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十分钟波兰史 Ⅰ – 译学馆
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十分钟波兰史 Ⅰ

The Animated History of Poland | Part 1

This video has been made possible by the Great Courses Plus.
本视频由Great Courses Plus制作
Use the link below or head to the Great Courses Plus/Sweeney
点击下方链接或访问The Great Course Plus/Suibhne的网页
for your free one-month trial and to show your support for the channel,
可领取一个月的免费试用 想对我们频道进一步支持
stick around to find out more.
可以点击以了解更多信息
If you live in Central or Eastern Europe,
如果你出生在中欧或东欧地区
you probably grew up hearing the folk tale of the three brothers Lech, Czech, and Rus
你很可能是听着莱赫 切赫和罗斯三兄弟的传说长大的
The three legendary patriarchs of the Slavic peoples.
他们是斯拉夫民族三个传说中的民族之父
Allowed on a hunting trip the brothers had a disagreement,
在一次打猎途中 三兄弟起了争执
as brothers do, on which prey to follow,
正如兄弟们大多如此 他们要追踪不同的猎物
leading them to split up.
于是彼此分道扬镳
Czech, the eldest of the brothers,
切赫是兄弟里的老大
follows prey to the Czech lands.
他追着猎物来到了捷克地区
Rus, the youngest, went east and became the founder of Russia,
最小的罗斯去了东边 成为俄罗斯的建立者
and Lech, in the middle founded Poland,
而老二莱赫 建立了波兰
because who cares about consistency?
反正谁在乎故事的一致性呢?
The tale differs slightly from place to place,
各地的传说版本有微小的差别
but many include that Lech travelled north as he followed a beautiful white eagle.
但大部分都提到 莱赫追着一只美丽的白鹰去了北方
The eagle landed in its nest at sunset
日落时 白鹰回巢
and looked very breathtaking against the red sky.
背后红霞满天 画面格外摄人心魄
Lech took this for an omen and decided that the land would be his new home.
莱赫相信这是个预兆 便在这儿建了新家
The white eagle is still the symbol of Poland,
至今白鹰仍是波兰的象征
blazoned against the red sky their flag.
国旗上也飘扬着红霞下的白鹰
[背景乐]
斯威尼历史
Indeed Poland did begin with Slavic settlements.
波兰开始确实只是斯拉夫人的聚居地
The Slavs are likely a civilization that emerged as
斯拉夫人可能是
remnants of the early Indo-European peoples
印欧民族早期从高加索地区
who had migrated out of the Caucasus.
迁徙出来的残余部落出现的文明
From their homeland in Central Europe they began to expand and migrate
由于罗马帝国的衰落
in response to the weakening of the Roman Empire.
斯拉夫人从中欧的家园进行扩张和迁徙
You’ll remember this from previous episodes as the Great Migration Period.
前面的视频也有提到 这就是欧洲的民族大迁徙
The Poles loved their new home,
波兰人热爱他们的新家园
which they shared with Germanic tribes from Scandinavia
而这片土地上不止有来自斯堪的纳维亚的日耳曼部落
and the occasional Asian nomadic raiders.
还有不时来骚扰的亚洲游牧掠夺者
The Slavs of Poland were organized into smaller tribes living
波兰的斯拉夫人聚集成更小的部落
in and around the Baltic Sea and the Vistula river delta.
生活于波罗的海和维斯瓦河三角洲一带
They united under Poland’s first official leader, Mieszko.
在波兰第一位正式领袖人梅什科的领导下 他们才联合了起来
Mieszko was the duke of the Polans
梅什科是波兰的大公
This was a good gig to have since the tribe
这是个好事 因为部落
eventually became the name of the whole country: Poland.
终于发展成为了一个统一的国家:波兰
Mieszko was a member of the noble house of Piast,
梅什科是名门望族之后 他来自皮亚斯特
whose dynasty would rule Poland for centuries.
其家族还将统治波兰长达数个世纪
With his baptism in 966 A.D.
