放到合适的位置
this camera-carrying quad to the appropriate location
来拍摄剩下的演示
for filming the remainder of this demonstration.
所以 我们可以用身体和四轴器交流
So we can physically interact with these quads
并能改变物理定律
and we can change the laws of physics.
让我们来小玩一下
Let’s have a little bit of fun with this.
你们接下来要看到的
For what you will see next,
四轴器先是好像几乎不受重力地飘飞着
these quads will initially behave as if they were on Pluto.
随着时间的推移 重力将会增大
As time goes on, gravity will be increased
直到我们都回到地球上
until we’re all back on planet Earth,
但是我保证 我们不会去那
but I assure you we won’t get there.
好吧 开始了
Okay, here goes.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
哇哦!
Whew!
你们现在会想
You’re all thinking now,
这些家伙太有意思了
these guys are having way too much fun,
你们大概也在问自己
and you’re probably also asking yourself,
他们到底为什么要制造机器运动员呢?
why exactly are they building machine athletes?
有人会猜 玩耍在动物世界中
Some conjecture that the role of play in the animal kingdom
是用来磨练技能和发展能力
is to hone skills and develop capabilities.
还有人则认为它有更多的社会作用
Others think that it has more of a social role,
可以凝聚团队
that it’s used to bind the group.
同样 我们用体育和运动的相似
Similarly, we use the analogy of sports and athleticism
来为机器创造新算法
to create new algorithms for machines
使他们的性能发挥到极致
to push them to their limits.
机器的速度对我们的生活方式会有什么影响呢?
What impact will the speed of machines have on our way of life?
和所有我们过去的创造和革新一样
Like all our past creations and innovations,
它们可能会被用于改善人类生存条件
they may be used to improve the human condition
也可能被误用和滥用
or they may be misused and abused.
这不是我们面临的技术选择
This is not a technical choice we are faced with;
而是一个社会问题
it’s a social one.
让我们做出正确的诀择
Let’s make the right choice,
在机器的未来呈现最美好的一面
the choice that brings out the best in the future of machines,
就像体育竞技可以激发出我们最大的潜能
just like athleticism in sports can bring out the best in us.
我要向您介绍绿幕后的奇才们
Let me introduce you to the wizards behind the green curtain.
他们是飞行器竞技场研究小组的现任成员
They’re the current members of the Flying Machine Arena research team.
(掌声)
(Applause)
费德里科·奥古格力阿罗 达里奥·布莱夏尼尼
Federico Augugliaro, Dario Brescianini,
马库斯·赫恩 塞奇·鲁帕申 马克·马勒和罗宾·里茨
Markus Hehn, Sergei Lupashin, Mark Muller and Robin Ritz.
留心这些人 他们注定要成就大事
Look out for them. They’re destined for great things.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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我们已经进入机器时代,机器人必然会踏入人类世界,多多了解这些人类的假想敌或者说未来伙伴,你会有所收获

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2itwFJCgFQ

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