未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

你不知道的小白鼠传奇

The Amazing Story of the Lab Rat

这个视频是
This episode is been
由我们超级慷慨的赞助商赞助播出
brought you by our super generous supporters on Patreon.
我基本上住在老鼠堆中
So I basically live amongst a bunch of rats.
每当我走出家门
Every time I go out of my door,
尤其在夏天
especially in the summer time,
我能听见它们在柴火堆中跑动
I can hear them scurrying around this woodpile.
自从我住到这个公寓的地下室
Since I living in the basement of the apartment,
我就知道它们在我周围
I know they’re around me.
他们在小巷和人行道 在街道上漫步
In the alleys and sidewalks, roaming the streets,
或许在寻觅剩饭剩菜吧
presumably looking for foodscraps
或许只是在找一个温暖的地方来过夜
or maybe just a warm place to spend the night.
我猜它们就在我脚下
I assume they’re beneath me too.
我房子上的小洞几乎明确表明了这点
This hole on the side of my building almost definitely indicates
它们早已钻进地板下的缝隙中
they’ve infiltrated the space under my floor as well.
某一天我听见有人在谈话中用到
I heard someone in a conversational contact the other day to use
“小白鼠”这个词 它闪过了我脑海中
the term lab rats. It ran through my brain
遥远的潜意识区域
that in the distant relatives of my unintentional urban
无意间成为我邻居的它们
neighbors republicly having experiments
就在那时 它们的远亲广泛应用于实验
run on them in the lab somewhere at that very moment.
这让我想到 为什么是它们而不是我
And it made me think why them and not me?
我们有那么多人 又或者为什么不是
We have a lot of other human, then why wasn’t
其他动物同样在实验室的迷宫里奔跑
some other animals heavily synonymous running through a maze in the
就像小白鼠一样
laboratory as rats were.
难道它们对人类生理学来说这是一个特例吗?
Are they an especially good analog for human physiology?
我们难道还在生它们的气
Are we still just mad at them for
因为它们常常带来瘟疫?
running around like the plague was their best friend?
答案并不这么简单
It turns out the answer isn’t as easy
并不如你预期想的那样
to pinpoint as you might think.
这也许仅仅牵涉了一种职业
It may just involve a kind of professional
现在并不存在了
that doesn’t even exist any more.
[纸团滚动声]
[The rolling sound of spitballs]
老鼠已经在我们身边生活很长一段时间了
Rats have been around for a really long time.
在2013年 已知老鼠的祖先
In 2013, the oldest known ancestor
现代鼠发现于中国
of the modern rat was discovered in China,
这表明超级大鼠的出现
dubbed the super rats had ran on earth
早在一亿六千万年前
more than a hundred and sixty million years ago,
使得老鼠在所有的古生物中
making the rat in all the ancestors the longest
成为存在最久的哺乳动物
lived mammals in history.
那么 这个故事可以将这些高贵的宠物
Well, such a story can dignified pets that’s only
那些用来做实验的第一批老鼠
fit in some of the first rats used in experiments
称作为”超凡鼠”
were dubbed “fancy rats”.
而这仅仅是人类的责任
And not to a surfeit are man responsible
这一大批物种的死亡
for the demise of a lot of their species,
使得人们终止
but also the man who ended up
再推广这些超凡鼠
popularising these fancy rats.
19世纪早期到中期
In the early to mid-1800s,
英国城区老鼠正肆虐横行
urban portions of England were overrun by rats,
尤其是棕色鼠 或称褐鼠
especially the brown rats, or Rattus Norvegicous.
这和住在我木头堆的老鼠
It’s the same rats in fact that
实际上是同一种
probably residing in my wood pile right now.
它们过去在英国的数量远不止于此
There were way more of them back in England
相比较与它们现在在芝加哥的生活
than there are in Chicago right now though,
于是一个新的职业产生了
and a new profession was born.
什么职业呢?就是捕鼠者
