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转移注意力的艺术 – 译学馆
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转移注意力的艺术

The art of misdirection | Apollo Robbins

你觉得我们能控制别人的注意力吗?
Do you think it’s possible to control someone’s attention?
或者更甚 我们是否能预测人们的行为?
Even more than that, what about predicting human behavior?
我觉得这些想法都十分有趣
I think those are interesting ideas.
我觉得如果能做到的话 就相当于拥有了最棒的超能力
For me, that would be the perfect superpower,
只不过是有点邪恶罢了
actually kind of an evil way of approaching it.
过去20年里 我一直
But for myself, in the past, I’ve spent the last 20 years
用一种不同寻常的方式研究人类行为
studying human behavior from a rather unorthodox way:
偷窃行为
picking pockets.
当提到错误引导
When we think of misdirection,
我们总会将注意力放在事物的其他方面
we think of something as looking off to the side,
但往往在我们眼前的事情
when actually the things right in front of us
我们却经常很难注意到
are often the hardest to see,
正是那些你天天看到的东西反而是你的盲点
the things that you look at every day that you’re blinded to.
比如说 现在谁身边还有自己的手机?
For example, how many of you still have your cell phones on you right now?
很好 再检查一遍
Great. Double-check.
确保手机还在身上
Make sure you still have them.
我之前逛了逛 采购了点东西
I was doing some shopping before.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
你今天估计已经看过好几次手机了
You’ve looked at them a few times today,
但我要问个问题
but I’ll ask you a question.
先不要看你的手机
Without looking at it directly yet,
你能记起屏幕右下角的图标是什么吗?
can you remember the icon in the bottom right corner?
现在拿出手机 看一下 你答对了吗?
Bring them out, check and see how accurate you were.
怎么样?
How’d you do?
答对的请举手 我们都答对了吗?
Show of hands. Did we get it?
好了 请大家把手机收起来
Now that you’re done, close them down.
每一部手机都有一个共同点
Every phone has something in common.
那就是无论你如何整理图标
No matter how you organize the icons,
你的首页都会显示时间
you still have a clock in the front.
那你能在不看手机的情况下 告诉我现在几点了吗?
So, without looking at your phone, what time was it?
你们是不是都看了一眼时间?
You just looked at your clock, right?
很有趣
Interesting idea.
现在我们再玩一个信任游戏
Let’s take that a step further with a game of trust.
闭上眼睛
Close your eyes.
我发现当我让你们按我说的做时
I realize I’m asking you to do that while you just heard
这个房间里有个小偷 但大家还是把眼睛闭上吧
there’s a pickpocket in the room, but close your eyes.
到目前为止 你们观察我已经至少有30秒了
Now, you’ve been watching me for about 30 seconds.
大家闭着眼睛是否能告诉我 我今天穿了什么?
With your eyes closed, what am I wearing?
大胆猜
Make your best guess.
我衬衫的颜色是什么?我的领带呢?
What color is my shirt? What color is my tie?
现在请睁开眼睛
Now open your eyes.
答对的请举手
Show of hands, were you right?
很有趣吧!
Interesting, isn’t it?
似乎是我们之中有一部分人拥有更强感知能力
Some of us are a little bit more perceptive than others, it seems.
但我有一个关于注意力模型的不同的理论
But I have a different theory about that model of attention.
注意力模式的理论有很多 比如波斯纳的三位一体注意力模型
They have fancy models of attention, Posner’s trinity model of attention.
我喜欢把它想得简单一点 就像一个监视系统
For me, I like to think of it very simple, like a surveillance system.
就好像你有许多非常灵敏的感应器
It’s kind of like you have all these fancy sensors,
同时 在你的大脑内有一个小小的保安
and inside your brain is a little security guard.
我先暂且把它称作弗兰克
For me, I like to call him Frank.
弗兰克正坐在桌前
So Frank is sitting at a desk.
他眼前有各种各样的信息
He’s got lots of cool information in front of him,
高科技装置 照相机
high-tech equipment, he’s got cameras,
还有能听电话的小手机
he’s got a little phone that he can pick up, listen to the ears,
能接受到各种感觉和知觉
all these senses, all these perceptions.
