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爱尔兰的历史故事

The Animated History of Ireland

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This episode is made possible by Audible.
请继续观看来了解如何使用他们的优质服务来支持我们
Stick around see how you can use their great services to support the channel.
爱尔兰的历史
History of Ireland
越过英吉利海峡
Hopping across the English Channel,
我们再一次回到不列颠群岛
we return once again to the British isles.
这次我们来到爱尔兰
This time to Ireland,
一片有着精灵和传说 基督教徒和异教徒
land of fairies and folktales, Christians and pagans,
啤酒和威士忌 以及有些动乱的历史的土地
beer and whiskey, and then somewhat troublesome history,
也正是这些动乱让爱尔兰在上世纪60年代登上世界舞台
that propelled the Irish to the world stage in the 1960s.
但追溯到更早之前故事会更加有趣
But going back further the tale gets pretty interesting
当然我们没有任何的偏见
and that’s certainly not a bias on our part.
欢迎大家来到翡翠宝岛
Welcome everyone to the Emerald Isle.
《斯威尼历史》
Suibhne
正如世人所知 爱尔兰是一个独立的岛屿
Ireland, as we know its days, is a single island entity,
它基本上是个统一的整体
and has been united for almost its entirety.
这种情况直到20世纪时才有所改变
This only changed in the 20th century,
此时爱尔兰分裂成了两个国家
when it became split between two nations.
即爱尔兰共和国和英国
Ireland the country and the United Kingdom.
大多数翡翠岛国上的现有居民
Most of the Emerald Isle’s modern citizens
是在国家分裂之后才出生的
did not live before the split
这也是双方仍然
which is why they still tend to be
对彼此都有些怨恨的原因
some bitterness about it on both sides.
但这个暂且搁置不谈
But leaving that aside for the moment,
我们先从公元前300年说起
we can begin in 300 BC.
岛上第一批居民是我们的好朋友凯尔特人
The first inhabitants were our good friends the Celts
他们在冰河时代末期从欧洲大陆迁徙而来
who migrated from the European continent after the last ice age.
这些凯尔特人在他们的异教信仰之上
These Celts flourishing culture and traditions
发展出了繁荣的文化和传统
all upon the foundations of their pagan faith.
爱尔兰的神话和传说深深地影响其诗歌
Irish myth and folklore is deep intertwined into Irish poetry
甚至影响他们后来的基督教信仰
and even their later Christian beliefs.
但这并不意味着爱尔兰的神话和传说就很容易被追根溯源
Although that doesn’t mean it’s easy to find.
嗨 我是Tale Foundry频道的故事机器人
Hi! Tale bot here from the channel Tale Foundry.
不幸的是 大量古老的爱尔兰传统文化
Unfortunately, a lot of ancient Irish traditions have been
随着时间推移和人们的不加重视 都消失了
lost to time and inattention.
我们有历史记载的故事都特别棒
The stories we do have records of are really cool.
比如关于人类进化为神的那些错综复杂的虚构历史故事
Men who become gods intricate pseudo histories
或者异常丰富的各种奇形怪状的鲑鱼
and odd abundance of shape-shifting salmon.
不过我们很难知道这些故事是不是真的属于凯尔特人的
But it’s hard to know whether they’re legitimate.
因为大部分的故事被记录
Because the majority of them were recorded
由基督徒抄写员 而不是异教徒
by Christian scribes rather than their pagan adherents.
近期 在我们的节目中
On our show, we recently took a shot
我们试着探索爱尔兰神话的历史
at unraveling the Irish mythological cycle
以及它为什么没有更广为流传的原因
and the mystery of why it isn’t more popular.
因此 如果你学完了爱尔兰的历史
So, once you’re done learning about Ireland’s actual history,
有时间就来和我们讨论它的神话历史吧
feel free to come discuss its pseudo history with us.
谢谢Tale Foundry栏目的支持
Thanks for the contribution, Tale Foundry.
爱尔兰岛上的凯尔特人称这片岛屿为Éire
The Celts of Ireland called their land Éire
该词来源于他们的女性主神 Éiru
after their matron goddess Éiru.
凯尔特人的母语为盖尔语
They spoke a language called Gaeilge
或者我们称之为爱尔兰语
or what we call Irish.
Scoti是爱尔兰的一个部族
One Irish tribe, the Scoti,
它被认为是苏格兰的名称来源
is thought to have been the namesake of Scotland.
又一次 英语的滥用
Once again English misappropriation
挑战了文化敏感性的界限
defies the boundaries of cultural sensitivities.
基督教从罗马和英国传播到了爱尔兰
Christianity made its way to Ireland from Rome and Britain,
这主要归功于St. Patrick主教
largely aided by the bishop St. Patrick
在把蛇都赶出爱尔兰后 他将爱尔兰的
who managed to convert the Irish from Paganism to Catholicism,
异教信仰改为天主教
when he wasn’t busy chasing snakes.
