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末日抗生素解释

The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained

如果我说人类此时此刻正在
What would you say if we told you that humanity is currently making
努力合作制造一个超级病菌,你怎么看?
a collaborative effort to engineer the perfect superbug?
这个细菌可以轻而易举灭掉百万人口
A bug that could kill hundreds of millions of people?
可怕的是,这个细菌马上就要研制成功。
Well, it is happening right now.
如今,我们自己竟亲手制造细菌,
We are in the process of creating a superbacterium.
细菌可谓是这个蔚蓝星球上最古老的生物。
Bacteria are among the oldest living things on this planet.
同时,它们也是我们所认知的最小的生物体,它们就像小强一样,难以消灭,
The smallest thing we still consider life, they are masters of survival
随处可见它们的身影。
and can be found everywhere.
但是大多数细菌对我们人类来说并无害处。
Most bacteria are harmless to us.
你身体里有数亿种细菌助你成长。
Your body hosts trillions of them, and they help you to survive.
然而,有些细菌会侵入你的体内,迅速扩散,然后最终杀死你。
But others can invade your body, spread quickly, and kill you.
曾有数百万人口因细菌感染而亡。
Millions of people used to die as a result of bacterial infections.
这个恐怖的现象直到我们发明出抗生素才得到了些控制。
Until we developed a superweapon—antibiotics.
疫苗和抗生素一起掀起了一场药物革命,
Together with vaccinations, antibiotics revolutionized medicine
拯救了数百万人。
and saved millions of lives.
抗生素可以很快的杀死大量易造成感染的病菌
Antibiotics kill the vast majority of susceptible bacteria fairly quickly,
只留下一小部分活口。
leaving only a small group of survivors
这样一来,我们的免疫系统可以轻松应对这余下的细菌。
that our immune system then deals with easily.
那么抗生素是如何办到的呢?
How do antibiotics do this?
你可以把细菌想象成一个非常复杂的机器
Imagine a bacterium as a very complex machine
这个复杂的机器同时有着数以千计的工作程序,使自己保持动力。
with thousands of complex processes going on that keep it alive and active.
抗生素可以扰乱这个机器
Antibiotics disrupt this complex machinery,
举个例子,抗生素可以扰乱细菌的新陈代谢。
for example, by interfering with its metabolism,
这样就可以显著地抑制它们的成长,所以它们就不会那么有威胁性了。
slowing down their growth significantly, so they are less of a threat.
还有一些抗生素会攻击细菌的DNA,阻止细菌进行复制。
Other antibiotics attack DNA and prevent it from being replicated,
这样就阻止了细菌的繁殖,最终达到杀死它们的效果。
which stops bacteria from multiplying, ultimately killing them.
或者还可以直接将细菌的外层膜分裂成碎片
Or by simply ripping the outer layer of the bacteria to shreds,
这样它们内部就会破散,然后很快死去。
so that their insides spill out and they die quickly.
这整个过程丝毫不会影响到我们的体内细胞。
All of this without bothering body cells.
但是,细菌的进化正在使得这个过程更加复杂。
But now, evolution is making things more complicated.
少数情况下,一小部分入侵你体内的细菌
By pure random chance, a small minority of the bacteria invading your body
可能会自身产生免疫功能。
might have evolved a way to protect themselves.
比如,通过阻拦抗生素
For example, by intercepting the antibiotics
并且改变抗生素的分子结构,这样抗生素就无法杀死细菌。
and changing the molecule so it becomes harmless.
或者在抗生素杀死它们之前,
Or by investing energy in pumps that eject the antibiotics
注入更多驱逐抗生素的能量。
before they can do damage.
个把细菌获得免疫力并不能兴风作浪,
A few immune bacteria are not that big a deal,
免疫系统能干掉它们
because the immune system can take care of them.
但是如果它们溜掉了,就有可能传播这种免疫力。
But if they escape, they might spread their immunity.
这一过程如何进行呢?
How can bacteria spread immunity?
首先,细菌有两种DNA,
First of all, bacteria have two kinds of DNA:
染色体和质粒。质粒微小,且不稳定。
the chromosome and small free-floating parts called plasmids.
他们能相互靠拢,交换质粒,
They can hug each other and exchange those plasmids
取长补短。
to exchange useful abilities.
就这样,对抗生素的免疫能力迅速扩散。
This way, immunity can be spread quickly through a population.
或者在一个被称作转化的过程中,细菌可以吞噬死亡细菌
Or, in a process called transformation, bacteria can harvest dead bacteria
并且收集他们的基因片段。
and collect DNA pieces.
甚至在不同种的细菌中也同样有效。
This even works between different bacteria species
这就导致超级病菌和细菌对抗生素有免疫力
and can lead to superbugs, bacteria that are immune to multiple antibiotics.
一些超级病菌已经存在于这个世界上了
A variety of superbugs already exist in the world.
对它们来说医院是最好的繁殖地
Especially hospitals are the perfect breeding grounds for them.
人类是好了伤疤忘了疼
Humans have short memories.
发明抗生素前时期的恐怖早已被遗忘
The horrors of the pre-antibiotic era have been forgotten.
