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漫谈俄史

The Animated History of Russia

俄罗斯是地球上最大的国家
Russia is the largest country on Earth,
面积广达1700万平方公里
spanning an incredible 17 millions square kilometers.
如果你像我一样
But if you’re anything like me,
你可能想知道它为何如此广阔
you’re probably wondering how it is so big
是如何变成我们现代社会中如此强大的政治社会实体的
and how it can become sucha powerful political and social entity in our modern world.
它不仅拥有“欧洲最大且最受欢迎的国家和城市”的头衔
It not only takes the title of largest and most popular country and city in Europe,
而且其国土覆盖远不止欧洲
but also stretches far beyond Europe,
还横跨乌拉尔山脉直达亚洲
across the Ural Mountains range into Asia.
占据了该大陆最大的部分
Taking up the largest portion of the continent.
东欧的主要历史始于
Principle history of the eastern Europe began with the people
一群被希腊作家称为“斯拉夫”的人
the greek writers called “Slavs”
首个俄罗斯国家的成立是在882年的伏尔加河和第聂伯河流域间
The first russian state was founded when a Group of eastern Slavs
一群后来被称为“罗斯”的东斯拉夫人
late known as”The Rus'” elected a Viking chieftain to be their prince in 882
选举维京酋长作为他们的国王
In the area between the Volga and Dnieper river basins
这个国家很快扩展到了那些
The state was soon expanded into the lands
曾经被亚洲草原游牧民族所拥有的土地上
once held by the nomadic steppe people from Asia
他们攻占的最重要的城市是基辅
The most important city they captured was Kiev
这就是历史学家称此段俄罗斯历史为“基辅罗斯”的原因
which is why historians refer to this part of Russia’s history as the”Kievan Rus'”
罗斯人讲的“原东斯拉夫语”
The Rus’ spoke a Language called”Proto eastern-Slavic”
逐渐演变为俄语和乌克兰语
which would slowly evolve into Russian and Ukranian
中世纪罗斯王国在998年接受了基督教
The medieval Rus’ state adopted Christianity in 988
当时是弗拉基米尔一世从信奉正统基督教的拜占庭帝国引入了此教
when Vladimir I introduced the religion from the orthodox christian Byzantine Empire.
这也是为什么俄罗斯人使用西里尔字母
This is also why the Russians use the cyrillic
而不是天主教国家普遍使用的拉丁字母
rather than the latin alphabet common in most catholic nations.
由于11世纪 智者雅罗斯拉夫之死的推波助澜
The Rus’ state slowly fragmented into competing princedoms,
罗斯王国逐渐分裂成相互竞争的小国
largely aided by the Death of Yarolsav the Wise in XI century.
罗斯经常与游牧部落发生战争
The Rus’ were often at war with the nomadic tribes
我们将简称其为“草原民族”
we will just call for simplicity’s sakes “Steppe Peoples”.
这些草原民族是亚洲史上不可或缺的一部分
These steppe peoples are integral to much of the history of Asia
你会看到在他们身上涌现出各种各样的特质
and you’ll see various facts on them popping up on all over the place.
大多数草原民族起源于欧亚大草原
Most steppe peoples originated from the Euariasan Steppes.
正因如此
Go and figure.
他们非常擅长骑马和射箭
And they were very good at horse riding and archery,
比如伏尔加保加利亚人
such as the Volga Bulgars,
可萨人
Khazars
和钦察人
and Kipchaks
因此我们可以转而来谈论一下
So with that out of the way we can talk about the Mongols,
被罗斯称为“鞑靼人”的蒙古人
who the Rus’ called Tartars.
在成吉思汗和拔都汗的带领下
Under Genghis and Batu Khan,
他们一路入侵到西基辅罗斯
they invaded all the way into Western Kievan Rus’
并建立了拥有罗斯诸国为附庸国的
and established a state called”The Golden Horde”
名为“金帐汗国”的蒙古帝国
with the Rus’ princedoms as their Vassals
随着波兰 立陶宛和莫斯科大公国等
The Mongol Empire quickly fracted into smaller khanates,
更强大的国家的崛起
along for the growth of more powerful states
蒙古帝国迅速分裂成较小的汗国
such as Poland, Lithuania, and the grand Duchy of Moscow.
到1480年 两个国家吞并了金帐汗国大部分的国土
By 1480, both states absorded much of the Golden Horde,
相较于鞑靼国
becoming more rivals with each other,
这两国更像是竞争对手
than with the Tartars.
到1547年 随着伊凡雷帝被加冕为第一位沙皇
By 1547, Moscow had become a regional power
在俄语中称为“凯撒”
with Ivan the Terrible being crowned the first Tsar,
莫斯科成为了当地一霸
the russian word for “Caesar”.
