Germany is located right in the center of Europe
between its two largest neighbors France and Poland.
Strap yourselves in for a complicated one,
when the romans arrived in Germany,
they found a land inhabited by melting pots of celtic and germanic peoples.
The diversity of the region didn’t interest the Romans,
who called the land West of the Rhine River Gaul
East of the River Romania.
The germanic peoples really good at fighting the Romans,
but the people in these regions
lived mostly agrarian lifestyles in independent tribes.
These small tribes soon became fewer big tribes.
These tribes weren’t a nation as such but a conglomeration of
independent smaller States for centuries.
Which is the reason why there are so many names
for the German nation to this day.
The Germans expanded further into the weakening Roman empire.
This great migration period eventually became known as the great migration period.
Historians aren’t very creative.
One of the tribes called the Franks dominated the region
and slowly conquered all of France Germany, the low countries and parts of Italy
并且渐渐占领了法国 德国 低地国家和意大利部分地区
under the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties.
Much of this conquest can be attributed to Charlemagne,
also known as Charles the Great.
Charlemagne’s empire became the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire,
the symbolic successor to the actual Roman empire.
The Empire was split into three kingdoms:
East,West and Middle Frankia.
East Frankie eventually came under the control of Otto Saxony
who married into the Italian kingdom,
leading the pope to revive the Holy Roman Empire.
Establishment of the state became one of the many precursors
for the division of the Catholic and Orthodox Church.
The latter of which was still firmly controlled by the Eastern Roman Byzantines
from the 11th to the 13th century.
The Holy Roman Empire was a key nation in the crusades
which began as military expeditions to the Holy land
against the growing Seljuk Turk empire.
In 1230,the German Teutonic order of Knights annexed an area called Prussia
in an attempt to eliminate the remnant pagans from Europe.
Around the same time,German’s towns and villages were being settled
in areas outside the empire into Poland and Hungary.
Leading to areas of high Diversity and ethnic ambiguity.
The best way to describe the Holy Roman Empire for the next few centuries
is a very loosely united monarchy with many smaller kingdoms
and duchies with varying degrees of power and autonomy.
The German lawyer Martin Luther began a period of change in the Catholic church
which became known as the Protestant Reformation.
Making Germany a key focus in the splitting of the church for a second time.
Two kingdoms in the Empire rose to dominate the rest.
Habsburg Austria in the south and Brandenburg Prussia in the North,
these two kingdoms became intense rivals fighting wars
and annexing large amounts of territory outside the Empire.
Both kingdoms fed very badly during the Napoleonic Wars
and the Holy Roman Empire was officially abolished by the French empire
who came to influence much of western Europe.
The French Revolution began a decades-long rising nationalism in Germany
and many of the people saw to unify into a single nation.
By 1866,Prussia had become the dominant power
after the seven-week war against Austria and set up the Northern Germanic
Confederation in the following year,notably excluding their Austrian rivals.
This became the German empire just four years later.
The first modern German nation state.
Germany was propelled to superpower status
and even became involved in overseas colonization.
Tensions were high in Europe and many distrusted
the new powerful nation that had just appeared.
This led to so many alliances in Europe since nobody trusted anybody anymore.
And each nation had to pick a side in case war broke out.
And this preparation for war inevitably became its precursor
when the Slavic nationalist Gavrilo Princip
assassinated heir to the Austrian throne in 1914
or broke out in Europe between the central powers and the allies.
Germany ended up being a key aggressor in the war and was blamed
for most of the atrocities committed during battle.
Extremely harsh war reparations were imposed on the state
and much of its territory was stripped to the Treaty of Versailles.
This crippled the Germany economy.
And angst against the allied powers led to the rise of National Socialism
with Adolf Hitler,one of its main advocates,
rising to power and the resentment held by the common people.
Hitler became chancellor in the year 1933.
Instituting radical reforms and imposing strict national socialist ideals on the nation
which became known to the west as Nazi Germany.
The regime was highly anti-semitic and allied itself with fascist Italy
and imperial Japan to form the axis powers of World War II.
After a rapid expansion and then military declined,
Nazi Germany was defeated and divided along the zones of occupation by allied powers.
Western, East Germany continued his neighbors for the next few decades
and the Berlin wall was erected around West Berlin
to prevent defectors from the Communist East Germany.
By 1990, the Communist East collapsed, being reunited with west Germany.
The new German Republic is known for its high quality of living,
exceptional engineering and for playing a key role in rebuilding Europe.
Being one of the key founders of the European union and the Eurozone.
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