And that profession? Was rat-catching.
海量的老鼠在街头爬行和侵扰住户
There’re so many rats roaming the streets and infesting homes
因此作为捕鼠者你可以获得一份体面的工作
that you could actually make a pretty decent living as a ratcatcher.
他们会在小巷或者下水道里捕猎
They would hunt in alleys and sewers.
有时候他们甚至会训练一些动物 比如獾
sometimes even attempting to train animals like badgers
来协助他们的这份事业
to help them with their dirty deeds.
而在这些下水道骑士中 最出名 最恐怖的要属
And the most well-known and fearsome of these knights of the
一个叫杰克•布兰卡的男人
sewer was a man named Jack Black.
不 不是那个杰克•布兰卡
No, not that Jack Black.
他是最有名的捕鼠达人和鼠类毁灭者
He’s the most famous rat-catcher and mole destroyer.
名副其实 他的头衔中包括鼠类毁灭者
That’s right, part of his title included mole destroyer
当老鼠在19世纪中期的英格兰猖獗时
in the rat infested England of the mid-1800s.
尽管我们称呼他是女王的御用捕鼠者
Though we called himself the Queen’s official rat-catcher,
但是他从没有正式获得这项头衔
he never formally held the title.
虽然他确实穿着漂亮的制服
He did have a pretty awsome uniform though,
包括亮红色大衣 马甲和马裤
which included a bright red top coat, waistcoat and breeches.
面对难以应付的情况时
In a really badass move, he also had
他也拥有一条绑在身体上的皮革肩带
a huge leather sash that he wore around his body,
有着像老鼠一样的金属饰品
adorned with the likenesses of metal rats,
仿佛一条令人生畏的老鼠子弹袋
kind of like a scary rat bandolier.
杰克•布兰卡不仅摧毁老鼠或消灭鼹鼠
Jack Black didn’t just crush rats and destroy moles.
他还贩卖它们 老鼠
He also sold them, well, the rats anyway.
我猜他直接消灭了鼹鼠
The moles I assume he just destroyed.
他捕到的大部分老鼠
A large portion of his captured victims went to
大部分流向风靡一时的血腥运动——逗鼠游戏
a bloodsport popular the time called rat-baiting
人们会赌一条狗
where men would bet on a dog
会杀死老鼠的准确数字
killing a certain number of rats
通常在一个金属笼里
in a lot of time inside a wire cage.
除了卖老鼠给这项灰色运动外 布兰卡也繁育老鼠
Beyond selling them for this grizzly sports, Black also bred rats.
他特别着迷于
He was particularly fascinated with
不同的和特殊的毛色的老鼠
different and unique variations in terms of coloration,
尤其是毛色全白的
especially the albino ones.
最令人惊讶的 这种特别繁育出来的鼠
Surprisingly enough, the specially bred rats became
在维多利亚上流名媛中风靡一时
all the rage among the highborn Victorian women of the time.
她们从布兰卡购买不同品种的老鼠来充当宠物
They purchased these different breeds from Black to keep as pets.
有时候甚至把它们饲养在镀金的鼠笼里
Sometimes even keeping and carrying them around in gilded squirrel cages.
据说 维多利亚女王也购买了一些
It was even said the Queen Victoria kept some of his rats
作为宠物饲养在白金汉宫里
as pets in residency at Buckingham Palace.
但是他不仅仅只对上流名媛售贩这些老鼠
But highborn ladies were not the only people he sold his fancy
他也卖一些给法国科学家
rats to. He also began selling them to some French scientists,
尤其是他喜爱的白化鼠
especially the albino rats that he loved.
时不时会用老鼠来进行饥饿测试的实验报告
There were some sporadic experiments involving tests on Hunger with rats
可以追溯到19世纪20年代
as far back as the 1820s.
但是最早使用老鼠进行的临床实验
But the first accepted clinical trials using rats were
发生在1856年的法国
conducted in France in 1856. They involved testing
他们研究一群去除肾上腺的白化鼠
the removal of adrenal glands on a group of albino rats.
这否真是布兰卡卖的
It’s a bit murky in terms of
那批老鼠还有点模糊
whether these were the exact rats sold by Jack Black,
但是很可能这正是培育它们的狂热
