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法国的历史

The Animated History of France

法国位于欧洲西部
France is located in Western Europe
北接德国 南邻伊比利亚半岛
between Germany and the iberian Peninsula
第一个千禧年到来前
Before the turn of the first millennium
这里大多数地区生活着游牧民族和异教徒部落
Most of the region was inhabited by both Nomadic and tribal cults
对那些看过我其他视频的人们 你们会注意到
for those that have seen my other videos you’ll begin to notice this
以下是早期欧洲历史中反复出现的主题:
As a reoccurring theme with early European history
异教徒原本拥有土地 罗马人来了 抢走了土地
The cults owned some land the romans came and took the land
然后唰的一下 推动了历史进程
and then ‘Poof!’ History begins.
异教徒们被分为两个主要群体
the cults were divided into two main groups
南方的高卢人和北方的贝尔盖人
the Gauls in the south and the Belgae in the north
但此地依然生活着各色民族
But the area was actually quite ethnicity diverse
在里维埃拉有希腊人的殖民地
Ther were greek Colonies in the French Riviera and
还有语言甚至不属于印欧语系的阿基坦人
even a non indo-european people called Aquitani
他们的语言和民族同现代巴斯克地区息息相关
whose language and people is related to the Modern-day Basque region
公元前58年 高卢被凯撒率领的罗马帝国占领
Gaul was captured for the Roman Empire in 58 BC by Julius Caesar
凯撒带来了通俗拉丁语
who brought the language of the empire Vulgar Latin
也就是现代法语的前身
which is the ancestor of Modern French
在征服的部落中有一个叫帕里西的部落
One of the conquered tribes was called the Parisii
公元前250年 帕里西人在河岸边的一座小岛上建造起了城市
who founded the city on an island in the river scene in 250 BC
因为该城位置具战略性 易守难攻
Because of its strategic location and easy defense ability it
它逐渐成为了凯尔特人重要的城市 并且最终成为了法国的首都巴黎
became an important Celtic city and eventually the capital of France called Paris
早期的法国历史和德国类似
early France Shares much of its history with Germany
所以如果你还没有看过我其他的视频 请点击这里了解
So if you haven’t seen my other video on the topic you can catch up by clicking here,
但是鉴于本集只讨论法国 我们将跨越到
but for our purposes We’ll pick up right
查理大帝将法兰克帝国分裂成3个王国以后
after charlemagne’s Frankish Empire was split into three kingdoms
西法兰克成为了法兰西王国 其领土大致与今天相仿
West Frankia which became the kingdom of france covered most of the territory familiar to us today,
但有很长一段时间 处于非中央集权的分裂状态
but for a while, it was very disunited and non-centralized power
事实上我虽然称它为王国
in fact I used the word kingdom very liberally
但相比诸多王子公爵和神职人员来说 国王根本没有权力
as the king really had no power at all in comparison to the Princes, Dukes and clergy
当然了 他可以坐在属于国王的宝座之上
Sure he could sit on a throne in Columns of King
但是这仅仅是个光荣的虚衔而已
But it was nothing more than a glorified title
真正的转折出现在1066年诺曼底人对英格兰的军事征服中
One of the real problems came during the Norman conquest of 1066
征服者威廉成为了英格兰的国王 并且同时
in which William the conqueror became king of England while still remaining
作为诺曼底大公仍旧是法王的封臣
a subject to the french crown as duke of Normandy
我相信这在短时间内不会成为一个问题的
and I’m sure that won’t become a problem any time soon
987年 雨果·卡佩当选为国王
Hugh of Capet seized power when he was elected in 987
建立起了卡佩王朝
established the Capetian Dynasty
然而国王依旧是个无实权的头衔
however again the title of King meant very little
在这一时期 法国以极大热忱投入到十字军东征中
The French during this period answered the call to crusade with fervor
天主教会势力与日俱增
and the Catholic Church grew in Significant importance
神职人员在该地区享有极高的影响力和权力
with the clergy holding much power and influence in the region
接下来数十年间 法国输给诺曼系英王越来越多的土地
With each passing decade the Kingdom of France lost more and more land to the anglo-Norman Kings
而其中绝大多数的战斗发生于腓力二世【法】与狮心王理查一世【英】之间
to a point where all that war was fought between Philip II and Richard the LionHeart.
但由于理查于1199年去世 腓力二世最终
But with Richards death in 1199 Philip managed to conquer much
成功夺回其在法国的绝大多数领土
of his holdings in France
但在查理四世死后 局势再次升温直至沸点
Tensions came to a boiling point after the death
因为他唯一合法的继承人
of Charles IV since his only legal successor
是英王爱德华三世
would have been the English Edward III
由此针对疆域纠葛 战争爆发并持续百年之久
and a war was erupted in the disputed lands lasting more than a century
后人称之为英法百年战争
They are after known as the Hundred Years’ War.
战争期间 乡下遭到黑死病肆虐
During the war the countryside was ravaged by the Black Death
而正当所有迹象显示英格兰胜利在望之时
and when all signs were pointing to an English victory
虔诚的法国农村少女 圣女贞德 扛起大旗突破了英国人的重围
a pious peasant girl named Joan of Arc lifted the English siege
将英格兰人驱逐出了法国的土地
and helped repel the English from French soil
1477年 法国连同哈布斯堡王朝战胜勃艮第公国 赢得其西部半数疆土
