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See you guys have heard of Finland, right?
The Arctic Wonderland in Northern Europe,
bordering Russia and Sweden.
and Norway too, I guess.
Sami, Vikings, the so called White Death,
萨米人 维京人 所谓的白色死神
Grand Duchies which are like regular duchies just better.
Swedes, Soviets and in between it all,
the reindeer just minding their own business.
Whatever you’ve heard of the Nordic nation,
its story goes back pretty far.
Finland is located right in the north of Europe,
partly within the Arctic Circle.
Most foreigners tend to mistakenly label the Finns as Scandinavian,
which is only partly true
since only the very top of the country is actually in Scandinavia.
It will be more correct to use the term
Nordic or Northern European
which encompasses the more broad cultural similarities
they have with their neighbors.
The region was inhabited mostly on the coast
by people that outsiders called the Fenni.
The Finns called their land Suomi
which means land of lakes
which if you’ve ever been to Finland,
is pretty accurate.
The Finns and the Sami are ethnically Uralic
and speak languages in the Finno-Ugric family,
meaning they are distinct from Caucasians.
But then again we don’t really know
and theories on the subject are about as common as Vodka.
Things are pretty peachy for the Finns
until they encountered a little-known Germanic group
from southern Scandinavia — the Vikings.
The Vikings raid along the Finnish and Baltic Shores for many centuries,
beginning the process of cultural influence
that the Norse would have on Finland for almost its entire history.
Norse people also arrived in Finland as traders and settlers
bringing with them culture, food, customs and traditions.
带来他们的文化 食物 风俗和传统
The Finns were never really united
but rather a group of small villages and farms
with similar language and ancestry.
So resistance was light at best.
Norse’s settlement in Finland increased dramatically
from the 9-12 centuries,
mostly from modern-day Sweden and Denmark
which would begin the long-standing claim of
the Scandinavian powers on the Finnish lands.
The Scandinavian powers fought for control over
much of the proto Finnic lands, including parts of Estonia.
To make things worse,
even the Russians from Novgorod got involved from time to time.
But before anyone knew what was going on,
the medieval ages rolled around
and crusading was the hot new fashion.
The northern Crusades between 1150 and 1293
saw the Swedes conquer vast amounts of Finnic land,
laying the foundations for the Swedish empire.
In addition to land and dominance,
the expanding kingdom had a lot of symbolic significance for the Swedes
who had been struggling for many years
against the Danes — their main rivals
who had a bit of a head start on the whole empire building business.
The Swedes brought with them the swedish language and also lots of war.
King Magnus Eriksson wasn’t a fan of the Russians
and Finland often got caught up
in the crossfire of the two nations’ disputes.
Not long after Finland became part of the most powerful northern personal union,
you’ve never heard of — the union of Kalmar.
To try to counter the monopoly on trade from
another union you’ve never heard of — the Hanseatic League.
Princess Margaret of Denmark had her eyes set
on the Crown’s of Sweden and Norway.
And don’t get us wrong.
The royal families on these three countries were pretty intertwined by this point
and they mostly spoke the same language
so uniting them wasn’t exactly the most far-fetched idea.
She married the king of Sweden
and succeeded as regent for her adopted son Eric
who became the king of Norway, Sweden and Denmark
who by the way just happened to be a Duke from Poland.
The union was signed in 1397 in the Swedish city of Kalmar
which gave the new country its name.
Bonus points for creativity.
The union was plagued by internal struggles and fighting
with the Danes and Russians much of the time in the Finnish mainland.
The Livonian Wars of the 1500s was a turbulent time for Finland.
Four major powers warred for control over more land,
resulting in a large territorial expansion in the northern Finland.
The war also had internal struggles with Sigismund Vasa,
briefly being king of both Poland and Sweden
until being deposed by his nephew King Charles.
The conflicts were particularly harsh on the people of Finland
who revolted against the Swedish crown during the Finnish Club war.
This ended well for no one. At least for all the Finns and the Sami.
17th century Finland found itself part of a dominant military power
and many Finns served in the Swedish army.
The 1600s were pretty big in a religious war
and Sweden devout Lutheran since 1527 couldn’t help but get involved.
Protestants were like the hipsters of Europe at this point
which is all fine and dandy
unless those hipsters happen to control a large modernized army.
The 30 years war and the northern wars had many Finns
such as the Hakkapeliita die for the Swedish crown
symbolically to protect their faith.
But if they did happen to gain some land in the process,
well that was just an added benefit.
Unusually cold temperatures and famine meant the Finns weren’t ready
for the next conflict the Swedes would bring them to —
the Great Northern War.