现在 我们把这种强效药物看做是日用品
Today, we treat this powerful medicine as a commodity
而不是一种科学发展带来的变革成就
instead of as the game-changing achievement of science that it is.
这导致了一个奇怪的分歧
This has led to a strange disconnect:
数以百万计的发展中国家人民
hundreds of millions of people still don’t have access
并没有获得抗生素的渠道
to antibiotics in developing countries,
但是在世界的其他地方抗生素可以自由使用
while in other parts of the world antibiotics are prescribed too freely
同时人们对它们并不留意
and taken without care.
抗生素应该被当成是治愈的最后选择
Antibiotics should be a last-resort drug,
而不是因为感冒太烦人而被人随意使用的对象
not something you take because your cold is annoying.
另一个严重的问题是抗生素在肉类生产过程中的使用
Another serious problem is antibiotic use in meat production.
在任何特定时间 人类手持
At any particular point in time, humanity holds
200-300亿家畜的生杀大权
between 20 and 30 billion animals as livestock.
为了使肉价降低 很多动物被控制在可怕的条件下
To make meat cheaper, many animals are held in horrible conditions,
有的在密封的空间中 有的在不健康的环境里
in very tight spaces, and in unhygienic conditions,
这些是疾病滋生最棒的温床
the perfect breeding ground for disease.
所以,许多的动物都被喂食抗生素来杀死体内大多数的细菌
So many animals are given antibiotics to kill as many bacteria as possible
和抵挡来自外界的病菌
and prevent them from getting sick.
因为一个奶酪汉堡只需要一美元
Because a cheeseburger has to cost a dollar.
不出所料,作为这个系统的结果,
Unsurprisingly, as a result of this system,
我们创造了许许多多的细菌
we have created more and more bacteria
来抵抗抗生素
that are resistant to antibiotics.
而为了抵抗这些细菌,我们使用不同的抗生素
To counteract this, we use different antibiotics
而且我们还有另一个秘密武器:那就是经常用于消灭
and we have another secret weapon: there are specific antibiotics
那些对抗生素逐渐产生抵抗力的细菌的特殊抗生素。
that are used to wipe out bacteria that have developed resistance.
这里有几条铁律,用于避免创造出一个超级细菌
There are strict rules for using these to avoid the creation of a superbacterium.
或者只是我们认为
Or so we thought.
在2015年末,一个可怕的消息从中国传来
In late 2015, scary news arrived from China.
抵抗抗粘菌素,一种作为最后的手段的抗生素
Resistance against Colistin, a last-ditch antibiotic,
被迫无效了
had been discovered.
粘菌素是一种古老的、少见的药,因为它会损害人的肝脏。
Colistin is an old drug and was rarely used, because it can damage the liver.
所以它的抵抗能力就变小了,在使用过多后成为一个很给力的
So there was little resistance against it, which made it a great
最后手段的抗菌素,特意为在医院发生的复杂传染病
antibiotic of last resort for certain complex infections that occur in hospitals
利用去反抗对其他药免疫的细菌
to fight bacteria that have become immune to a whole bunch of other drugs.
细菌能抵抗粘菌素是非常非常糟糕的事儿
Bacteria resistance to Colistin is very, very bad news.
它可能会使甚至最后的手段都无效,导致多人死亡。
It might destroy a last line of defense and lead to a whole lot of dead people.
怎么会这样呢?
How could this happen?
多年来,中国牧场成千上万的动物都被喂贴菌素
Millions of animals in Chinese pig farms have been given Colistin for years.
耐药细菌就发达了,且从各个动物间传染来,传染去,
Resistant bacteria developed, spreading first from animal to animal,
最终在我们无意识下传到人类来了。
and then to humans without being noticed.
平均每一天,有超过100000个航班,
On an average day, there are over 100,000 flights on Earth,
几乎连接着地球上的每一个人。
kind of connecting every human on the planet.
通过创建现代世界,我们同时建立了
By creating the modern world, we have also built the infrastructure
一种危险的流行性疾病的基础设施。
for a dangerous pandemic.
不过,我们目前不需要太慌
Still, we don’t need to panic just yet.
细菌会进化,人类会研究,随着新抗生素的发展
Bacteria evolve, humans do research, new antibiotics are developed
旧的会慢慢腐败,科技会一天一天地进步。
as old ones become obsolete, technology is advancing every day.
问题很真实 也很严重 但这个斗争远未结束
The problem is real and serious, but the fight is far from over.
如果人类能理智面对 也许超级细菌
If humanity plays its cards right, superbugs might turn out to be
并不会有想象中那么”超级”了
not very super after all.
这个视屏是由Patreon.com上观众支持才和
This video was made possible by viewer support on Patreon.com
和梅琳达&比尔盖茨组织的助资才成为现实
and a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
如果像支持我们做更多的视频
If you want to support us to make more videos,
你可以买个Kurzgesagt海报或杯子 也可以在Patreon上捐赠
you can buy a Kurzgesagt poster or a mug or donate on Patreon.
感谢你们的支持和帮助!
Thank you so much for your help!
原英文字幕来自Amara.com的好人
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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