但是注意力是引导你的认知的东西
But attention is what steers your perceptions,
正是它控制着你认知的现实
it’s what controls your reality.
它也是通向心灵的大门
It’s the gateway to the mind.
如果你不注意某个东西 你就不会察觉到它
If you don’t attend to something, you can’t be aware of it.
可往往 你也会在自己不察觉的情况下注意到某个东西
But ironically, you can attend to something without being aware of it.
比如说 鸡尾酒效应
For example, the cocktail effect:
所谓鸡尾酒效应 是指当你在一个派对上专心与某人交谈时
You’re in a party, having conversations with someone,
却能立马对你的名字做出反应
and yet you can recognize your name
且不用刻意去听
without realizing you were listening to that.
我的工作就是利用各种技术 充分发挥这种能力的潜力
Now, for my job, I have to play with techniques to exploit this,
玩弄大家十分有限的注意力
to play with your attention as a limited resource.
那么我如果能够控制你的注意力
So if I could control how you spend your attention,
也就是如果我可以通过让你分心来窃取你的注意力
if I could maybe steal your attention through a distraction.
现在 我不会进行错误引导
Now, instead of doing it like misdirection
并将注意力转移到其他方面
and throwing it off to the side,
而我则选择弗兰克作为重点
instead, what I choose to focus on is Frank,
与你脑中的弗兰克 也就是那个小保安 游戏一场
to be able to play with the Frank inside your head,
游戏一场
your security guard,
同时使你能忽略掉外部的感知
and get you, instead of focusing on your external senses,
而专注于内心的感觉
just to go internal for a second.
如果我让你读取一段记忆 比如:那是什么?
So if I ask you to access a memory, like, what is that?
刚才发生了什么?你有钱包吗?
What just happened? Do you have a wallet?
你钱包里有运通卡吗?
Do you have an American Express in your wallet?
当我问你的时候 你脑袋里的弗兰克转过了身
And when I do that, your Frank turns around.
他回头找资料 他必须倒带
He accesses the file. He has to rewind the tape.
但有趣的是 他在处理新信息的时候
What’s interesting is, he can’t rewind the tape
不能进行倒带这一任务
at the same time that he’s trying to process new data.
这听起来是个挺棒的理论
This sounds like a good theory,
我其实可以滔滔不绝地一直说 告诉你许多东西
but I could talk for a long time, tell you lots of things,
其中一部分可能是真的
and a portion of them may be true,
但是我认为当场演示效果会更好
but I think it’s better if I tried to show that to you here live.
我下台来了 我准备开始逛逛购物啦
If I come down, I’m going to do a bit of shopping.
请大家坐定不动
Just hold still where you are.
嗨喽 你好吗? 见到你很高兴
Hello, how are you? It’s lovely to see you.
你在台上的演讲很棒
Wonderful job onstage.
这表不错 但取下来不容易
Lovely watch, it doesn’t come off very well.
你有戒指吗?
Do you have a ring as well?
不错 我记下了 你们就像是丰盛的自助餐厅
Good. Just taking inventory. You’re like a buffet.
有许多好东西让我眼花缭乱 不知从哪开始下手
Hard to tell where to start, so many great things.
你好啊 很高兴认识你
Hi, how are you? Good to see you.
先生你好 能麻烦你站起来一下吗?站在原地就好
Hi, sir, could you stand up, please? Just right where you are.
你结婚了 很听指挥 不错不错
You’re married, you follow directions well.
先生 很高兴见到你
Nice to meet you, sir.
你口袋里没什么东西 裤子口袋有东西吗?
You don’t have a lot in your pockets. Anything down here?
希望有吧 请坐 谢谢!
Hopefully so. Have a seat. There you go. You’re doing well.
先生你好
Hi, sir, how are you?
很高兴见到你 你戴了戒指 还有手表
Good to see you, sir. You have a ring, a watch.
讲者:您身上有钱包吗?乔:没有
AR: Do you have a wallet on you? Joe: I don’t.
讲者:没关系 我们一起给你找一个 这边来 乔
AR: Well, we’ll find one for you. Come on up this way, Joe.
给乔一点掌声 快来乔 我们一起玩个游戏
Give Joe a round of applause. Come on up, Joe. Let’s play a game.