Sweden had gone to war with literally all of its close neighbours
and the Finnish countryside was ravished
by freezing temperatures and the Russian army,
killing nearly half of Finland’s population.
If you’d like to learn more about the Great Northern war,
why not head over to the Great Courses Plus?
为什么不去The Great Courses Plus寻找答案呢
The Great Courses Plus is an on-demand video service with
The Great Courses Plus是一个有应必答的视频网站
thousands of lectures and courses from all around the world.
This includes Ivy League Professors,
experts from National Geographic and many many more.
For whatever interests you,
math, science, literature, and of course, history.
数学 科学 文学 当然了 还有历史
There is something for everyone.
Lecture 22 in The Decisive Battles of World History entitled
1709 Poltava — Sweden’s Fall, Russia’s Rise
is a fun and easy way to learn about
the Great Northern War which devastated Finland.
Viewers who wish to the support the Suibhne channel are offered to Free Trial.
which they can access by heading to http://theGreatCoursesPlus.com/Suibhne
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也感谢Great Couses Plus的支持
Finland was mostly at peace after that
and may have been a disputed kingdom for a while.
The Finns more earnestly began to struggle
for independence during the Period of Enlightenment.
When the Napoleonic wars rolled around,
Sweden, just like all the cool kids,
went to war with France.
And somewhere in the middle of it Russia annex Finland.
How this happened is long and complicated.
And we’ll elaborate more when we do episodes on Sweden and Denmark.
But long story short, the Russians wanted to
push their borders as far west from St. Petersburg as possible
and gave the Finns autonomy under the Grand Duchy of Finland to do it.
Until World War I, the Duchy remained peaceful
and didn’t serve under the Russian serfdom.
By the time the 20th century dawned,
the Finns were thoroughly infected by the new European fever —
In 1917, during the First World War,
Finland gained independence.
But just like pretty much all of its European neighbors at that time,
it became split on ideological divides.
In this case, conservatives and socialists
and ideological divides very rarely didn’t
lead to civil war in those days.
The Finnish Civil War ensued and the capitalists won.
But that wouldn’t be the end of socialism
or other ideologies in Finland.
The Second World War saw a major conflict in Finland.
Two months after the fall of Warsaw, the Soviet Army invaded Finland .
This proxy conflict is labeled the Winter War
since most of the battles were fought in thick winter snow,
making famous to Finnish ski troops,
Molotov Cocktails and Simo Häyhä, the White Death.
Molotov Cocktails和Simo Häyhä 白色死神声名鹊起
Häyhä was a Finnish marksman who had the highest confirmed kills more than
any other sniper in history in a major war.
The Soviets named him the White Death.
Since he blended into the snow and the men feared him to the point of paranoia.
The Finns were loosely allied with Nazi Germany
during their attacks on Russia but only lasted until 1944
when the Finns went to war with Germany to expel them from the northern Lapland.
Harsh war reparations were imposed on Finland
in the post-war period by the USSR.
However, this had a modernizing effect on the nation.
They were largely optimistic after the war having successfully defended their nation.
Nationalism was high
and they remained free from absorption into the USSR.
Rather remaining close trade ally,
while strengthening its ties to Scandinavia as well.
They were completely neutral during the Cold War
and cooperated mostly with both sides.
In 1952 they entered into the Nordic Union
with abrogations of passports, immigration, social welfare and trade tariffs .
同时引进签证 移民 社会保障系统和关税制度
Finland also shaped herself into the modern socialist welfare state it is today
with a government not unlike Sweden or Denmark.
They joined the European Union in 1995 with Sweden and Austria
and 4 years later adopted the Euro as their currency.
The facilitation in trade and immigration boosted the economy and tourism.
The economy is based on manufacturing, service delivery and resource exports
经济发展基于制造业 运输服务 资源出口
and its highly ranked information technology.
Outsiders have frequently described Finland as a socialist Utopia
which while probably a little romanticized.
They are currently ranked as the fifth happiest country in the world
and who doesn’t love happy reindeer.
Well, we hope you enjoyed the Finland episode.
If you want the chance to vote for the next country we cover,
you can head on over to the Suibhne Patreon Page.
We can get this and many other cool perks such as behind-the-scenes and merchandise.
Don’t forget to check out the Great Courses Plus until next time.
请记得收看the Great Courses Plus下期视频
The large and small Nomadic tribes.
The largest and most powerful of which
are occasionally recorded for us by Western European scholars
who wrote about the dreadful eastern kingdoms,
raiding their lands such as the Huns, Avars and Bulgars
If you want to go back further, there was the Germanic of settlements before that
and Roman before that and Greek before that and mammoth before that.
再前还有罗马人 再前还有希腊人 再前还有猛犸象
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