公元966年 梅什科接受洗礼
the country slowly abandoned traditional Slavic paganism
渐渐地 这个国家抛弃了原始的斯拉夫异教信仰
and adopted western Christianity.
转而接受西方的基督教(天主教)
Mieszko’s son Bolesław the Brave expanded the territory south
梅什科的儿子 勇敢者波列斯瓦夫一世向南扩张领土
into what he hoped would be a strong regional power,
期望波兰发展成为地区强国
but alas, it was a bit too early for that still.
可惜的是 他的雄心有点儿为时过早了
He established the metropolitan see at Gniezno,
他在格涅兹诺建立了大主教区
forming the headquarters of what would become the Catholic Church in Poland.
使这里成为了后来波兰天主教堂的总部
consolidation of power led him to be crowned
权力的巩固让他加冕成为
Poland’s first official king,
波兰第一位正式的国王
and then he died, all in the same year.
随后他离开人世 也是在同一年里
Which is great.
也算死而无憾了
The Piast dynasty was somewhat up and down
皮亚斯特王朝多少有些起起落落
and internal conflicts often plagued the royal court.
王室内乱不断
Till this guy Casimir the restorer restored the monarchies control
直到复兴者卡齐米日一世恢复了君主制度
which come to think of it, is probably why they called him “the Restorer”
说起来 这可能也是其外号“复兴者”的由来
He modernized Poland into a feudalistic society,
他令波兰进入了封建社会
which came with all these cool things like knights and lords and castles.
许多新奇的事物随之兴起 如骑士 领主和城堡
This helped to secure the borders,
以助于守卫边境
which up until now had changed depending on who was king.
此前边境线因国王的更替已数次改变
The early kingdom, somewhat weaker than his neighbours and strapped for cash,
早期的波兰王国比邻国弱小 一度财政困难
did however hold the Mongol invasion into Europe,
然而成功阻挡了蒙古人进入欧洲的铁骑
having been sacked twice before.
在这之前 波兰已被洗劫过两次
Notable of this time was the Polish relationship with the Germans,
这一时期值得注意的是波兰和德国人的关系
whose dukes and lords had come to possess large amounts of the west,
德意志的公爵和领主在西边拥有大量土地
The Teutonic Knights, who had carved out
条顿骑士团则在利沃尼亚
a significant state for themselves in Livonia and Prussia,
和普鲁士建立了骑士团国
a land inhabited by Pagans, frequently raided by crusaders.
普鲁士是异教徒居住的土地 经常遭受十字军袭击
By the time Piast rule ended with Casimir the Great,
皮亚斯特的统治随着卡齐米日大帝结束时
Poland had lost much of its territory to its neighbours.
波兰已被邻国强占了大片的领土
But with a period of peace,
但经过一段时间的和平发展
the state soon began to prosper and attract Jewish settlement.
国家很快繁荣起来 吸引了很多犹太人来定居
The counties in this area became a source of contention
在这一片区域上的国家就成了
between the kings of Poland and the Holy Roman Empire,
波兰和神圣罗马帝国两国国王间的争端源头
who fought over the local lords for fealty and allegiance.
两国为了争取当地领主的效忠而战
This resulted in these counties being very mixed,
这导致这些小国的人
with populations of people from both kingdoms.
和来自两个王国的人口混杂在一起
The whole thing was very unbohemian, really.
这整个事件非常严肃
The Jews first settled in Poland as merchants on popular trade routes.
第一批定居波兰的犹太人是来自热门贸易航线上的商人
By this century the Jewish people had settled in
到本世纪 犹太人已经在
great numbers over many kingdoms in Europe
欧洲的许多王国定居下来
and began their long and very sad history.
开始了他们漫长又悲伤的历史
They were expelled by the masses in all the countries they settled in
无论在哪个国家 他们都会被当地人驱逐
were often victims of massacres, and worse, crusades.
