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欺骗了纳粹的著名艺术伪造者 – 译学馆
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欺骗了纳粹的著名艺术伪造者

The art forger who tricked the Nazis - Noah Charney

“几乎所有的故事都是某种谎言”——奥逊•威尔斯
It was one of the strangest trials in Dutch history.
这是荷兰历史上最奇怪的审判之一
The defendant in this 1947 case was an art forger
这起1947年的案件 被告人是一名艺术伪造者
who had counterfeited millions of dollars worth of paintings.
伪造了价值数百万美元的画作
But he wasn’t arguing his innocence—
但他没有为自己的清白辩解——
in fact, his life depended on proving that he had committed the fraud.
事实上 他靠证明自己犯了伪造罪而活了下来
Like many art forgers, Han van Meegeren was an artist
和很多艺术伪造者一样 汉•凡•米格伦
whose original works had failed to bring him renown.
是一位没能凭借原创作品成名的画家
Embittered towards the art world,
出于对艺术界的怨恨
van Meegeren set out to make fools of his detractors.
他开始愚弄那些批评他的人
He learned all he could about the Old Masters—
他尽可能地去了解古典名画家——
their biographies, their techniques, and their materials.
包括他们的传记 技法及所用的原料
The artist he chose for his deception was 17th century Baroque painter
凡•米格伦选择模仿17世纪的巴洛克风格画家
Johannes Vermeer—
约翰内斯•维米尔
an ambitious decision given Vermeer was famed for his carefully executed
鉴于维米尔以严谨构图 巧妙运用明亮光线的
and technically brilliant domestic scenes.
生活画面而著名 这个抉择是耗时费力的
Working in secret for six years, the forger perfected his art,
他私下画了六年 仿造大量画作来练习
copying numerous works as practice.
从而完善了自己的美术技法
He mixed his own paints after researching the raw materials
在研究了维米尔时期可用的原料和颜料后
and pigments available in Vermeer’s time.
他调配出了自己的颜料
He bought 17th century canvases, created his own brushes,
又买来17世纪时期的油画布 自己制作画笔
and aged the works by applying synthetic resin
给油画涂上合成树脂并将其烘干
and baking them to dry and crack the paint.
制造出油彩龟裂效果 从而将作品做旧
A forensic test could have detected the synthetic resin.
本来可以用法医鉴定来检测合成树脂
But at the time, such tests were neither advanced nor widespread,
但在当时 这些检测还没发展起来或普及
and even today verification of a painting’s authenticity
甚至现今仍需依赖艺术专家的鉴定
relies on the assessment of art specialists.
来核实画作是否真迹
So it’s a matter of their subjective judgment— as well as their reputation.
鉴定结果取决于他们的主观判断和声誉
And this is where van Meegeren truly outwitted the art world.
而凡•米格伦正是靠此成功欺骗了艺术界
From his research, he knew historians believed Vermeer had an early period
经过调查 他知道史学家相信维米尔早期曾受
of religious painting influenced by the Italian painter Caravaggio.
意大利画家卡拉瓦乔的影响 画过宗教绘画
The leading authority on Vermeer, Abraham Bredius,
亚伯拉罕•布雷德休斯 研究维米尔的权威人士
was a huge proponent of this theory,
是这一猜测的主要支持者
though none of these works had surfaced.
即使人们从未公开发现过一件相关作品
So van Meegeren decided to make one.
于是凡•米格伦决定画一幅宗教绘画
He called it “The Supper at Emmaus.”
起名为《以马忤斯的晚餐》
Bredius declared van Meegeren’s fake the masterpiece of Vermeer’s oeuvre.
布雷德休斯将该假画宣称为维米尔作品中的杰作
Van Meegeren’s forgery was not totally up to Vermeer’s technical standards,
其实凡•米格伦的赝品没有完全达到维米尔的水准
but these inconsistencies could be made to fit the narrative:
但这些差距却能使其和猜想一致:
this was an early work, produced before the artist had come into his own.
这是艺术家在形成自己风格前所创作的早期作品
