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内含玄机的刺客茶壶

The Assassin's Teapot Is Weird

[upbeat music]
[欢快的音乐]
This is an assassin’s teapot.
这是把刺客茶壶
It can be used to pour yourself a drink
可以用它给自己倒一杯茶
and to pour a drink for your enemy.
再给敌人倒一杯
You can then down your drink
然后喝掉自己的那杯
to prove that the drink isn’t poisoned.
以此证明茶没有毒
There’s no poison there.
你看 没有毒
Don’t worry about the poison, there is no poison.
别担心 根本就没有毒
But then when your enemy takes a drink,
但一旦敌人喝了下去
they find out that it is poisoned.
他就会中毒
And by the way, this doesn’t require you to spend
而且你无需花几年时间
the last few years building up an immunity to iocane powder.
研制解药
It works straight off the bat, no preparation required.
这把茶壶很容易上手 无需提前准备
That’s because the assassin’s teapot
因为它
can be used to pour three different drinks,
能倒出三种不同饮料
which I’ve shown here using three different colored liquids.
我们在此用三种颜色的液体来区分
And by the way, if you plan to poison your enemy,
插一嘴 若你想给敌人下毒
I recommend using liquids of the same color.
那还是建议使用同种颜色的液体
Do I need to tell the viewers that they shouldn’t
我是否该告诉观众给别人下毒
be trying to poison people, legally?
是犯法的呢?
Just ’cause it would break the flow of the video.
但这会打断视频的连贯性
Film myself having a fake phone call with a lawyer
哦 把我假装和律师打电话
in which I explain the problem,
解释这个问题的过程拍下来
and so long as I say out loud, “Don’t try to poison people,”
只要我大声说出:“别给别人下毒”
then that should have me covered?
就没事了
Okay. Click.
好的 明白了
The way you choose the drink is by sneakily
选择其中一种饮料的方法
covering up one of these holes.
是悄悄按住其中一个孔
If you cover this hole, you get a blue drink.
按住此孔 倒出的是蓝色液体
If you cover this hole, you get a yellow drink.
按住这个孔 倒出的是黄色液体
If you cover no holes, you get a green drink.
哪个都不按 倒出的便是绿色液体
So three drinks in total.
总共有三种液体
Though, actually no, four drinks.
但其实是四种
If you cover both holes, you get the null drink.
因为两个孔都按住就没有液体流出了
But how does it work?
它的原理是什么呢?
Well, you know me, if I want to describe
为了解释
how a hydrodynamic mechanism works,
水动力结构的运作机制
I like to make a transparent 2D version of it.
我一般会制作一个透明2D模型
I’ll put a playlist of those videos
我会在描述页面里
in the card and the description.
放上这些2D模型视频的播放列表
First, I needed to figure out
首先 我们要弄明白
what was going on inside the teapot,
茶壶的内部构造
and a bit like with the gluggle jug,
它的内部有点像魔术罐
the only really sensible way to do that
唯一可行的方法就是
was to hit it with a hammer.
用锤子把它砸开
So you can see there are two chambers here, side by side,
我们可以看到这里面有两个并排的空室
and they both lead up to the spout.
都通往壶口
Additionally, one chamber leads up to this hole,
此外 其中一个空室连着这个孔
the other chamber leads to this hole.
另一个连着这一个
For the 2D version, I don’t want to put them side by side,
在2D模型中它们不是处于并排的位置
’cause then it wouldn’t be 2D, but I feel like
因为那样就不是2D了 但我觉得
I can put them top to bottom and it should still work.
可以调整为上下排列 功能应该不会改变
And here it is.
就像这样
So if I want a blue drink, I cover this hole.
若想要蓝色液体 就按住这个孔
If I want a yellow drink, I cover this hole.
想要黄色液体 按这个孔
And if I want a green drink, I cover neither of the holes.
想要绿色液体则两个孔都不按
And for completeness, here’s the null drink.
为了演示得完整些 也看看无法倒出液体的情况
Similarly, I could have a black coffee or I could have milk,
同理 它既可以倒出黑咖啡也可以倒出牛奶
or I could have a milky coffee.