也常常是大屠杀 更甚至十字军东征的受害者
Successive expulsions led the population in Poland to swell,
一次又一次的驱逐导致了波兰的犹太人人口膨胀
which was a comparatively more tolerant society,
因为波兰相对来说拥有更宽容的社会环境
which became a centre of Judaic learning and culture as the centuries continued.
到接下来几个世纪 波兰成为了犹太人的学术和文化中心
However, things weren’t always super peachy
然而 事情并不总有好的一面
and anti-Jewish riots often erupted in Polish towns,
反犹暴行常在波兰的城镇上演
and synagogues were frequently burned.
犹太教堂也频频被大火毁之一炬
King Casimir the Great, dying without an heir,
卡齐米日大帝去世时 没有留下继承人
left his kingdom to his nephew Lewis, the king of Hungary.
王国留给了他的外甥 匈牙利国王拉约什一世
Lewis left his now three kingdoms to his daughters,
拉约什将这平白得来的王国留给了他的女儿们
one of whom died unexpectedly,
她们中有一位意外身故了
the other who was supposed to inherit Poland but inherited Hungary instead,
另一位本应继承波兰的 反而继承了匈牙利
and the last one, Jadwiga, who got Poland.
最后一个 雅德维加 她得到了波兰
The nobles of Poland welcomed Louis’s daughter and crowned her king.
波兰贵族欢迎拉约什的女儿 使她加冕成为国王
Yes, king, not queen. Don’t ask.
是的 国王 而不是女王 不要问了
Jadwiga’s life would not be unlike a medieval television drama
雅德维加的一生就像一部中世纪的电视剧
as she was simultaneously engaged to both a grand duke of Lithuania Jogaila,
她和两个人同时有了婚约 其一是立陶宛大公雅盖沃
whose Kingdom was huge and powerful,
他的王国幅员辽阔 国力强盛
and the Habsburg duke of Austria,
其二是奥地利的哈布斯堡公爵
who was inbred and fat.
和她是近亲 还很胖
I think she made the right choice.
我想她做了正确的选择
The union of Jadwiga and Władysław formed the Polish-Lithuanian union,
雅德维加和雅盖沃的联姻促成了波兰-立陶宛联邦
which is now the largest country in Europe under a single monarchy.
它是当时欧洲单一君主政体下最大的国家
The Lithuanians had become a strong military power in the previous century,
立陶宛人在前一个世纪已经成为了一支强大的军事力量
capturing large amounts of Russian and Mongol land.
掠夺俄罗斯和蒙古大量的土地
The now combined countries spread from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
如今联合的两国将疆域从波罗的海延伸到了黑海
The Lithuanians, with their far smaller population,
立陶宛人口远少于波兰
never ventured too far from their castles, why would you?
他们从不冒险远离城堡 确实何必呢?
and preferred to rule Ruthenia from Livonia instead.
他们更愿意从利沃尼亚去统治鲁塞尼亚
So by the time of the Union,
所以到了联邦时期
the much larger Polish population came to dominate the Ruthenian lands,
由人口众多的波兰控制了鲁塞尼亚地区
spreading their language and their culture,
并传播起了他们的语言和文化
and eventually dwarfing their Livonian allies.
最终压过了他们的利沃尼亚盟友
The Teutonic Order, that German state on the Baltic,
条顿骑士团国 这个波罗的海沿岸的德意志国家
had become somewhat of a bad neighbour,
某种程度上成为了一个坏邻居
leading raids, crusades, and plundering castles,
他们发动突袭和十字军东征 并掠劫城堡
or otherwise stumbling drunk into Polish-Lithuanian territory,
要不然就醉醺醺的闯入波兰立陶宛联邦的领土
starting fires and whatnot.
烧砸抢掠 无恶不作
The union of the two states proved beneficial,
两国的联合被证明是有利的
handing the Knights a crushing defeat of the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.
在1410年的格伦瓦尔德战役中 联邦给了骑士团以毁灭性的打击
They also fought numerous wars with the Muscovites, Tatars, and Ottomans.