With the stamp of approval from the art world,
有了艺术界的认可
the fake was sold in 1937 for the equivalent
该赝品于1937年以相当于如今的
of over $4 million in today’s money.
四百多万美元售出
The success prompted van Meegeren to forge and sell more works
这次成功让凡•米格伦仿造了更多画作
through various art dealers.
并通过多家艺术商将其售出
As unbelievable as it may sound,
令人难以置信的是
the art world continued to believe in their authenticity.
艺术界仍然对它们的真实性毫无怀疑
When the Nazis occupied Holland during the Second World War,
在二战期间 纳粹占领荷兰时
Hermann Göring, one of Hitler’s top generals,
希特勒的高级将领之一 赫尔曼•戈林
sought to add a Vermeer to his collection of artwork
为了寻求一幅维米尔的画作作为私人艺术收藏
looted from all over Europe.
洗劫了整个欧洲的艺术品
Van Meegeren obliged, selling him an alleged early Vermeer painting
凡•米格伦答应卖给他一幅据称维米尔早期的作品
titled “Christ with the Adulteress.”
名叫《耶稣与通奸的女人》
As the tide of the war turned, so did van Meegeren’s luck.
随着战争局势的转变 凡•米格伦的命运也随之改变
Following the Allied victory, he was arrested for delivering a priceless piece
同盟国获胜后 他因为将荷兰国家遗产的
of Dutch heritage to the Nazis—
无价之宝交给纳粹而被逮捕
an act of treasonous collaboration punishable by death.
这是通敌卖国行为 可判处死刑
To prove the painting wasn’t a national treasure,
为了证明这幅画不是国宝
he explained step-by-step how he had forged it.
他将自己的造假过程和盘托出
But he faced an unexpected obstacle—
但他遇到了一个意料之外的阻碍——
the very expert who had enabled his scam.
那个让他有机会欺骗艺术界的专家
Moved to protect his reputation, Bredius defended the painting’s authenticity.
为了维护个人声誉 布雷德休斯为画作的真实性辩护
With few options left, van Meegeren set to work on a “new” Vermeer.
别无他法 凡•米格伦只能如新“维米尔”一样去作画
When he presented the fake to the court, they finally believed him.
当他在法庭上仿造出画作时 人们终于相信了他
He was acquitted for collaborating with the Nazis—
宣告他无叛国通敌罪
and sentenced to a year imprisonment for fraud.
并以伪造罪判他入狱一年
Though there’s evidence that van Meegeren did, in fact, collaborate with the Nazis,
虽然有证据表明凡•米格伦确实与纳粹有勾结
he managed to convince the public that he had tricked Göring on purpose,
但他设法说服民众相信他是故意愚弄纳粹
transforming his image into that of a folk hero who had swindled the Nazis.
从而变成一个诈骗纳粹的民族英雄形象
Thanks to this newfound notoriety,
多亏他新得到的名声
his works became valuable in their own right—
他的画作本身开始变得非常有价值
so much so that they were later forged in turn by his own son.
以至于后来这些画作又反被他的儿子伪造
The same canvases went from revered classics to despised forgeries
这些油画从受人尊敬的经典 到让人鄙夷的赝品
to works of art respected for the skill and notoriety of the forger.
最终因伪造者的技法和声名成为受人尊敬的艺术品
Determining the value of art is clearly a complicated business,
评判艺术品的价值很显然是门复杂的生意
but what about the meaning of art?
然而 艺术的内涵究竟是什么?
Who decides that?
谁能决定它?
And does it even matter?
这到底重不重要?
Join the debate with this video,
来参与本视频的讨论吧
or consider the mathematical mystery at the heart of Van Gogh’s paintings.
或者来想想梵高画作里蕴含的数学谜题

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视频概述

荷兰艺术伪造者汉•凡•米格伦,是如何用伪造的维米尔画作欺骗了欧洲艺术界和纳粹的?又是为何在因通敌叛国罪被逮捕后,变成了荷兰人民心中的民族英雄?来了解“赝品大师”是怎样炼成的。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

dysania_y

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5JdbuBe6SY

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