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History of Ireland
Hopping across the English Channel,
we return once again to the British isles.
This time to Ireland,
land of fairies and folktales, Christians and pagans,
beer and whiskey, and then somewhat troublesome history,
that propelled the Irish to the world stage in the 1960s.
But going back further the tale gets pretty interesting
and that’s certainly not a bias on our part.
Welcome everyone to the Emerald Isle.
Ireland, as we know its days, is a single island entity,
and has been united for almost its entirety.
This only changed in the 20th century,
when it became split between two nations.
Ireland the country and the United Kingdom.
Most of the Emerald Isle’s modern citizens
did not live before the split
which is why they still tend to be
some bitterness about it on both sides.
But leaving that aside for the moment,
we can begin in 300 BC.
The first inhabitants were our good friends the Celts
who migrated from the European continent after the last ice age.
These Celts flourishing culture and traditions
all upon the foundations of their pagan faith.
Irish myth and folklore is deep intertwined into Irish poetry
and even their later Christian beliefs.
Although that doesn’t mean it’s easy to find.
嗨 我是Tale Foundry频道的故事机器人
Hi! Tale bot here from the channel Tale Foundry.
Unfortunately, a lot of ancient Irish traditions have been
lost to time and inattention.
The stories we do have records of are really cool.
Men who become gods intricate pseudo histories
and odd abundance of shape-shifting salmon.
But it’s hard to know whether they’re legitimate.
Because the majority of them were recorded
by Christian scribes rather than their pagan adherents.
On our show, we recently took a shot
at unraveling the Irish mythological cycle
and the mystery of why it isn’t more popular.
So, once you’re done learning about Ireland’s actual history,
feel free to come discuss its pseudo history with us.
Thanks for the contribution, Tale Foundry.
The Celts of Ireland called their land Éire
after their matron goddess Éiru.
They spoke a language called Gaeilge
or what we call Irish.
One Irish tribe, the Scoti,
is thought to have been the namesake of Scotland.
Once again English misappropriation
defies the boundaries of cultural sensitivities.
Christianity made its way to Ireland from Rome and Britain,
largely aided by the bishop St. Patrick
who managed to convert the Irish from Paganism to Catholicism,
when he wasn’t busy chasing snakes.
Ireland was raided and settled by the Vikings in the 8th century
setting up small towns that became cities like Dublin and Belfast.
But the Vikings were fought off and replaced
by the Normans who arrived in 1167
creating what would be the lordship of Ireland.
Norman Ireland failed to control the entire island
and lords and Kings existed in tandem with the Norman possessions.
By the 1400s Norman holdings were limited
aided greatly by the War of the Roses and the Black Plague
which killed far more Normans than Irishmen.
This change with King Henry Ⅷ
who took a break from cutting up wives and churches
to conquer the various Irish kingdoms.
He established the kingdom of Ireland
which expanded after defeating the Irish
in the Desmond rebellions in the nine years war.
In 1604, Ireland was united fully under the English rule.
And James the first of the Scottish House of Stuart
became the King of England
uniting all three kingdoms under one monarch.
The British however were Protestants
and the Catholics of Ireland felt resentment
having a Protestant as their ruler and rebellions were frequent.
To gain better control English monarchs confiscated land
from the lords and farmers and replaced them with Protestant English and Scots.
The British hoped that settling Protestants in the area would help quell rebellions
by having a population with the distinct British national identity.
This works most successfully in Ulster
where some counties formed majorities of Presbyterians.
During the war of the three kingdoms, Ireland stage rebellions from British rule.
But were defeated by both Oliver Cromwell and later William of Arch
shortly after the Glorious Revolution.
Theobald Wolfson led a further rebellion which was brutally suppressed.
At this point the British said enough was enough
and united the kingdoms into a single country
in order to better control rebellions
The Union was still heavily prejudiced against Catholic slur
and this coupled with a great potato famine caused millions to die
and millions more to emigrate.
Most notably for Liverpool and the Americas.
The economic hardship and poverty created the Home Rule movement,
in which the Irish citizens demanded their own Parliament
with the notable exception of Protestant counties in the north
who were pro unionist and supported British rule.
This surprised entirely no one since most of these counties were
descendants of the British colonists
who had confiscated the Irish lands a century earlier.