此外他们还和俄国人 鞑靼人和土耳其人起了多次冲突
Noteworthy of the galleon period was the efficiency of the feudal system
西班牙大帆船时期 值得注意的是封建制度的效率
and the pseudo democratic nature of the parliament,
和议会的伪民主本质
who set up sophisticated bureaucracy for king approval
议会设立了复杂的官僚流程以待国王批准
or disapproval, if you are unlucky.
或否决 如果你不走运的话
Within just a few decades,
短短几十年内
the Teutonic Order had completely lost their state,
条顿骑士团的国土丧失殆尽
with the western half being annexed directly into Poland
西边的一半领土直接附属于波兰
and the rest becoming a fief to the Polish Crown.
剩余的干脆成了波兰王室的封地
This gave access of Poland to the prosperous Baltic seaports
这让波兰能够在繁荣的波罗的海港口出入
and an explosion in trade.
并使贸易激增
Keep your eye on this it becomes important later.
注意这个点 后面会很重要
The Prussian fief would later be inherited by Duke from
普鲁士的封地之后会被来自
Brandenburg estate within the Holy Roman Empire.
神圣罗马帝国的勃兰登堡侯国的公爵继承
A trend which would become ever more troublesome
随着神圣罗马帝国的地主继承
as lords within the HRE would increasingly inherit lands
越来越多疆域外的土地
outside the imperial borders.
这种趋势变得越发麻烦不断
The HRE was weird. Don’t worry about it.
神圣罗马帝国很奇怪 我们不用管它
Acquiring Danzig, or Gdańsk, had huge economic benefits
拿下但泽 或者格但斯克 带来了巨大的经济效益
and cities swelled in size in response to the trade boom,
由于波兰贸易的繁荣 许多城市得以扩张
like Poznań, Lwów and the capital Kraków, and most notably Warsaw.
如波兹南 利沃夫 当时的首都克拉科夫 尤其是华沙
Warsaw or Warszawa in Polish, was up to this point just a small fishing village.
华沙 或者华沙尔娃 此时不过是一个小小的渔村
Legend has it that a fisherman named Wars happened
传说有一个叫华尔的渔民
upon a mermaid in the Vistula river named Sawa.
碰巧在维斯瓦河畔遇到了一条叫美人鱼 名叫沙娃
The two married and founded the town of Warszawa.
他们两人结了婚 并建立了华尔沙娃
The Poles, like most Europeans, were often embroiled in wars
与大部分欧洲人一样 波兰人经常卷入战争
and this made famous their heavy cavalry, the Winged Hussars.
这令他们的重骑兵——翼骑兵名声大噪
Which I’m sure I’ll mobbed and lynched if I don’t talk about.
这部分 我相信如果我不说的话 一定会被打的
Initially a contingent of Hungarian mercenaries.
这支骑兵开始只是一些匈牙利的雇佣兵
the Hussars soon became an elite shock cavalry so powerful
很快他们成为了一支精锐的冲击骑兵 他们是如此的强大
they allowed the Poles to win many otherwise hopeless battles.
以至于波兰人赢下了许多场看似无望的战斗
The Hussars became the envy of Europe,
各国开始眼红波兰的骑兵团
the most powerful and disciplined heavy cavalry the Middle Ages had ever known
它是中世纪以来最强大 纪律最严明的重骑兵团
and are still a matter of intense national symbolism of Poland.
对波兰仍然具有强烈的民族象征意义
The sixteenth century was a really big one
波兰的16世纪是一个波澜壮阔的世纪
and included the protestant reformation
这里有主要影响到
affecting mostly German parts of the Kingdom.
波兰王国德意志地区的宗教改革
Wars against the encroaching Ottomans invading Europe,
有抵抗土耳其入侵欧洲的战争
advances in science and literature,
有科学和文学的进步
with Copernicus devising the heliocentric model of the solar system.