[鼓掌]
[Applause]
讲者:不好意思
AR: Pardon me.
我觉得我不需要这个遥控器了
I don’t think I need this clicker anymore.
谢谢 非常感谢!
Thank you very much. I appreciate that.
乔 快到舞台上来 我们现在一起玩个小游戏
Come on up to the stage, Joe. Let’s play a little game now.
口袋里有东西吗?
Anything in your front pockets?
乔:现金
J: Money.
讲者:现金 很好 让我们试试
AR: Money! All right, let’s try that.
你能站到这边吗?
Can you stand right over this way for me?
转过身来 好
Turn around and, let’s see,
如果我给你一个我的东西
if I give you something that belongs to me,
只是随便一个东西
this is just something I have,
一个扑克筹码
a poker chip.
请伸出手帮我拿着它
Hold out your hand for me.
看仔细了
Watch it closely.
给你一个任务 就是看紧了它
This is a task for you to focus on.
你前面裤袋里有现金 对吗?
You have your money in your front pocket?
乔:是的讲者:好
J: Yup. AR: Good.
我不会把手放进你的口袋里 我还没准备好做出那样的承诺
I won’t put my hand in your pocket. I’m not ready for that kind of commitment.
有次有一哥们口袋里有个洞
Once a guy had a hole in his pocket,
那次经历简直给我留下了心理阴影
and that was rather traumatizing for me.
我只是想要他的钱包 他却给了我他电话号码
I wanted his wallet, he gave me his number.
天大的误会啊
Big miscommunication.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
很简单 这么做 握紧你的手
Let’s do this simply. Squeeze your hand tight.
你能感受到手心里的筹码吗?
Do you feel the poker chip in your hand?
乔:可以
J: I do.
讲者:我如果把他拿走了你会不会很惊讶?快说会
AR: Would you be surprised if I took it? Say yes.
乔:当然会讲者:很好
J: Very. AR: Good.
张开手 非常谢谢你
Open your hand. Thank you very much.
如果你稍有疏忽 我是会作弊的
I’ll cheat if you give me a chance.
现在给我加大点难度 现在用你的手
Make it harder for me. Just use your hand.
抓住我的手腕 死死地抓紧
Grab my wrist, but squeeze, squeeze firm.
讲者:你看见筹码不见了吗?乔:没有
Did you see it go? Joe: No.
讲者:它其实已经不在了 打开你的手看看
AR: No, it’s not here. Open your hand.
当我们把注意力集中在手掌的时候 它已经在你肩膀上了
While we’re focused on the hand, it’s sitting on your shoulder.
请将它取下
Go ahead and take it off.
现在 让我们再试试
Now, let’s try that again.
把手张开 伸到最平
Hold your hand out flat. Open it up.
请稍微抬起一点 但是要紧紧看着它
Put your hand up a little bit higher, but watch it close.
我这次慢点做 可它还会在你的肩膀上
If I did it slowly, it’d be on your shoulder.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
乔 我们可以一直这样做 直到你抓住它为止
Joe, we’re going to keep doing this till you catch it.
你最终肯定能找到的 我相信你
You’ll get it eventually. I have faith in you.
握紧了 你是个聪明人 反应并不慢
Squeeze firm. You’re human, you’re not slow.
它又回到你的肩膀上了
It’s back on your shoulder.
刚才你一直专注于你的手 所以你的注意力转移了
You were focused on your hand, distracted.
当你专注手的时候 我不能取下你的手表 太难了
While you were watching, I couldn’t get your watch off.
但是你口袋里还有东西
Yet you had something inside your pocket.
你还记得那是什么吗?
Do you remember what it was?
乔:现金
J: Money.
讲者:检查一下你的口袋看看钱还在不在了
AR: Check your pocket. Is it still there?
[笑声]
[Laugher]
哦 它在这儿呢 把它放好
Oh, there it was. Put it away.
我们刚购了个物
We’re just shopping.
这个小把戏的秘诀重点在于时机
This trick’s more about the timing.
我准备在你手心里对它用劲儿
I’m going to try to push it inside your hand.
你能把你另一只手放上来吗?
Put your other hand on top, would you?
