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对待看不懂的艺术作品办法:只需欣赏不需深究 – 译学馆
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对待看不懂的艺术作品办法:只需欣赏不需深究

The Antidote to Pretentious Art? Just Look, Don’t Think | David Salle

并非所有的艺术品都必须在视觉上吸引人
Not all art necessarily makes an appeal to the visual senses,
但大多数确实是这样的
but let’s say that most of it does.
这样说也许显得有些多余
So it might seem unnecessary or unnecessarily elementary to say so,
但有时我们需要提醒自己
but sometimes it’s worth reminding ourselves that
艺术首先需要认真地去观看
art is something meant to be seen primarily,
它对我们的智力 情感和专注力的影响
that the appeal that makes to our intellect and emotions, our attention,
是通过视觉刺激来实现的
is achieved through visual stimuli
这是一种完全不同的影响 相较于写作或者音乐
and that’s a different animal than other things, than writing or music.
我们的眼睛能够不可思议地识别微妙的感知差异
The eyes are capable of incredibly subtle perceptual distinctions
而那是在无意识的情况下进行的
that happen at an unconscious level.
所以有意识地看 这个动作其实是
So the act of looking consciously is the really
在某种程度上我们在分析我们所注视的东西
partly a matter of paying attention to what when we really look at something.
因为……
Because the…
换一种说法 想象一下绘画
Another way of putting it is to think about drawing,
如果你曾参加过一个绘画课
if you’ve ever taken a drawing class
或者你曾阅读过一本关于绘画教程的书
or you’ve ever even read a book about how drawing is taught,
那你就知道最基本的第一课
the first most elementary lesson is
通常是阐释你面前所看到的和
usually a demonstration of the difference between what you see in front of you
你想象中自己看到的东西的不同
and what you think you see.
最开始尝试画一些生活中或认知中的东西
The first attempts at drawing something from life, from perception,
总是会将你实际上看到的东西画得失真
invariably involve distorting what’s actually in front of you
因为大脑会干扰视觉判断
because the brain intercedes with the eye
给出错误的信息
and gives false information.
比如说 我们知道人头上有两个眼睛一个鼻子一个嘴巴
For example, we know that the head has two eyes a nose and a mouth
然后我们就那样画
so we will draw it that way
即使我们实际上没有同时看到两只眼睛 或者我们没有(看到其它)
even if in fact we don’t see both eyes equally or we don’t see –
(我们画它是)基于我们对人脸的认知
depending upon our point of view
结果画出来的是有代表性的局部 但大脑认为是那即是真实
we’ll see a partial representation of what the brain thinks of as reality.
所以说来话长
So this is a long way around of saying that
接近真实的视觉世界的方法是
the way to approach the visual world is to
收集信息 让其在脑皮层中发酵
take in the information and let it work on your cortex,
不用(去深究) 好吧 那是不可能的
without, well it’s impossible to say without
但应试图让自己的认知保持中立
but while trying to stay neutral in terms of what we think we know because
因为人们对当代艺术感到不解
part of the confusion surrounding contemporary art is
部分原因是我们知道它承载着意义
we know it’s laden with meaning and
有时在我们认真观看艺术品之前
we go to it intent on ferreting out the meaning,
我们就怀着试图找出意义的心态
which sometimes happens in advance of doing the actual looking.
理想情况是 人们应该带着视觉的中立去理解艺术品
When I say that ideally one should approach art with a visually neutral kind of screen
视觉中立 当然 在现代的文化生活中是不可能的
that visual neutrality is, of course, a kind of cultural impossibility.
没有人是中立的 或曾经可以中立 也许我们也不应该中立
None of us are neutral nor could we ever be and probably nor should we be.
当我说一个人应该在看艺术品时保持视觉中立
When I say one should approach art with a neutral eye
我是指试着去观察
what I mean is to try to log,
用心地观察 看看这些艺术品的本身
in your brain to log what’s there physically in terms of what was made
在想它有什么或没有什么意义之前
in advance of reaching for what the thing might or might not mean.
所以如果你看着一副肖像画 先说说什么是肖像画
So if you’re looking at a portrait, let’s say what is a portrait?
一副肖像画是指一副画了人脸的画
A portrait is a painting of a face.
当然 人脸是一个客观物体
Of course the face is the subject
但是它被画下来的方式
but the way the face is painted,
肖像画独特的呈现方式
the way the portrait is presented to us in its specificity
从艺术层面来讲比画中人更重要
is more important as art than who it’s a portrait of.
不带文化偏见地观看艺术也许是不可能的
It’s probably not possible to view art without the filter
文化偏见有17种
of 17 different kinds of cultural filters.