包括哥白尼设计出了太阳系的日心模型
The nationwide codification of the Polish language, and the biggest one,
和在全国范围内对波兰语的编纂 还有最重大的一个
the changing of the Polish-Lithuanian union into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
由波兰和立陶宛的联盟向波兰立陶宛联邦
A single political entity ratified by the Polish parliament, or Sejm,
单一制政体的转变 得到了波兰议会 或称瑟姆 的批准
With elected rather than hereditary kings
同时国王世袭制改为了选举制
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, or just Poland for short,
波兰立陶宛联邦 简称波兰
became a centre of power and commerce
成为了权力和商业的中心
and a bulwark against invading Turks,
和抵抗土耳其人入侵的壁垒
who had become a larger and larger problem for the European powers
土耳其从中亚卑微发家以来
since their humble beginnings in Central Asia.
就逐渐成为欧洲各国的心头大患
During the Polish-Muscovite war, the Poles became involved in the Russian
在波俄战争期间 波兰人卷入到俄罗斯的
succession crisis, or the time of troubles,
继承危机当中 当时各种矛盾激发
and began flexing their muscles with their famous hussars.
波兰以其著名的骑兵团开始展示武力
They even occupied Moscow for a short period
甚至短时间内一度占领莫斯科
but were soon driven out, because invading Russia is simply impossible,
但没多久就被赶出来了 因为征服俄罗斯是不可能的
unless you are the Mongols.
除非你是蒙古人
The series of Northern Wars and the Russo-Polish
一系列的北方战争和俄波战争
war left the Commonwealth in a very precarious and weakened state.
让联邦处于非常动荡和虚弱的状态
This was aggravated by the election of Polish kings,
而国王的当选为其他国家插手波兰事务
which opened the door for other nations to meddle in Polish affairs.
提供了方便之门 使情况更是雪上加霜
Which they did, a lot.
这还不止一次地发生
During the wars the Commonwealth lost the territory of Livonia
战争期间 联邦失去了利沃尼亚的领土
and was devastated by the so-called Swedish Deluge,
被所谓的瑞典风暴所摧毁
leaving much of the nation in ruins.
全国的大部分地区都成了废墟
Poland became weakened during the Great Northern War against Sweden
在对瑞典的大北方战争和波兰王位继承战争中
and during the War of the Polish Succession, it became increasingly clear
波兰的国力被削弱了 这越发明显
that Poland’s fate was going to be decided by its neighbors.
波兰的命运就要被它的邻国所掌握了
The Polish parliament became ineffective due to complicated veto laws
由于复杂的否决法 波兰国会运行低效
which made passing reforms or mounting resistance to invasion
使得国会无论通过改革还是武装抵抗入侵
nothing if not impossible.
基本都不可能
The political limbo and the sheer size of the Commonwealth
政治上的僵局和联邦本身的辽阔国土
started to make cutting pieces out of it looked pretty attractive.
开始让把领土从这个国家分裂出去的想法蠢蠢欲动
The last king of Poland, Stanislav II,
波兰的最后一个国王 斯坦尼斯瓦夫二世
was elected in 1764 as a puppet of the Russian Empire,
得益于和叶卡捷琳娜二世的桃色关系
Aided greatly by the fact that he was in bed with Catherine the Great.
1764年在沙俄扶持下成为傀儡国王
Stanislav did attempt reform to try and save face
斯坦尼斯瓦夫尝试通过改革为自己争光和挽回颜面
but was aware the kingdom was on its last breath.
但是这个帝国已是苟延残喘
Before long the First Partition of Poland was enacted,
不久 第一次瓜分波兰的协议签署了
dividing the outlying provinces between Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
波兰和奥地利 普鲁士 俄国之间的边远疆域被分割
In dire straits, the parliament was powerless to stop the invading troops
一片困境中 议会无力阻止入侵的军队
and forced to ratify the new borders.
被迫承认了新的边界线
The Great Sejm tried once more to reform by
伟大瑟姆在法国大革命的自由精神影响下
drafting a formal constitution inspired by the liberties of the French revolution,
起草了一个正式的宪法试图再次改革
but it was enough to provoke Russia again,
但这足以再次激怒俄国
who saw France as an enemy and
它将法国视为眼中钉
Poland as a sympathizer to anti-monarchic sentiments.