还可以倒出奶咖
So that’s how it works, but why does it work?
这便是它的运作机制 但其中的原理是什么呢?
Why is it that putting your finger over different holes
为什么按住不同的孔
causes different liquids to flow out?
便会有不同的液体流出来呢?
What it comes down to is surface tension.
这一切 归根结底是表面张力造成的
it’s similar to this demonstration you might’ve seen before.
你可能看过下面这个演示 里面的原理是类似
Look, I can pour water from this bottle,
看 我们可以从瓶子里倒出水
but if I turn the bottle upside down, no water pours out.
但把瓶子倒置后水便无法流出
The trick is that there’s a gauze
这是由于这里有张网纱
covering the opening of the bottle,
盖住了瓶口
so when I pour it like this, water can flow out
因此可以这样倒 水就会流出来
and air can flow in, but when I turn the bottle upside down,
空气也可以进入瓶内 但把瓶子倒置后
for water to flow out, air would need to flow in
水要流出 空气就得流入
and for air to flow in,
空气要流入的话
surface tension would need to be broken.
就需要打破表面张力
Here’s another example where instead of a gauze,
再看一个不用网纱的例子
there’s a small hole.
这里有个小孔
The hole is actually big enough to push a straw up into,
孔的大小可以插入一根吸管
and it floats to the top of the bottle.
插入吸管后 它会漂浮起来
It’s a really cool trick.
这是个很酷的把戏
You know, strictly speaking, ultimately,
其实严格来说 归根到底
it’s not surface tension That’s keeping the liquid in place.
并非是表面张力 而是气压
It’s air pressure.
让水无法流出
The assassin’s teapot and these bottle tricks
刺客茶壶和这个瓶子魔术
wouldn’t work in a vacuum.
在真空里就不奏效了
So the reason the liquid doesn’t fall out
所以用大拇指按住孔
of the assassin’s teapot when you have your thumb
液体就无法流出茶壶
over the hole is because the atmosphere is pushing on it.
是因为大气压压迫了水流
Atmospheric pressure is holding the liquid in place.
将液体困在了壶内
And that’s counter-intuitive.
这看起来违背常理
You’d think, well, the real explanation
大家可能会认为 应该是
is that if the liquid did fall out a little bit,
若液体流出一点
it would create a vacuum and the vacuum
就会产生真空
would pull the liquid back in.
真空会将液体拉回壶内
But there is no pulling force,
但实际上并没有什么拉力
there’s only pushing force from the atmosphere.
只有大气压的推力
It’s like when you suck on a straw.
就像吸吸管时
It’s not the suction that’s pulling the liquid up the straw.
并非是吸力让液体在吸管中上升
It’s the atmosphere pushing the liquid up the straw.
而是大气压推着液体升到吸管上部
And that’s really counter-intuitive because you feel like,
你觉得它违背常理
well, look, that’s me doing the work.
因为现在不是你亲自在尝试
I am sucking on the straw.
而是我 在吸这根吸管
I’m pulling the liquid up with my lungs.
是我在用肺把液体吸上来
At this point, I want to go off on a bit of a tangent
说到这 我想偏个题
and talk about a type of pedantry
谈谈 一种我并不觉得
that I think isn’t always helpful.
始终有益的学究做派
Like imagine you say, “I’m sucking liquid up a straw now.”
比如你说:“我正用吸管吸液体”
I mean, it’s a weird thing to say out loud,
当然 大声讲这个会很怪异
but hypothetically, and then an annoying physicist
但假设有个烦人的物理学家
comes along and says, “Well, technically
过来说:“实际上
you’re not sucking water up a straw.
不是你将水吸上来
It’s the atmosphere pushing it up the straw.”
而是气压将水推上来的”
And then in the next breath, that physicist might go on
紧接着物理学家可能又开始
to talk about the flow of positively charged holes
跟你讲半导体里
in a semiconductor.
带正电的空穴的流动
Well, holes don’t flow and a hole can’t have charge.
好吧 其实空穴无法流动 也不可能带电
So why is it okay to talk about
但为什么“带正电的空穴的流动”
the flow of positively charged holes?
这个说法没错呢?
What the reason it’s okay is because it’s useful.
之所以没错 是因为它有用
