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芬兰的历史

The Animated History of Finland

This video is sponsored by the Great Courses Plus.
本期视频由the Great Courses Plus赞助播出
Stick around to see how you can support the channel
观看并支持我们的频道
and learn more online.
同时学习更多知识
See you guys have heard of Finland, right?
想必大家都听过芬兰吧?
The Arctic Wonderland in Northern Europe,
这个坐落于北欧的北极仙境之国
bordering Russia and Sweden.
与俄罗斯和瑞典接壤
and Norway too, I guess.
大概也和挪威毗邻
Sami, Vikings, the so called White Death,
萨米人 维京人 所谓的白色死神
Grand Duchies which are like regular duchies just better.
比一般公爵更厉害的大公爵
Swedes, Soviets and in between it all,
在瑞典人和苏联人之间
the reindeer just minding their own business.
芬兰人只关注自己的生活
Whatever you’ve heard of the Nordic nation,
关于芬兰 不管你知道多少
its story goes back pretty far.
它的历史可谓源远流长
Finland is located right in the north of Europe,
芬兰位于欧洲正北
partly within the Arctic Circle.
部分位于北极圈以内
Most foreigners tend to mistakenly label the Finns as Scandinavian,
很多外国人误以为芬兰人是斯堪的那维亚人
which is only partly true
这句话不完全正确
since only the very top of the country is actually in Scandinavia.
因为只有芬兰的最顶部在斯堪的纳维亚半岛内
It will be more correct to use the term
使用北欧人或北方的欧洲人
Nordic or Northern European
这样的词汇来形容才更为恰当
which encompasses the more broad cultural similarities
该表达基于他们与邻国之间的
they have with their neighbors.
更广泛的文化相似性
The region was inhabited mostly on the coast
这里的人多居住在海边
by people that outsiders called the Fenni.
被他国人称作Fenni
The Finns called their land Suomi
芬兰人称芬兰为Suomi
which means land of lakes
意思是湖泊遍布的土地
which if you’ve ever been to Finland,
如果你曾去过芬兰
is pretty accurate.
就知道这个词非常形象
The Finns and the Sami are ethnically Uralic
芬兰人和萨米人都是乌拉尔语族人
and speak languages in the Finno-Ugric family,
且语言都属于芬诺-乌戈尔语族
meaning they are distinct from Caucasians.
这意味着他们与高加索人截然不同
But then again we don’t really know
但我们不能十分确定
and theories on the subject are about as common as Vodka.
因为有关这个主题的理论像伏特加一样普遍
Things are pretty peachy for the Finns
芬兰人生活一直都很愉快
until they encountered a little-known Germanic group
直到被斯堪的纳维亚南部一个鲜为人知的
from southern Scandinavia — the Vikings.
日耳曼部落——维京人所打破
The Vikings raid along the Finnish and Baltic Shores for many centuries,
维京人沿着芬兰和波罗的海岸抢劫长达数个世纪
beginning the process of cultural influence
也开启了文化交融的进程
that the Norse would have on Finland for almost its entire history.
而这种影响几乎贯穿了芬兰整个历史
Norse people also arrived in Finland as traders and settlers
挪威人也会到芬兰经商和定居
bringing with them culture, food, customs and traditions.
带来他们的文化 食物 风俗和传统
The Finns were never really united
芬兰从来没有实现真正的统一
but rather a group of small villages and farms
它由小村庄和农场组成
with similar language and ancestry.
这些村庄和农场具有相似的语言和血统
So resistance was light at best.
所以芬兰几乎无法抵抗(维京人入侵)
Norse’s settlement in Finland increased dramatically
从9到12世纪 大量挪威人
from the 9-12 centuries,
迁入芬兰
mostly from modern-day Sweden and Denmark
他们主要来自现在的瑞典和丹麦
which would begin the long-standing claim of
从此 在芬兰的土地上
the Scandinavian powers on the Finnish lands.
对斯堪纳维亚半岛的领导权的纷争不断
The Scandinavian powers fought for control over
斯堪的纳维亚政权夺取了
much of the proto Finnic lands, including parts of Estonia.
包括爱沙尼亚在内的原属芬兰的大部分土地
To make things worse,
更糟糕的是
even the Russians from Novgorod got involved from time to time.
来自诺夫哥罗德的俄罗斯人也时不时分一杯羹
But before anyone knew what was going on,
但在这片混乱之中
the medieval ages rolled around
中世纪戛然而止
and crusading was the hot new fashion.
改革运动成为新热潮
The northern Crusades between 1150 and 1293
在1150年到1293年 北方改革运动期间
saw the Swedes conquer vast amounts of Finnic land,
瑞典人占领了大部分芬兰土地
laying the foundations for the Swedish empire.