这一切出乎意料的显而易见 不是吗?
It’s amazingly obvious now, isn’t it?
这块表和我刚才戴的那块挺像的 对吧?
Looks a lot like the watch I was wearing, doesn’t it?
[笑声][鼓掌]
[Laughter][Applause]
乔:你这神了讲者:哦 谢谢你
J: That’s pretty good. AR: Oh, thanks.
[鼓掌]
[Applause]
这仅仅是个开始 我们再来一次 但这次有点不同
But it’s only a start. Let’s try it a little bit differently.
把你的手放在一起 把另一只手放在上面
Hold your hands together. Your other hand on top.
当你在注视这枚筹码的时候
If you’re watching this little token,
这它就成了一个小靶子 就像是红色的鲱鱼
this obviously has become a little target, like a red herring.
如果我们这么认真盯着它 可好像它已经溜走了
If we watch this kind of close, it looks like it goes away.
这次它不在你肩膀上了
It’s not back on your shoulder.
它从空中掉下来 正好落在了手上
It falls out of the air, lands right back in the hand.
你看见它跑掉了吗?
Did you see it go?
嗯 是很有趣 上面有个人 跟我一伙儿的 整天干这事儿
Yeah, funny. We’ve got a little guy. He’s union, works up there all day.
如果我这次慢点让它直接溜走 它就会到你的口袋里
If I do it slowly it goes straight away, it lands by your pocket.
它在你口袋里吗?
Is it in this pocket, sir?
别 别把手伸进口袋 那是另外一个节目
Don’t reach in your pocket. That’s a different show.
[吱吱叫]
[Squeaking]
那就十分奇怪了 他们已经试过几次了
That’s rather strange. They have shots for that.
我能给他们看吗? 相当奇怪 这是你的吗? 乔
Can I show them? Rather bizarre. Is this yours, sir?
我也不知道这怎么玩的 我们等下把它拿到那边去
I have no idea how that works. We’ll send that over there.
接下来我需要你的配合
I need help with this one.
请你走到这边来
Step over this way for me.
别跑 你裤子口袋里还有点儿东西
Don’t run away. You had something down by your pants pocket.
我在找我的东西 可是怎么也找不到
I was checking mine. I couldn’t find everything,
但我注意到你那儿似乎有点东西
but I noticed you had something here.
我能摸下你口袋外面吗?
Can I feel the outside for a moment?
我发现了这玩意儿 先生 请问这是你的吗?
Down here I noticed this. Is this something of yours, sir?
我不知道 那是只虾
I have no idea. That’s a shrimp.
乔:嗯 我等下晚点要吃
J: Yeah. I’m saving it for later.
罗宾:你给在场所有人带来了欢乐
AR: You’ve entertained all of these people in a wonderful way,
效果比你想象的还要好
better than you know.
我们很乐意将这只表作为礼物送给你
So we’d love to give you this lovely watch as a gift.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
希望能合你口味
Hopefully it matches his taste.
我们还有几样其他的东西
We have a couple of other things,
一些现金
a little bit of cash.
还有……
And we have a few other things,
这些都属于你
these all belong to you,
当然还有来自现场朋友的热烈掌声
along with a big round of applause from all your friends.
[鼓掌]
[Applause]
非常谢谢你 乔
Joe, thank you very much.
[鼓掌]
[Applause]
[掌声结束]
[Applause ends]
那么 再问一遍我之前问过的问题
So, same question I asked you before,
这次你们就不需要闭上双眼了
but this time you don’t have to close your eyes.
我今天穿了什么?
What am I wearing?
观众:哦!
Audience: Oh!
[笑声]
[Laugher]
[迟疑的鼓掌]
[Hesitant applause]
[掌声结束]
[Applause ends]
注意力非常强大
Attention is a powerful thing.
正如我之前所说的 它塑造了你的现实
Like I said, it shapes your reality.
所以 我想问大家一个问题
So, I guess I’d like to pose that question to you.
如果你能控制一个人的注意力
If you could control somebody’s attention,
你会用这种能力做什么呢?
what would you do with it?
谢谢!
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

注意力的力量十分强大,如何利用我们经常忽略的注意力呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZGY0wPAnus

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