But I would also argue that it’s useful
但我同样会辩解 说
to talk about a suction force.
那谈论“吸力”也有用
so long as you keep the underlying physics in mind,
只要记住背后的物理原理
you should be okay.
就可以了
Like for example, you can’t just
举个例子 你不可能
increase a suction force indefinitely.
一直增加吸力
Eventually when you get to about a hundred kilopascals,
当你最终吸到100千帕斯卡左右时
it stops working because you’ve run out
吸力就无法继续增加了 因为
of atmospheric pressure, the thing that’s really
真正使液体上升的大气压
doing the work underneath.
已经用尽了
Similarly, I think it should be all right
同样 我们再来看看
to talk about the flow of the cold.
寒气的流动
Like if I put an ice cube in my drink,
若将冰块放到饮料里
the cold flows from the ice cube into the drink.
冰块融化 寒气释放到饮料中
Of course that’s not really what’s happening,
当然 事实并非如此
the warmth from the drink is flowing into the ice cube
其实是饮料中的热量进入到了冰块中
and so it gets colder, but it’s useful to talk about
饮料因此变冰 但只要能帮助你弄清背后的物理原理
the flow of cold, again, so long as you understand
说成“寒气释放”也无妨
the underlying physics, like you can’t just
例如你不能
keep pumping cold into something because eventually,
只是一直向某一物体传递寒气
you reach absolute zero.
因为最终 物体会达到绝对零度
By the way, these animations are from a video I made
顺便说下 这些动画均来自我制作的视频
about how all LEDs are secretly solar panels
主要解释了为何发光二极管其实是太阳能电池板
and all solar panels are secretly LEDs.
太阳能电池板其实也是发光二极管
The link’s in the card and in the description.
视频链接在播放列表和描述页面里
Okay, tangent over.
现在回归正题
The point is, we all know that for the water to get out,
关键是我们都明白想要水流出
air needs to be able get in and with your finger
就需要有空气流入 手离开孔
off the hole, well, air can get in at the top,
空气便可以自顶部流入
but if you cover over the hole,
但若按住孔
the only way for the air to get in is through the spout,
空气就只能从壶口进入
and that’s where surface tension comes in.
壶口处也就形成了表面张力
Surface tension acts to minimize surface area.
表面张力能够减小表面积
You might think, well, one way for the water to get out
你可能在想 若空气能溜进壶口
is if the air can sneak past it on the way,
水就能流出了
but what would that look like?
但这会变成什么样呢?
Well, it might look a bit like this.
可能会有点儿像这样:
You’ve got a drip of water starting on one side.
一开始 一边是一滴水
And on the other side, you’ve got a bubble of air forming,
而另一边则是气泡
but see how that increases the surface area of the water.
水的表面积便由此增大
And because surface tension acts to decrease
因为表面张力主要用于减小表面积
the surface area, that’s not energetically favorable
所以空气流入壶口的假设不具有能量优势
and so you don’t get this bubbling effect,
因此 也并不会有这种气泡出现
and instead the liquid is trapped inside the chamber.
相反地 液体会留在壶中
This is also the principle behind a magic trick, by the way,
这也是一种魔术背后的原理
sometimes called inexhaustible bottle, or think a drink.
人们有时称之为“取之不尽的瓶子”或“饮料闪现”
It’s usually a bit more elaborate.
这种瓶子的构造更复杂些
It’ll have more chambers and different options for drinks,
有更多空室 可以倒出更多种饮料
but anyway, you can read all about it in my kids book,
不过不管怎样 你都可以从我写的儿童读物
“Science is Magic,” available from all good bookstores.
《科学即魔术》里读到这些 各大书店都能买到噢

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视频概述

本视频主要讲述了刺客茶壶的内部构造及原理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cicadaandturtledove

审核员

审核员IBRT

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJL0XoNBaac

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