我不认为那是(有可能的)
I don’t think that that would be –
也许那需要佛祖的镇定
probably that would require the equanimity of a Buddha,
然而 我在书中所建议和提倡的
however what I’m suggesting and what I’m advocating in the book
仅仅是对眼前物体的物理性质给予一定的关注
is simply to devote some of one’s attention to the physical fact of what is in front of us,
它是什么做的
the physical fact of what was made;
怎么做的
how it was made;
用了什么材料
what materials we used;
它是怎么创造出来的 而不是想它象征着什么
how was it done kind of question as opposed to what it’s a representation of.
这种关注常常被称作形式主义
This kind of attention is what used to be called formalism,
我认为这有点用词不当
which I think is a little bit of a misnomer
它被妖魔化成与文化不相关或无趣的东西
and it has been I think unfairly or unusefully demonized as something
我认为那是不公正且徒劳的
either culturally aloof or simply not interesting.
因为任何领域的任何艺术形式的首要的准则
But the first principles of in any field on any art form,
包括音乐 建筑 文学
music, architecture, literature,
首要的准则是它是怎么构建的
the first principles being how is it constructed,
它是由什么构建的
what is it construct of,
这些都是感知方面的问题
those are the kinds of perceptual questions,
任何人都可以自问 都可以感知到 不用任何的文化训练
which anyone can ask themselves and be aware of without any cultural training.
制作艺术的冲动是神秘的
The impulse to make art is a mysterious one.
千万年过了 它仍然神秘
It still remains mysterious after many millennia.
是什么冲动驱使某个人
What is that impulse that compels someone to
将某事在二维的平面画下来或者用三维的形式表现出来
make an image of something on a two-dimensional surface or a three-dimensional form for that matter?
我经常想 走进艺术的方法
I often think that the way to approach art
是想像自己会怎样做
is to imagine doing it for one’s self,
想象描绘你看到的事需要哪些步骤
imagine what are the steps involved to make that thing that you’re looking at.
如果你要做成那个还必须要做什么 无论那是什么
What would you have to do if you were going to make that, whatever that is?
也许是像坐地铁去艺廊这样平常的事
Even things as banal as getting on the subway to go to the art supply store
你必须要买什么?
what do you have to buy?
你必须要买什么材料?
What are the materials you have to buy?
你需要什么样的空间将那件事呈现?
What kind of space do you need to be able to make that thing in?
换句话说
In other words,
思考艺术的方式之一是想象自己就是个艺术家
one way to think about art is to imagine yourself as the artist;
想象自己是制作者
imagine yourself as the maker;
想象自己是艺术家 可以这么说
put yourself in the artist’s shoes so to speak
想象一下都有哪些步骤需要走
and imagine the steps that one would have to go through.
这很像看食谱
Very much like when you read a cookbook
书里有详解的步骤 你可以照着做
and there’s an illustrated step-by-step recipe that you follow,
首先你要将这些调料放进去 然后加热平底锅
first you have to put these ingredients in and then you have to preheat the oven.
有时将平常的工作想象成制作什么东西的步骤
Sometimes imagining the banal task like steps involved in the making something
可以帮助我们去欣赏它是由哪些部分构成的
helps us to appreciate what it is that was made
而不是以一种全然承载意义的方式看待结果
instead of looking at the results in a completely meaning laden kind of way.
我是指不要强求到极限
I mean not to strain it to the breaking point
但如果食谱的比喻有什么用
but if the cooking analogy has any use at all,
那就是 我们不会问一个派它有什么意义 我们只会问它好吃吗
we don’t ask a pie what does it mean we just ask does it taste good.
然后如果你对它是怎么与其它的派味道不同有兴趣
And then if you’re interested in how it stacks up next to other pies
你可能会问自己
then you might ask yourself
秘密配方是什么 为什么用这些调料
what was the recipe and why were there ingredients
这些调料与其它派的调料有什么不同
and what’s different about those from some other ingredients?
所以这些只是以另一种方式说明艺术是人做出来的
All of this is another way of saying that art is something that someone made and the
正因为它们是人为的
human aspect of the making part of it is
我认为从这里人们可以可靠地
I think the place where one can reliably go
找到与艺术的关联 也可以更进一步地理解艺术家的
to both find a connection to the art and also to get closer to whatever the artist’s
可能出现的情感世界
emotional field might be.
(结束)
(finish)

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生活需要艺术的熏陶。对待看不懂的艺术品,只需好好看,好好感受。

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