在8世纪 北欧海盗入侵占领爱尔兰
Ireland was raided and settled by the Vikings in the 8th century
建立了一些后来成为大都市的小城镇 比如都柏林和贝尔法斯特
setting up small towns that became cities like Dublin and Belfast.
不过后来 1167年到来的诺曼人
But the Vikings were fought off and replaced
打败并取代了北欧海盗
by the Normans who arrived in 1167
建立对了爱尔兰的统治
creating what would be the lordship of Ireland.
之后诺曼统治者失去了对整个岛屿的掌控
Norman Ireland failed to control the entire island
地方领主和国王们逐渐与诺曼人分庭抗礼
and lords and Kings existed in tandem with the Norman possessions.
到了15世纪 诺曼人的领地已非常有限
By the 1400s Norman holdings were limited
这是因为玫瑰战争和鼠疫的影响
aided greatly by the War of the Roses and the Black Plague
鼠疫中诺曼人的死亡人数远超过爱尔兰人
which killed far more Normans than Irishmen.
同时 国王亨利八世
This change with King Henry Ⅷ
削减后宫和教堂的开销以休养生息
who took a break from cutting up wives and churches
平定了爱尔兰各地林立的诸侯国
to conquer the various Irish kingdoms.
他建立了爱尔兰王国
He established the kingdom of Ireland
并在平息德斯蒙德叛乱的九年战争中
which expanded after defeating the Irish
打败了爱尔兰人 然后扩张了领土
in the Desmond rebellions in the nine years war.
1604年 爱尔兰在英国的统治下终于完成了统一
In 1604, Ireland was united fully under the English rule.
苏格兰斯图亚特王朝的第一位国王詹姆斯
And James the first of the Scottish House of Stuart
成为了英格兰的国王
became the King of England
将三个王国统一在一位君主之下
uniting all three kingdoms under one monarch.
然而 英国人是新教徒
The British however were Protestants
所以爱尔兰的天主教徒们对他们怀着怨恨
and the Catholics of Ireland felt resentment
因为他们的统治者居然是异教徒 所以经常有叛乱
having a Protestant as their ruler and rebellions were frequent.
为了更好的统治 来自英国的君主没收
To gain better control English monarchs confiscated land
当地贵族和农民的土地 并让那些新教的英国人和苏格兰人取代他们
from the lords and farmers and replaced them with Protestant English and Scots.
英国人希望新教徒的定居可以带来对英国
The British hoped that settling Protestants in the area would help quell rebellions
有国家认同感的居民 从而消除叛乱
by having a population with the distinct British national identity.
此举在北爱尔兰最为成功
This works most successfully in Ulster
那里的一些郡居民多数是长老会的信徒
where some counties formed majorities of Presbyterians.
在这三个王国的战争中 爱尔兰反抗英国的统治
During the war of the three kingdoms, Ireland stage rebellions from British rule.
但光荣革命后不久 就被奥利弗·克伦威尔
But were defeated by both Oliver Cromwell and later William of Arch
和法国的威廉打败了
shortly after the Glorious Revolution.
西奥博尔德·沃尔夫森进一步发起叛乱却被残酷地镇压了
Theobald Wolfson led a further rebellion which was brutally suppressed.
此时 英国决定采取行动
At this point the British said enough was enough
为了更好的控制叛乱
and united the kingdoms into a single country
英国将三个王国统一为一个国家
in order to better control rebellions
不过统一后的国家仍然对天主教抱有严重的偏见
The Union was still heavily prejudiced against Catholic slur
再加上马铃薯大饥荒使数百万人死亡
and this coupled with a great potato famine caused millions to die
而更多的人背井离乡
and millions more to emigrate.
大部分移民都去了利物浦和美洲
Most notably for Liverpool and the Americas.
经济萧条和贫穷诞生了自治运动
The economic hardship and poverty created the Home Rule movement,
爱尔兰公民要求成立他们自己的议会
in which the Irish citizens demanded their own Parliament
但北部的新教郡是个例外
with the notable exception of Protestant counties in the north
这些新教郡支持统一 支持英国的统治
who were pro unionist and supported British rule.
不过这并不值得惊讶 因为这些郡县
This surprised entirely no one since most of these counties were
大部分都是英国殖民者的后代
descendants of the British colonists
他们的祖先在一个世纪之前就瓜分了爱尔兰土地
who had confiscated the Irish lands a century earlier.
自治运动在第一次世界大战期间渐渐停滞
Home rule stalled during World War I
但还有些共和党员发起复活节起义
leaving some Republicans to stage a rebellion known as the Easter Rising.
英国人试图将岛分裂为
The British attempted to grant home rule
两个自治区 岛屿南部和岛屿北部
by splitting the island into two self-governing territories,
以此来承认自治
northern and southern island,