为瑞典帝国奠定了基础
In addition to land and dominance,
除了土地和统治权
the expanding kingdom had a lot of symbolic significance for the Swedes
这个急速扩张的王国对瑞典人十分重要
who had been struggling for many years
瑞典人已经与他们的主要对手——丹麦人
against the Danes — their main rivals
经历了数百年的斗争
who had a bit of a head start on the whole empire building business.
可以说丹麦人促进了瑞典帝国的建立
The Swedes brought with them the swedish language and also lots of war.
瑞典人带来了瑞典语言和数不尽的战争
King Magnus Eriksson wasn’t a fan of the Russians
Magnus Eriksson国王对俄罗斯并不感冒
and Finland often got caught up
因此 在其与俄交战中
in the crossfire of the two nations’ disputes.
芬兰人不堪其扰
Not long after Finland became part of the most powerful northern personal union,
在芬兰加入最强大的北部联盟后不久
you’ve never heard of — the union of Kalmar.
这个联盟你一定没听说过——卡马尔联盟
To try to counter the monopoly on trade from
为了对抗来自另一个联盟的贸易垄断
another union you’ve never heard of — the Hanseatic League.
这个联盟你也没听说过——汉萨同盟
Princess Margaret of Denmark had her eyes set
丹麦的玛格丽特公主开始觊觎
on the Crown’s of Sweden and Norway.
瑞典和挪威的王座
And don’t get us wrong.
不要理解错了
The royal families on these three countries were pretty intertwined by this point
这三个国家的皇室关系在这时错综复杂
and they mostly spoke the same language
且他们大多说同一种语言
so uniting them wasn’t exactly the most far-fetched idea.
所以联合这些国家并不那么异想天开
She married the king of Sweden
她嫁给了瑞典国王
and succeeded as regent for her adopted son Eric
而且成功垂帘听政 因为其养子艾瑞克
who became the king of Norway, Sweden and Denmark
成为了挪威 瑞典和丹麦的国王
who by the way just happened to be a Duke from Poland.
顺便一提 艾瑞克恰好是波兰的一个公爵
The union was signed in 1397 in the Swedish city of Kalmar
1397年 该联盟在瑞典城市卡玛尔签署生效
which gave the new country its name.
新国家命名为卡玛尔
Bonus points for creativity.
真是有创意啊
The union was plagued by internal struggles and fighting
但该联盟长期受到内斗
with the Danes and Russians much of the time in the Finnish mainland.
以及和丹麦人 俄罗斯人之间斗争的困扰
The Livonian Wars of the 1500s was a turbulent time for Finland.
16世纪的利沃尼亚战争使芬兰动荡不安
Four major powers warred for control over more land,
四个主要势力为争夺更多的土地征战
resulting in a large territorial expansion in the northern Finland.
导致芬兰北部土地进一步扩张
The war also had internal struggles with Sigismund Vasa,
这场战争还包含与Sigismund Vasa的内斗
briefly being king of both Poland and Sweden
他是波兰和瑞典两国的国王
until being deposed by his nephew King Charles.
后来被他的外甥Charles废黜
The conflicts were particularly harsh on the people of Finland
对于此时正奋力抵抗瑞典统治的芬兰人而言
who revolted against the Swedish crown during the Finnish Club war.
这场冲突尤其惨烈
This ended well for no one. At least for all the Finns and the Sami.
到头来多方俱伤 至少芬兰人和萨米人是如此
17th century Finland found itself part of a dominant military power
17世纪时 芬兰的军事实力已经很强
and many Finns served in the Swedish army.
且许多芬兰人编入瑞典军队
The 1600s were pretty big in a religious war
17世纪对一场宗教战争而言意义重大
and Sweden devout Lutheran since 1527 couldn’t help but get involved.
从1527年起加入路德教会的瑞典人被迫卷入了战争
Protestants were like the hipsters of Europe at this point
新教徒就和现在的欧洲摩登一族似的
which is all fine and dandy
一副花花公子的派头
unless those hipsters happen to control a large modernized army.
只是这些花花公子刚好指挥一支庞大的现代军队
The 30 years war and the northern wars had many Finns
在这场持续30年的战争和北方战争中
such as the Hakkapeliita die for the Swedish crown
像Hakkapeliita一样的很多芬兰人
symbolically to protect their faith.
为了瑞典国王和守护瑞典人的信仰而死
But if they did happen to gain some land in the process,
如果他们在这过程中恰巧得到了一些土地
well that was just an added benefit.
那也不值一提
Unusually cold temperatures and famine meant the Finns weren’t ready
极寒的气候和饥荒使得芬兰人
for the next conflict the Swedes would bring them to —