but it is very likely that is the fascination with breeding them
帮了使用它们的科学家们一把
played a hand in the scientists using them.
为什么科学家们选择去用这些
But why do these scientists choose to use these
患白化病的老鼠做实验呢?
albino rats for their experiments?
答案我们还不确定
The answer is we are not exactly sure.
可能是因为这些白化鼠更容易区分
It could be because the albino rats were easier to tell apart,
也更容易知道它们来自同一种类
and know they were from the same strain of rat.
也可能因为这些老鼠被人们发现更聪明
It could also be because the rats were perceived to be intelligent,
实验表明白化鼠更容易在盒子中被驯养
and it had been shown that they could be easily domesticated in
不管原因是什么
tank. Whatever the reason was,
超凡鼠如今广泛用于科学领域
fancy rats are now under the field of science.
在1906年 Wistar实验室开始培育
And in 1906 the Wistar Institute began breeding
第一批用于实验用途的典型生物——小白鼠
what was the first animal intend to be a model organism for
褐鼠的白化种是否成为
experimental use-an albino rat. Does the albino strain of
第一种被驯服用于特别科学实验的动物?
the brown rat became the first animal domesticated specifically for scientific use?
还是说科学家只凑巧或略知小白鼠的潜力?
Whether scientist just got lucky or had some inkling of its potential?
小白鼠至今还为科学提供便利
The rat has been a boon to science ever since.
他们虽然没有在当时出名
They couldn’t have known at that time,
令人震惊的是老鼠90%基因与人类相似
but rats share staggering 90% of their genome with humans.
他们被培育和死亡的速度都很快
They also breed and die in a very fast rate,
科学家方便以低价买到
making it easier and cheaper for scientists to
并一代一代地研究它们
study them from generation to generation.
它们在近亲繁殖上没有缺陷
They also have a great capacity to inbreed without defect,
能形成基因上大量相似并可辨认的实验对象
forming pools of nearly genetically identical subjects for experimentation.
总之 老鼠已经在很多实验中起作用
Overall rats have been instrumental in many forms of researches
帮助整个人类
that helping human race as a whole,
尤其是在癌症方面
especially in terms of cancer.
所以下次我路过木头堆时
So the next time I walk by that wood pile
我会说声谢谢
I’ll probably say thank you.
老鼠和捕鼠者
Both of the rats and the rat-catcher
都几乎使所有的实验成为可能
who most likely made all of that research possible.
所以你怎么看待?
So what do you think?
老鼠只是丑陋的生物?
Are rats just dirty scary creatures?
又或者我们应该为它们点赞?
Or should we maybe give them thumbs up
如果下次我们看到它们在小巷爬行?
next time we see them running through the alley?
如果在今天捕鼠者这职业仍旧存在
If the occupation of being a rat-catcher was available today,
那会是你适合的工作
would that be the job for you?
留下评论告诉我们吧
Let us know in the comments!
非常感谢Patreon上每一个赞助人
Thanks so much to all our supporters on Patreon.
没有你们的支持 那真是一场激烈的竞争
It’s a real rat race out there, without you supporting
这个节目就开不下去了
us, the show simply wouldn’t
所以如果你喜欢我们
go on. So if you like what we do here
请考虑订阅我们 并支持我们哟
at the Good Stuff, please consider subscribing and supporting us there.
谢谢观看
And thanks for watching.
音乐
[The music for the ending]
[好东西][特别感谢我们重要的赞助人]
[The Good Stuff][Special thanks to our VIP patrons]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

这是一段关于老鼠从古至今在人们眼里价值的转变,它是真的肮脏的生物,还是说我们人类不可或缺的好帮手呢?请点开视频,一起探寻。

听录译者

拒马四关

翻译译者

ID892953

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1O1SCWpvpKc

相关推荐