Home rule stalled during World War I
leaving some Republicans to stage a rebellion known as the Easter Rising.
The British attempted to grant home rule
by splitting the island into two self-governing territories,
northern and southern island,
both of whom was still part of the United Kingdom
Fighting continued however,
and Irish Civil War ensued with some supporting membership
of the British Commonwealth as a free state
and other supporting a full republic.
Although the free State won the war,
the Republicans did shortly get elected to Parliament
and Ireland became a full republic.
The split of Ireland angered many Republicans on both sides
who saw it as a British ploy to gerrymander the northern counties
to allow for a slight unionist as majority
and ultimately retain a claim on parts of the island.
The anger also came to further intensify the religious divide
since most Catholics saw themselves as Irish
and supported republicanism and most Protestants were pro Union.
The bitterness of the Irish Civil War was felt everywhere
and discrimination against Catholics was increasing in the north.
Peaceful civil rights protests escalated
just one decade after the war and the conflict known as the Troubles
which is something you’ve probably heard of.
Various unionist and nationalist paramilitary groups were formed
and the fighting continued for decades.
The conflict boiled down to the Good Friday Agreement
when Ireland and Northern Ireland agreed to exist in a state of tandem.
And if the majority of Northern Irish citizens voted to rejoin Ireland,
the governments would allow this to happen.
The agreement also affirmed the free movement of people through the border
and made allowances for any Northern Irish born in Northern Ireland
to attain Irish citizenship if they desire.
This largely brought the conflict to an uneasy peace.
Ireland joined the European Union in 1973
along with the UK and Denmark.
The Ireland became very prosperous
and the economic growth became a large source of emigration.
They replaced the old Irish pound with the euro in 1999.
The Irelands prosperity was halted in the 2008 global financial crisis,
which significantly reduced Ireland’s wealth.
Many on both sides of the border have toyed around with idea of reunification
and some have compared the situation to the division of East and West Germany.
Resistance to unification is said to be waning somewhat
even though some are still fiercely opposed.
The discomfort of the division once again came to ahead
with the vote of Britain to leave the EU,
angering many who don’t want to see a border
erected between the two parts of the Ireland.
The slim majority of the Northern Irish voted to remain within the EU
bringing up a degree of resentment to the UK
for forcibly removing them from it.
Talks about the reunification of Ireland began
immediately, and the idea has shown growing support especially
with the Scottish intention of holding a second independence referendum.
Some view Irish unification as inevitable
as all the generations pass for an increasingly more liberal world.
Yet others too are skeptical.
I guess only time will tell.
This video would not be possible without the help of Audible.
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只需要一个手机 或电脑 或平板 或者任一有用的mp3
using a phone computer or tablet or any other mp3 capable device.
I’ve been a happy customer of Audible for quite a while now.
and I’d say that easily 90% of the books have consumed
in the past few years has been using their service.
If you’re a fan of Ireland, why not check out
由James L Nelson编写的书籍Norseman saga Fin Gall
the Norseman saga Fin Gall by James L Nelson.
It’s a series of novels that takes place in Ireland during the Viking Age
when the island was ruled over land and sea by the Norseman.
Audible is offering Suibhne viewers a free 30-day trial
which they can access by heading to audible.com/suibhne
or by clicking the link below,
which includes a free audiobook to begin
listening to at no cost to you.
Audible特别适合在长途车 火车 或者飞机上使用
Audible is perfect for those long car, train, or plane journeys
and less cumbersome
if you’re not able to lug a book around where ever you are.
That’s audible.com/suibhne or click the link below.
Thank you so much to Audible and those who support.
And hey, if you’re curious about the talking robot who interrupted your history video,
well, that is totally understandable.
What Suibne does here is amazing
and pretty essential to what we do over on our channel Tale Foundry.
Whereas Suibne investigates reality, we investigate fictions
such as world mythologies, and then use what we find to tell news stories.
所以 如果这激发了你的想象力 快来加入我们 一起编故事吧
So if that excites your fancy, why not come and make stuff up with us.
We’ll see you there.
Thank you so much for watching everyone
and thank you all so much for the extra patronage from last month.
As of writing the script, I’m more than halfway to the first goal.
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So for those of you that want to help please feel free to do so.
Special thanks to Tale Foundry for their contribution.
Their channel is really really good please check them out.
Until next time everyone.