在接下来与瑞典的冲突――北方大战中
the Great Northern War.
极为被动
Sweden had gone to war with literally all of its close neighbours
瑞典几乎鼓动它所有的邻国参与了战争
and the Finnish countryside was ravished
而芬兰的乡下被寒冷的天气
by freezing temperatures and the Russian army,
和俄罗斯人的掠夺消耗殆尽
killing nearly half of Finland’s population.
几乎半数芬兰人口丧生
If you’d like to learn more about the Great Northern war,
如果你想了解更多北方大战的信息
why not head over to the Great Courses Plus?
为什么不去The Great Courses Plus寻找答案呢
The Great Courses Plus is an on-demand video service with
The Great Courses Plus是一个有应必答的视频网站
thousands of lectures and courses from all around the world.
有来自世界各地的演讲以及课程视频
This includes Ivy League Professors,
包括常春藤的教授
experts from National Geographic and many many more.
美国国家地理的专家等等
For whatever interests you,
不管你对什么感兴趣
math, science, literature, and of course, history.
数学 科学 文学 当然了 还有历史
There is something for everyone.
这里总有你需要的知识
Lecture 22 in The Decisive Battles of World History entitled
第22课是世界史上一场将1709年的波尔瓦塔
1709 Poltava — Sweden’s Fall, Russia’s Rise
置于重要地位的战争——瑞典陨落和俄罗斯崛起
is a fun and easy way to learn about
我们可以以有趣并容易的方式
the Great Northern War which devastated Finland.
学习摧毁芬兰的北方战争
Viewers who wish to the support the Suibhne channel are offered to Free Trial.
想要支持Suibhne频道的观众可免费获取
which they can access by heading to http://theGreatCoursesPlus.com/Suibhne
可以点击http://theGreatCoursesPlus.com/Suibhne进入
or by clicking the link below to begin their online learning adventure.
也可点击下面的链接开始网上学习的旅程
Thank you to everyone that helps the channel
感谢每一个支持这个频道的人
and to the Great Couses Plus for their support.
也感谢Great Couses Plus的支持
Finland was mostly at peace after that
此后大部分时间 芬兰处于和平状态
and may have been a disputed kingdom for a while.
且一度成为了一个有争议的国家
It’s complicated.
说来复杂
The Finns more earnestly began to struggle
启蒙运动期间 芬兰开始
for independence during the Period of Enlightenment.
热切地追求国家独立
When the Napoleonic wars rolled around,
拿破仑战争后
Sweden, just like all the cool kids,
瑞典 顺应时代的潮流
went to war with France.
与法作战
And somewhere in the middle of it Russia annex Finland.
俄罗斯不知怎么 竟吞并了芬兰
How this happened is long and complicated.
这个过程说来话长
And we’ll elaborate more when we do episodes on Sweden and Denmark.
我们会在介绍瑞典和丹麦的几集中详细介绍
But long story short, the Russians wanted to
总而言之 俄罗斯人就是想要
push their borders as far west from St. Petersburg as possible
将他们的国界不断从圣彼得堡向西推移
and gave the Finns autonomy under the Grand Duchy of Finland to do it.
并归还芬兰人对芬兰公国的自治权
Until World War I, the Duchy remained peaceful
直到第一次世界大战 公国依旧保持着和平
and didn’t serve under the Russian serfdom.
并拒绝实行俄罗斯的农奴制度
By the time the 20th century dawned,
到20世纪来临时
the Finns were thoroughly infected by the new European fever —
芬兰人彻底卷入了欧洲新热潮——
Nationalism.
民族主义中
In 1917, during the First World War,
1917年 第一次世界大战期间
Finland gained independence.
芬兰独立了
But just like pretty much all of its European neighbors at that time,
但就像当时几乎所有的欧洲邻国那样
it became split on ideological divides.
它在意识形态上变得四分五裂
In this case, conservatives and socialists
因此 芬兰保守人士和社会主义者之间的分歧
and ideological divides very rarely didn’t
及意识形态的分裂不可避免地
lead to civil war in those days.
引发了芬兰内战
The Finnish Civil War ensued and the capitalists won.
内战中资本主义者取得了胜利
But that wouldn’t be the end of socialism
但那并未终结芬兰的
or other ideologies in Finland.
社会主义主张及其他意识形态
The Second World War saw a major conflict in Finland.
二战中芬兰发生了大混乱
Two months after the fall of Warsaw, the Soviet Army invaded Finland .
华沙陷落的2个月后 苏联军队入侵芬兰
This proxy conflict is labeled the Winter War
这标志性的一役被称作为冬季战争
since most of the battles were fought in thick winter snow,