毕竟他们自视是罗马的宗教继承者
After all they did see themselves as the spiritual successors of the Romans,
并且是正统基督教的最后遗民
and the last remnant of the orthodox christianity.
值得商榷的是
Debatable.
在罗斯居住过伊凡也将国家改名为“俄罗斯”
Ivan also renamed the state “Russia” after the Rus’, who inhabited it.
1580年 俄罗斯攻下了西比尔汗国
In 1580, Russia conquered the khanates of Sibir,
标志着俄罗斯首次将乌拉尔山脉东部领土扩张到亚洲
marking the first time Russia had expanded east of the Ural Mountains into Asia.
攻下汗国后
The Russians renamed the mysterious lands “Siberia”,
俄罗斯人将这片神秘的土地重新命名为“西伯利亚”
after the khanate had conquered.
你觉得他们会就此收手吗?
And do you think they stopped there?
剧透一下
Well, spoiler alert:
不会
NO.
1601年 在俄罗斯空位时期之初
In 1601 the Russians faced a succession crisis
俄罗斯人面临着一连串危机
as the beginning of the Time of Trobules.
国家处于无政府状态
The country was in anarchy.
有着被波兰吞并的危险
And in danger of being absorbed by Poland
高达三分之一的人口
Up to 1 of 3 of population died,
死于战争瘟疫或饥荒
either due to war famine or plague.
到1613年 俄罗斯人选举米哈伊尔·罗曼诺夫作为新沙皇
By 1613, the Russiand elected Mikhail Romanov as the new Tsar,
在这个国家接下来的历史上建立了罗曼诺夫王朝
establishing the Romanov dynasty for the rest of the country’s history.
米哈伊尔结束了战争
Mikhail ended the wars
并开启了重建这个分裂国家的缓慢过程
and began a slow process of rebuilding the fragmented country.
从此事起到19世纪
From this point until the XIX century,
俄罗斯的经济得到了农奴制的支撑
Russia’s economy was propped up by serfdom,
通过将所有的农民变成世袭的农奴
effectilvely protecting Russia’s rich and powerful
有效地维护了俄罗斯的财富和权力
by turning all the peasants into hereditary slaves.
是的 历史有时是很糟糕
Yeah, history sucks sometimes.
到1667年 在已被征服的“哥萨克”草原民族的帮助下
By 1667, Russia had become powerful enough to win the Russo-Polish war
俄罗斯已经变得强大到足以在俄波战争中取胜
with the help of the subjugated steppe peoples called “Cossacks”.
他们将领土扩张到东南部和波兰的一部分
They expanded their territory into southeast and part of Poland.
根据一个古老的斯拉夫词语“边疆”
The poles in the Russia had informally nicknamed the area “Ukrania”,
俄罗斯的极地地区被非正式地称为“乌克兰”
derived from an old slavic word, “Borderland”.
提到它 是因为它地处
Get it because it was the border between
俄罗斯 波兰和哥萨克三国的交界
Russia, Polands and the Cossacks.
不管怎样 它很有创意
Very creative, anyway.
俄罗斯最著名的沙皇之一是彼得大帝
One of Russia’s most famous Tsar was Peter the Great.
彼得大帝是一个改革家
Peter was a reformer.
他使军队现代化
He modernized the army,
建立了帝国的第一支海军
built the Empire’s first navy,
他游历西方并带回了启蒙运动的思想和技术
traveled the west and brought back ideas and technology of the enlightenment
还有时尚的法式服装
And also fashionable French cloathing.
他还扩大了俄罗斯在黑海和波罗的海的影响力
He also expanded Russia’s influence in the Black and Baltic seas.
这家伙根本就爱上了西方
The guy was basically in love with the west.
在大北方战争从瑞典帝国夺取了波罗的海港口后
After capturing the baltic sea port from the Swedish Empire in the Great Northen War,
彼得大帝建造了一座新城市
Peter built a new city
并将其确立为国家的新首都
and founded it as the country’s new capital:
圣彼得堡
Saint Petersburg.
俄罗斯还在七年战争中
Russia also fought in the Seven Years War
与欧洲邻国争夺政权
vying for power with the european neighbours.
另一位令人敬畏的俄罗斯统治者是凯瑟琳大帝
Another formidable Russian ruler was Catherine the Great.
她……呃……
Who was… Well..
根本就不是俄罗斯人
not really russian at all.
她出生于德国
She was born in Germany.
她杀了丈夫并为她自己夺取了王位
And she killed her husband and seized the throne for herself.
她的当政是克里米亚汗国改革和统治中的一部分
Her reign was one of reform and domination of the Crimean Khanate,
同时她也开放地采纳了启蒙思想
as well as openly embracing the enlightment.