这两个自治区依然属于英国
both of whom was still part of the United Kingdom
然而反抗还在继续
Fighting continued however,
爱尔兰内战随后爆发 一些人支持爱尔兰
and Irish Civil War ensued with some supporting membership
作为英联邦的自由邦成员
of the British Commonwealth as a free state
另一些人支持建立一个完整的共和国
and other supporting a full republic.
尽管自由邦一方赢得了战争
Although the free State won the war,
共和党人却很快通过选举进入议会
the Republicans did shortly get elected to Parliament
爱尔兰成为了一个共和国
and Ireland became a full republic.
爱尔兰的分裂激怒了双方的许多共和党人
The split of Ireland angered many Republicans on both sides
他们认为这是英国将北方地区变为符合其利益的选区的手段
who saw it as a British ploy to gerrymander the northern counties
让少数的联合主义者统治北方地区
to allow for a slight unionist as majority
并最终保有这片地区
and ultimately retain a claim on parts of the island.
而两方的愤怒加剧了宗教的分歧
The anger also came to further intensify the religious divide
大多数的天主教徒将自己视为爱尔兰人
since most Catholics saw themselves as Irish
支持共和政治 而大多数的新教徒则支持英联邦
and supported republicanism and most Protestants were pro Union.
爱尔兰内战的伤痛遍布每个角落
The bitterness of the Irish Civil War was felt everywhere
在北方 对天主教徒的歧视也日益加剧
and discrimination against Catholics was increasing in the north.
战争结束仅十年后 争取公民权利的和平抗议升级
Peaceful civil rights protests escalated
这种民族冲突被称作Troubles
just one decade after the war and the conflict known as the Troubles
这你可能已经听说过
which is something you’ve probably heard of.
各种联合主义军队和民族主义军队纷纷成立
Various unionist and nationalist paramilitary groups were formed
冲突持续了几十年
and the fighting continued for decades.
最后《耶稣受难日协议》标志着这场冲突的结束
The conflict boiled down to the Good Friday Agreement
爱尔兰和北爱尔兰认同彼此的合法存在
when Ireland and Northern Ireland agreed to exist in a state of tandem.
如果有一天北爱尔兰的大部分公民想再次与爱尔兰结合
And if the majority of Northern Irish citizens voted to rejoin Ireland,
政府不会阻止他们
the governments would allow this to happen.
协议也肯定了两个国家公民的自由往来
The agreement also affirmed the free movement of people through the border
也允许任何在北爱尔兰出生的北爱尔兰人
and made allowances for any Northern Irish born in Northern Ireland
获得爱尔兰的公民身份 如果他们想要的话
to attain Irish citizenship if they desire.
这极大地缓和了冲突 换来难得的
This largely brought the conflict to an uneasy peace.
一种不稳定的和平
Kind of.
爱尔兰在1973年加入了欧盟
Ireland joined the European Union in 1973
同年加入欧盟的还有英国和丹麦
along with the UK and Denmark.
爱尔兰开始变得富有繁荣
The Ireland became very prosperous
经济增长吸引了许多移民
and the economic growth became a large source of emigration.
1999年 爱尔兰人用欧元取代了旧的爱尔兰磅
They replaced the old Irish pound with the euro in 1999.
爱尔兰的繁荣在2008年的全球经济危机中停滞了
The Irelands prosperity was halted in the 2008 global financial crisis,
其财富大量减少
which significantly reduced Ireland’s wealth.
边境两边的人都开始考虑重新统一
Many on both sides of the border have toyed around with idea of reunification
有些人还将情况与德国的东西分裂作对比
and some have compared the situation to the division of East and West Germany.
对统一的抵制据说正在减弱
Resistance to unification is said to be waning somewhat
虽然还是有人强烈反对
even though some are still fiercely opposed.
害怕分裂带来的不适再次出现
The discomfort of the division once again came to ahead
因为英国公投决定退出欧盟
with the vote of Britain to leave the EU,
激怒了不想看到两个地区之间再次产生隔阂的人
angering many who don’t want to see a border
他们不想看到有一堵墙横亘在爱尔兰的中间
erected between the two parts of the Ireland.
微弱多数的北爱尔兰人投票选择留在欧盟
The slim majority of the Northern Irish voted to remain within the EU
这产生了对英国的不满
bringing up a degree of resentment to the UK
因为英国强行让他们退出欧盟
for forcibly removing them from it.
有关爱尔兰重新统一的言论很快浮现
Talks about the reunification of Ireland began
而且越来越多人支持
immediately, and the idea has shown growing support especially
尤其是苏格兰试图举办第二次独立投票
with the Scottish intention of holding a second independence referendum.
一些人认为爱尔兰的统一是不可避免的