因为大部分战场都覆盖着厚厚的积雪
making famous to Finnish ski troops,
从此 在芬兰的滑雪军队中
Molotov Cocktails and Simo Häyhä, the White Death.
Molotov Cocktails和Simo Häyhä 白色死神声名鹊起
Häyhä was a Finnish marksman who had the highest confirmed kills more than
芬兰的神射手Häyhä 被认为是
any other sniper in history in a major war.
芬兰战场上最厉害的狙击手
The Soviets named him the White Death.
苏联人称他为白色死神
Since he blended into the snow and the men feared him to the point of paranoia.
因为他与雪融为一体 且士兵害怕他到了偏执的地步
The Finns were loosely allied with Nazi Germany
在进攻俄罗斯时 芬兰曾与
during their attacks on Russia but only lasted until 1944
纳粹军队结成松散的联盟 但也只持续到1944年
when the Finns went to war with Germany to expel them from the northern Lapland.
那时芬兰人为驱逐拉普兰北部的德国人而与之交战
Harsh war reparations were imposed on Finland
战后 前苏联为芬兰
in the post-war period by the USSR.
支付了大笔赔偿金
However, this had a modernizing effect on the nation.
这促进了芬兰的现代化进程
They were largely optimistic after the war having successfully defended their nation.
战后他们因成功卫国而收到了极大鼓舞
Nationalism was high
民族主义热情高涨
and they remained free from absorption into the USSR.
芬兰依旧保持独立 没有加入前苏联阵营
Rather remaining close trade ally,
在维持与前苏联的贸易关系的同时
while strengthening its ties to Scandinavia as well.
加强了与斯堪的纳维亚的联系
They were completely neutral during the Cold War
他们在冷战期间保持完全中立
and cooperated mostly with both sides.
大多数时候与双边都有合作关系
In 1952 they entered into the Nordic Union
在1952年他们加入了北欧联盟
with abrogations of passports, immigration, social welfare and trade tariffs .
同时引进签证 移民 社会保障系统和关税制度
Finland also shaped herself into the modern socialist welfare state it is today
在与瑞典 丹麦相似的政府管理制度下
with a government not unlike Sweden or Denmark.
芬兰也形成了现代社会主义福利制度
They joined the European Union in 1995 with Sweden and Austria
他们在1995年与瑞典和奥地利一起加入了欧盟
and 4 years later adopted the Euro as their currency.
4年之后改用欧元作为流通货币
The facilitation in trade and immigration boosted the economy and tourism.
交易和移民的便利促进了经济和旅游业的发展
The economy is based on manufacturing, service delivery and resource exports
经济发展基于制造业 运输服务 资源出口
and its highly ranked information technology.
和全球顶尖的信息技术支持
Outsiders have frequently described Finland as a socialist Utopia
外国人经常将芬兰称之为
which while probably a little romanticized.
带有浪漫主义气息的社会主义乌托邦
They are currently ranked as the fifth happiest country in the world
他们最近被评为世界上第五幸福的国家
and who doesn’t love happy reindeer.
谁能不喜欢快乐的驯鹿呢
[Music playing]
[音乐]
Well, we hope you enjoyed the Finland episode.
好了 我们希望你喜欢本期视频
If you want the chance to vote for the next country we cover,
如果你想要参与投票选出我们下期要介绍的国家
you can head on over to the Suibhne Patreon Page.
你可以去Suibhne Patreon的页面
We can get this and many other cool perks such as behind-the-scenes and merchandise.
除此之外 我们还提供像幕后爆料和小商品之类的其他福利
Don’t forget to check out the Great Courses Plus until next time.
请记得收看the Great Courses Plus下期视频
The large and small Nomadic tribes.
下一期 大大小小的北欧部落
The largest and most powerful of which
西欧学者不时地在为我们
are occasionally recorded for us by Western European scholars
记载这些最大最强的部落
who wrote about the dreadful eastern kingdoms,
并描述可怕的攻城掠地的东方国度
raiding their lands such as the Huns, Avars and Bulgars
比如匈奴人 阿瓦尔人和保加利亚人
If you want to go back further, there was the Germanic of settlements before that
如果你想回顾得更远 那之前还有德国人定居
and Roman before that and Greek before that and mammoth before that.
再前还有罗马人 再前还有希腊人 再前还有猛犸象

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译制信息
视频概述

一口气了解芬兰史

听录译者

玻璃晴朗

翻译译者

浅葱

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TcXXJis03SE

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