In 1477 France Won The Western half of Burgundy in a war with the Habsburgs
1532年 法国又将布列塔尼公国并入其统治
and in 1532 incorporated the Duchy of Brittany
极大地扩张了它的版图
greatly expanding her territory
并在接下来的几个世纪中 逐渐成为欧洲一霸
France became a European superpower in the next few centuries
它大张旗鼓地同各邻国开战
notably fighting a war with their neighbors for land
有些为争夺土地 有些为宗教运动
fighting another war with their neighbors for religion
并且在新世界开拓出庞大的殖民帝国
Starting a sizeable colonial Empire in the new world
在那里同邻国继续争夺土地
fought another war with their neighbors for land and
并且牵涉到美国独立战争之中
became involved in the American revolution
积年战争导致法国债务累累
Debts from the wars began to mount and the
农民对君主制的抵触情绪日渐强烈
French peasants became increasingly dissatisfied with monarchy who
不满君权天授的支配与统治
by this point had gained unchecked power
自由的启蒙思想以及大规模蔓延的饥荒
The liberal ideas of the enlightenment and the widespread famine
为法国最著名的政治事件–法国大革命铺平了道路
paved the way for France’s most famous political event, the French Revolution
随之而来的是军事英雄拿破仑的崛起
as well as the rise of the military Hero, Napoleon bonaparte
攻占巴士底狱后法国人建立了国民公会
With the establishment of a French parliament in the Storming of the Bastille,
将路易十六推上了断头台 但革命也引发了国内大规模的混乱
the revolution saw the execution of Louis XVI and widespread Chaos in France,
我以后会详细讲述这场革命
I will eventually cover the revolution in more detail
但关键是领导混乱不堪的法国第一共和国
But the main point to take away was the success of a mostly chaotic French republic
击败第一次反法同盟
against the first coalition
归功于一个天才将军 拿破仑·波拿巴
largely due to a talented general named Napoleon Bonaparte
他在第二次反法同盟战争期间通过政变上台
he then seized power from the divided French republic in the war of the second coalition
并且在随后的多次战役中不断打败反法联军
and began to win many wars in many wars in many successive coalition’s against France
即便后来他在滑铁卢战役中失败
even after Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo
他依然为法国在欧洲留下了挥之不去的印记
He left a permanent mark on France in Europe
使法国自由主义精神传遍世界各地
and ensured that French liberalism would spread throughout the world
尽管这点可能并不是他的本意
Even though that may not have been his intention
拿破仑死后 法国政局动荡不安
after the death of Napoleon the country was politically unstable
但是经济实力雄厚
But their economy was strong
在非洲和亚洲建立了法国第二殖民帝国
building a large empire in Africa and Asia
享受多种文化兴盛之际
enjoying cultural prosperity but lost much of the dominance in Europe
在欧洲却被德意志帝国夺去了霸主地位
to the new form German Empire
在第一次世界大战期间
The third Republic was formed
法兰西第三共和国成了德意志帝国的主要目标
and became the central focus for the German Empire during the first World war
因为德国惧怕被法国和俄罗斯的联盟包围
who feared being encircled by an alliance between France and Russia
法国加入了协约国的阵营
France joined the side of the allies and fared very badly
并且在一战的第一阶段损失惨重
during the first phase of the war
但是1918年德国投降 法国最终赢得了战争的胜利
But eventually won the war with Germany surrender in 1918
凡尔赛条约的签订赔偿给法国
The war reparations at the Treaty of versailles granted France the territories they had lost
它在上个世纪的普法战争中丢失的领土
during the Franco-Prussian war in the previous century
但同时也使法国不幸成为20年后希特勒纳粹政权的目标
But the treaty also made them unfortunate targets of Hitler’s Nazi regime just 20 years later
二战中法国很早就沦陷了
The French Lost world War II very early on
战争中的大部分时间都被德国所占领
and were occupied by the Germans for the majority of the war
成为轴心国和同盟国的主战场
and much of their land was a theater of battle between the allied and axis
在轴心国势力被击败后
after the defeat of the axis powers France rebuilt
法国在冷战中站到了西方资本主义阵营
and sided with the capitalist west during the Cold War
同时在这一期间失去了它的殖民帝国
and during this time lost their Colonial Empire
然而当代的法兰西共和国是欧盟的创始成员国
However the Modern-day French Republic is one of the founders of the European union
并且是世界上游客数量最多的国家 旅游产业巨大
and the most visited country in the world with a huge tourism sector
感谢大家的收看 如果你们喜欢我的视频
Thank you so much for watching guys if you enjoyed the video
请点击喜欢并且订阅
Please like and subscribe
我会努力更新类似的视频
I’ll be putting out new videos like this as often as I can
如果你想帮助我
If you’d like to help out,
你可以在Patron上支持我 下次见啦
you can support me on Patron, and we’ll see you next time

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视频概述

简直就是军事史

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

sky 1_0

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNk2QOn9oGE

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