在18世纪中期
In the mid XVIII century,
波兰政府因议会的软弱而垮台
the polish government collapsed due to a parliamentary limber.
周围的奥地利 普鲁士和俄罗斯
And the surrounding Austria, Prussia and Russia
在波兰分裂期间将这个国家分成三部分
split the country in three during the Polish Partitions,
有效地将该国从下一世纪的地图上抹去了
effectively wiping the country off the map for the next century.
彼时正逢拿破仑战争
Just in time for the Napoleonic Wars.
俄罗斯
Russia,
就像当时其他欧洲君主制国家一样
just like the other europeans monarchies of the time,
害怕法国革命的负面影响
feared the repercussion of the french revolution.
加入了反对拿破仑的第二 第三和第四联盟
And joined the second, third, and fourth coalitions against Napoleon.
但是他们通常惨遭失败
But they usually lost pretty badly.
1812年 法国军队占领了被废弃的莫斯科
The french army captured the abandoned Moscow in 1812.
然而 俄罗斯人宁愿烧掉那片土地以期法国人离开
However, the Russians would not surrender,
也不愿投降
preferring to burn the fields that the French hoped to leave off.
等了几个月后
After waiting a few months,
还没考虑如何让俄罗斯人投降
Napoleon retreated from Russia due to lack of supplies
拿破仑就因为供给不足从俄罗斯撤退了
before considering the Russians surrender.
当大雪降临并杀死了大部分法国军队时
And when the snow set in and killed most of the french army,
局势就扭转为对俄罗斯有利了
the tide was turned in Russia’s favor.
俄罗斯的领土扩张变得十分雄心勃勃
Russia’s territorial gains had become so ambitious,
以致引发了与法国和英国的战争
that it triggered a war with france and england,
两国还在克里米亚战争中帮助了奥斯曼帝国
who helped the ottomans in the Crimean War.
1861年 在名为“解放”的事件中
In 1861, Russia abolished serfdom
俄罗斯废除了农奴制
in an event now known as The Emancipation.
同时 值得一提的是 在拿破仑与解放之间的时期
Also, in the period between Napoleon and the emancipation,
俄罗斯将其领土扩大到
it’s worthwhile to know that Russia expanded its territory into
土耳其斯坦
Turkestan,
中国
China,
南高加索
the Southern Caucasus,
芬兰
Finland
以及俄属北美洲
and Russian America.
若不是因为克里米亚战争
And were not for the Crimean war,
他们差点就会赢得整个黑海
they almost certainly would have won the entire black sea.
他们真的很喜欢土地
They really loved land.
1894年 沙皇尼古拉斯二世
In 1894, Tsar Nicholas II and the mystic Rasputin,
和人们认为秘密控制着他的神秘拉斯普京
who people thought secretly controlled him,
成为俄罗斯的最后一位皇帝
became the last emperor of Russia.
几十年来 政治体制遭到反抗
There were revolts against the political system for many decades
君主制正逐渐失去权力
and monarchy was slowly losing its power.
作为塞尔维亚的盟友
As an ally of Serbia,
俄罗斯力求在一战期间保护波罗的海斯拉夫人免受阿斯特罗-匈牙利的入侵
Russia aimed to protect the Baltic Slavs from the Astro-Hungarian invasion during World War I.
战乱和饥荒引发了两次俄罗斯革命
The chaos and famine of the war led to the two Russian Revolutions.
第一次是反对沙皇
The first opposed the Tsar
并建立了受苏维埃高度影响的省政府
and set up the provincial government highly influenced by the Soviets.
苏维埃基本上来说 是受马克思主义启发而形成的工人联盟
The Soviets were basically workers unions inspired by Marxisism.
弗拉基米尔·列宁的布尔什维克政党在苏维埃上台执政
Vladimir Lenin’s bolshievik party came to power in the soviets
并在十月革命中掌权
and seized power in the october revolution,
建立了俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国
creating the R.S.F.S.R.
和红白两方对立的俄罗斯内战
and the Russian civil war between the reds and the whites
内战导致 波兰 波罗的海各国和芬兰的分裂
The civil war led to the breakaway of Poland and Baltic States and Finland.
1922年 俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国
In 1922, the R.S.F.S.R.
改名为更为我们熟知的 苏维埃社会主义共和国联邦
was renamed the U.S.S.R., a much catchier name.
列宁死后
After the Death of Lenin,
俄罗斯最著名的共产主义时代独裁者上台
Russia’s most famous communist era dictator came to power.