Some view Irish unification as inevitable
因为世世代代的人都认为世界会更加自由开放
as all the generations pass for an increasingly more liberal world.
不过也有人对这一点表示怀疑
Yet others too are skeptical.
我想只有时间会告诉我们答案吧
I guess only time will tell.
本片没有Audible的帮助是无法完成的
This video would not be possible without the help of Audible.
Audible是领先的高级数字语音信息和娱乐提供商
Audible is the leading provider of premium digital spoken audio information and entertainment.
毫无疑问他们在这方面遥遥领先
They’re absolutely unrivaled in their delivery of the widest variety of
尤其是有声读物和其他口语音频产品
content of audio books and other spoken audio products.
注册Audible 使用其书本会员服务
Signing up for audible using their book credit service
你可以接触到大量的图书资源
gives you access to their massive library of content
无论长短 而且还可以听书
both short and long form which you can listen to
更不受空间的限制
just about wherever you are,
只需要一个手机 或电脑 或平板 或者任一有用的mp3
using a phone computer or tablet or any other mp3 capable device.
使用Audible对我来说真的很愉快
I’ve been a happy customer of Audible for quite a while now.
而且我想说的是在过去几年里
and I’d say that easily 90% of the books have consumed
消费者购买的90%的图书使用过他们的服务
in the past few years has been using their service.
如果你是爱尔兰的粉丝 可以在Audible查找
If you’re a fan of Ireland, why not check out
由James L Nelson编写的书籍Norseman saga Fin Gall
the Norseman saga Fin Gall by James L Nelson.
这是有关爱尔兰维京时代的系列小说
It’s a series of novels that takes place in Ireland during the Viking Age
那时爱尔兰岛的陆地和海洋都由古代挪威人统治
when the island was ruled over land and sea by the Norseman.
Audible为《斯威尼历史》的观众们提供30天免费使用期
Audible is offering Suibhne viewers a free 30-day trial
观众们可以通过网站audible.com/suibhne进入
which they can access by heading to audible.com/suibhne
或者直接点击下方链接
or by clicking the link below,
该链接免费提供了一本有声读物给观众试听
which includes a free audiobook to begin
你不用花一分钱
listening to at no cost to you.
Audible特别适合在长途车 火车 或者飞机上使用
Audible is perfect for those long car, train, or plane journeys
也很方便
and less cumbersome
尤其当你没法带着一本书到处跑的时候
if you’re not able to lug a book around where ever you are.
这是网址audible.com/suibhne 或者点击下方链接
That’s audible.com/suibhne or click the link below.
非常感谢Audible和各方的帮助与支持
Thank you so much to Audible and those who support.
嗨 如果你们对刚刚插入说话的机器人好奇的话
And hey, if you’re curious about the talking robot who interrupted your history video,
啊哈 很正常
well, that is totally understandable.
《斯威尼历史》做的视频真的很棒
What Suibne does here is amazing
这对我们频道Tale Foundry也很重要
and pretty essential to what we do over on our channel Tale Foundry.
不过《斯威尼历史》调查的是事实 而我们则是研究小说
Whereas Suibne investigates reality, we investigate fictions
比如世界各地的神话 然后我们把我们发现的变成新的故事
such as world mythologies, and then use what we find to tell news stories.
所以 如果这激发了你的想象力 快来加入我们 一起编故事吧
So if that excites your fancy, why not come and make stuff up with us.
到时候见哦
We’ll see you there.
感谢大家的观看
Thank you so much for watching everyone
也非常感谢大家上个月的支持
and thank you all so much for the extra patronage from last month.
至于剧本 我已经完成了第一个目标的一半啦
As of writing the script, I’m more than halfway to the first goal.
有些人想知道YouTube的广告收入有没有批准 答案是没有
And for those wondering the YouTube ad revenue still hasn’t improved apocalypse.
所以想帮忙的你们 请随意哈哈
So for those of you that want to help please feel free to do so.
鸣谢Tale Foundry的帮助
Special thanks to Tale Foundry for their contribution.
他们的频道真的很棒 赶紧看看吧
Their channel is really really good please check them out.
大家下次见咯
Until next time everyone.

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译制信息
视频概述

爱尔兰和英国有什么关系?爱尔兰和北爱尔兰又是什么关系?查看视频寻找答案吧。

听录译者

刘倩Rachel

翻译译者

你在这里当咸鱼呀

审核员

审核员AL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQvaGt9B6H0

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