波兰则是反君主立宪的拥护者
Pro and anti-constitutional forces became embroiled in a war
维护宪法和反对宪法的势力混战一团
and Russian forces invaded to broker a defeat to the republican movement.
俄国军队趁机而入 重创了革新运动
With an agreement signed with Prussia,
俄国和普鲁士签订协议
the two nations annexed more territory in the Second Partition,
两国在第二次瓜分波兰中拿去了更多土地
reducing Poland to one-third its size and population.
波兰的规模和人口减少到原来的1/3
The king was horrifically unpopular, the army was in shambles,
国王受尽唾弃 军队荣光不再
the parliament was divided and powerless.
议会四分五裂 毫无约束力
The common people were furious and insurrections led to the national rebellion
愤怒的民众揭竿而起 起义导致了
led by the military veteran Tadeusz Kościuszko.
由退伍老兵塔德乌什·科希丘什科带头的全国性暴乱
After an initial success, the rebels failed to garner support
初步胜利之后 起义军没有得到
from many other nations and were defeated by the surrounding powers.
其他国家的帮助 最终被周边大国镇压
In 1795, the Austrians, Prussians and Russians
1795年 奥地利 普鲁士和俄国
decided to put an end to the rebellious Poles
决定给反抗的波兰人最后一个痛快
and invaded them from three sides.
他们从三个方向入侵了波兰
The Third Partition of Poland, as it became known,
第三次瓜分波兰 正如人们所知道的
wiped Poland off the face of the map for the next century.
将波兰从欧洲地图上抹去一个多世纪
Millions of Poles now found themselves subject to
数百万计的波兰人不得不受制于
whichever nation they were divided into,
他们被分到的任何一个国家
isolated from one another; and Poland ceased to exist.
与彼此孤立 波兰就此消失
Now as you all know if you’ve ever picked up a map
现在众所周知 你随便拿一张地图
Poland did indeed return as a sovereign nation.
会发现波兰确实还是一个独立的国家
But we will have to get to all of that in part two.
但是下面的部分我们就要在第二部分说了
In the meantime, if you’re interested in learning more,
同时 如果你有兴趣了解更多内容
why not head over to the Great Courses Plus?
为什么不来The Great Courses Plus呢?
Great courses plus is a subscription on-demand video learning service
Great Courses Plus是一个订阅点播的视频学习网站
dedicated to bringing you the best in lectures
致力于带给你们最好的讲座
from Ivy league University professors to National Geographic
从常春藤盟校教授到国家地理
on a wide range of Topics.
话题众多 应有尽有
I personally recommend having a watch of
我个人推荐你们观看
“The Great Crime of Empires: Poland Divided”,
“三大帝国的惊人罪行:瓜分波兰”
which is part of the course on the history of Eastern Europe.
它是东欧历史课程的一个小节
This video was highly inspired by this series
这个视频的灵感就源于这个系列
and much of the research was done with their great lectures.
很多研究也是基于他们的这个讲座
Prices start as little as $14.99 a month
每月只要14.99刀
and Sweeney viewers are offered a free one-month trial
Suibhne的观众可以免费试用一个月
which they can access by heading to the great courses plus/sweeney
可以访问thegreatcoursesplus/suibhne
or by clicking the Link below.
或者点击下方的链接进入
Do yourself a favor and check it out
帮自己一个忙 去看看吧
it really opened my eyes to the great crime of the polish partitions
瓜分波兰的惊人罪行真的让我大开眼界
If you want to support the show directly
如果你们想直接支持我
you can head over to my patreon page
可以访问我的patreon页面
or follow me with all the usual social media down below.
或关注下方的社交账号
Until next time.
下次见

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视频概述

本视频介绍了波兰的起源,以及波兰几个世纪的兴衰,带你十分钟了解波兰的历史。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

老王家隔壁

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jV98XaAlg1o

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