约瑟夫斯大林
Joseph Stalin
斯大林出生于古老的俄罗斯帝国 就是如今的格鲁吉亚
Born in the old Russian Empire now modern-day Georgia,
他是一个野心勃勃的扩张主义者
Stalin was an aggressive expansionist,
可以想象
go and figure.
他的目标是向全世界传播共产主义
He had aims of spreading communism throughout the world.
他还对内战期间俄罗斯的领土损失感到愤愤不平
He also resented Russia’s territorial losses during the civil war.
他杀死并流放了数百万他认为是反革命的人
He killed and exiled millions of people he deemed anti-revolutionary
由于与西欧国家的失败外交
With failed diplomacy with the western european nations,
斯大林与纳粹德国签订了互不侵犯条约
Stalin entered into the non-aggression pact with the Nazi-Germany
以希望重获第一次世界大战中
hoping to regain much of the land lost
在波兰与波罗的海失去的大部分土地
in the first World War in Poland and Baltic Sea
在9月1日到17日
On the 1st to 17th of September,
德国和俄罗斯入侵并分裂波兰
Germany and Russia invaded and divided Poland in two,
开始了第二次世界大战
beginning the second World War
起初 在与希特勒的不稳定联盟中
Originally, in an uneasy alliance with Hitler,
战争的局势随着希特勒入侵苏联而转变
the tide of war turned with Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union.
这次入侵杀死的军队比其他战争都多
The invasion killed more troops than any other theatre of battle
同时德国的军队距离莫斯科只有24公里
and German’s armies came just 24 kilometers from Moscow.
然而 严冬的暴风雪来临了
However the winter blizzard set in,
战势转变成更利于苏联的局面
turning the battle in the Soviets’ favor.
在纳粹德国战败后
After the defeat of nazi germanies,
斯大林保住了苏联攻占的领土
Stalin held on to the Soviets occupied territories,
将它们变为苏联的一部分或者创建了共产主义傀儡国家
enveloping them into the USSR or creating communist puppet states.
西方盟国对苏联地区存有疑心
The western allies treated the Soviet block with suspicion,
在此期间苏联发展核武器
in which Soviet developed nuclear weapons
并成为历史上最强大的国家之一
and became one of the most powerful nations in history
在苏美太空竞赛期间
The USSR was the first nation to put a man in space
苏联是第一个载人航天的国家
during the American-Soviet space race.
经过数十年的贫困和政治动荡
After decades of poverty and political unrest,
以及在与美国的代理人战争的投入
as well as involvement in numerous proxy wars with United States,
苏联最终在一党制共产主义国家的重压下
the USSR finally collapsed
解体了
under the weight of the one party communist state.
俄罗斯联邦是作为一个近乎民主的共和国形成的
The Russian Federation was formed as a nearly democratic republic
之后两个最重要的东部国家
The two most important easter block states,
波兰和东德
Poland and East Germany,
脱离了俄罗斯的控制
broke away from russian control.
俄罗斯东部也随之脱离了
And the eastern part of Russia also broke away,
形成了两个新的国家
to form two new countries
白罗斯或“白俄罗斯”和乌克兰
Belarus, or “White Russia”, and Ukraine
前克格勃官员 弗拉基米尔·普京的崛起
The rise of Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer,
成为俄罗斯的总理以及总统
into the prime ministry and presidency of Russia,
给俄罗斯带来了新的外交政策
brought with it renewed foreign policy.
普京参与了叙利亚内战
Putin became involved in the Syrian Civil War,
乌克兰的东俄分裂主义运动
the east Russian separatism movement in Ukraine
以及许多东欧国家的政治运动
and the politics of many eastern-europeans countries.
照其领导人的动机来看 如今俄罗斯的未来仍无法确定
Modern day Russia’s future is uncertain, as is the motives of its leader.
然而 国家正处于和平状态
However,the nation is in a state of peace,
其将于2018年举办足球世界杯
will be hosting the football world cup in 2018,
并还将再次成为世界超级大国
and is emerging once again as a world superpower.
感谢大家的收看 请点赞并关注我们
Thanks for watching everyone, please like and subscribe.
如果你对我的国家历史动画感兴趣的话
If you’re interested in my animation of country history,
可以点击这里观看更多剧集
you can click here to watch more episodes,
如果你有兴趣帮助像我这样的创业动画师
and if you’re interested in helping a startup animator like me,
你也可以在patreon上打赏我一美元
you can also pledge me a dollar over at patreon
保持频道的活力
To keep the channel going.
记得照顾现在的草原民族
Remember to always be on the lookout for steppe peoples on the horizon,
观众们 下次见
until next time, guys.

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译制信息
视频概述

战斗民族的悠久历史,从罗斯到如今的俄罗斯,他们经历了怎样的故事呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Kelp

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMF7mgycg9M

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