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改变世界的意外

The accident that changed the world - Allison Ramsey and Mary Staicu

“青霉素是一次偶然观察中产生的 我唯一的功劳是没有忽视观察……”
——亚历山大·弗莱明
London 1928
1928年 伦敦
A group of mold spores surf a breeze through a lab.
一群霉菌孢子随风穿过实验室
They drift onto a petri dish,
它们漂在有盖培养皿上
and when they land, they germinate a medical revolution.
当它们落下来 一场医学革命就开始了
This lab belongs to Alexander Fleming,
这个实验室的主人是亚历山大·弗莱明
a Scottish scientist investigating the properties of infectious bacteria.
一位研究传染性细菌特性的苏格兰科学家
At this time, Fleming is away on vacation.
这个时候 弗莱明正在度假
When he returns,
当他回到实验室
he finds a colony of mold growing on a petri dish
他发现一个被他忘记放进孵化器的培养皿上
he’d forgotten to place in his incubator.
长了一群霉菌
And around this colony of mold is a zone
而这个霉菌群周围
completely and unexpectedly clear of bacteria.
是一个完全没有细菌的区域
In studying this mysterious phenomenon,
在研究这一神秘现象的过程中
Fleming came to realize that the mold was secreting some kind of compound
弗莱明意识到这种霉菌正在分泌一种
that was killing the bacteria.
能够杀死细菌的化合物
The mold was a species in the Penicillium genus,
因为这种霉菌属于青霉属
so Fleming dubbed the antibacterial compound “penicillin.”
所以弗莱明把这种抗菌化合物称为“青霉素”
What Fleming stumbled upon was a microbial defense system.
弗莱明偶然发现的是一个微生物防御系统
The penicillium mold constantly produces penicillin
为了保护自身免受诸如附近
in order to defend itself from threats,
可能会消耗它资源的菌落等的威胁
such as nearby bacterial colonies that might consume its resources.
青霉菌会不断产生青霉素
Penicillin destroys many types of bacteria
青霉素通过破坏细菌细胞壁的合成
by disrupting synthesis of their cell walls.
来消灭多种细菌
These walls get their strength
这些细胞壁因为一个
from a thick, protective mesh of sugars and amino acids
由糖和氨基酸组成的厚厚的保护网 得到强化
that are constantly being broken down and rebuilt.
这些细胞壁不断分解重组
Penicillin binds to one of the compounds that weaves this mesh together
青霉素与组成这种网的化合物之一结合在一起
and prevents the wall from being reconstructed at a critical phase.
在关键阶段阻止细胞壁的重建
Meanwhile, penicillin stimulates the release of highly reactive molecules
同时 青霉素刺激高活性分子的释放
that cause additional damage.
对细胞造成进一步破坏
Eventually, the cell’s structure breaks down completely.
直到最终完全分解细胞结构
This two-pronged attack is lethal to a wide range of bacteria,
这种双管齐下的攻击对广大细菌都是致命的
whether in petri-dishes, our bodies, or elsewhere.
不管是在培养皿里 我们的身体里 还是其他地方
It’s not, however, harmful to our own cells,
然而 它对我们自己的细胞并没有害处
because those don’t have cell walls.
因为我们的细胞没有细胞壁
For a decade or so after Fleming’s discovery,
弗莱明发现青霉素后的十多年里
penicillin remained a laboratory curiosity.
青霉素一直是实验室里的珍品
But during World War II,
但是在二战期间
researchers figured out how to isolate the active compound
研究人员发现了分离活性化合物
and grow the mold in larger quantities.
和大量培养霉菌的方法
They then went on to win the Nobel Prize for their work.
之后他们因为自己的研究获得了诺贝尔奖
Teams at Oxford and several American drug companies continued development,
牛津大学和几家美国制药公司的团队继续研发
and within a few years it was commercially available.
几年后青霉素就被投入商用
Penicillin and similar compounds quickly transformed the treatment of infections.
青霉素和类似的化合物迅速改变了感染的治疗方法
For the time being, they remain some of the most important,
目前 它们仍然是医学中最重要的
life -saving antibiotics used in medicine.
救命抗生素
However, the more we use any antibiotic,
然而 我们抗生素用得越多
the more bacteria evolve resistance to it.
细菌对它的抵抗力就越强
In the case of penicillin,
以青霉素为例
some bacteria produce compounds that can break down the key structure
一些细菌产生的化合物可以破坏
that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
能干扰细胞壁合成的关键结构
As antibiotic use has increased,
随着抗生素使用的增加
more and more bacteria have evolved this defense,
越来越多的细菌进化出了这种防御功能
making these antibiotics ineffective
使得这些抗生素
against a growing number of bacterial infections.
对越来越多的细菌感染失去疗效
This means it’s essential that doctors not overprescribe the drug.
这意味着医生不能过量开药
Meanwhile, 5 to 15% of patients in developed countries
与此同时 在发达国家有5% 到 15% 的患者
self-identify as allergic to penicillin,
自称对青霉素过敏
making it the most commonly reported drug allergy.
这使青霉素成为报道最多的的致敏药物
However, the vast majority— over 90%— of people
然而 绝大多数(超过90%)
who think they’re allergic to penicillin actually are not.
认为自己对青霉素过敏的人 实际并不对青霉素过敏
Why the misperception?
为什么会产生这种误解呢?
Many patients acquire the allergy label as children,
许多患者在儿童时期就被诊断为青霉素过敏
when a rash appears after they’re treated for an infection with penicillin
因为他们在接受青霉素或相关药物治疗后
or closely related drugs.
出现了皮疹
The rash is often blamed on penicillin,
皮疹常被归咎于青霉素
while the more likely culprit is the original infection,
而更可能的罪魁祸首是最初的感染
or a reaction between the infection and the antibiotic.
或者感染和抗生素之间的反应
However, genuine penicillin allergies,
然而 真正的青霉素过敏
where our immune systems mistake penicillin for an attacker,
即我们的免疫系统将青霉素误认为攻击者的情况
do occur rarely and can be very dangerous.
确实很少发生 而且可能非常危险
So if you think you’re allergic but don’t know for sure,
所以 如果你觉得自己过敏但又不确定
your best bet is to visit an allergist.
最好的办法就是去看过敏专科医生
They’ll complete an evaluation
他们会做一个评估
that’ll confirm whether or not you have the allergy.
来确认你是否过敏
Even if you do have a penicillin allergy,
即使你确实对青霉素过敏
your immune cells that react to the drug
你对青霉素产生排斥的免疫细胞
may lose their ability to recognize it.
也可能会失去识别青霉素的能力
In fact, about 80% of people who are allergic to penicillin
事实上 大约80%对青霉素过敏的人
outgrow their allergy within ten years.
在10年内就能摆脱过敏
This is great news for people who currently identify
这对目前对青霉素过敏的人来说
as allergic to penicillin;
是个好消息
the drug may one day save their lives,
也许有朝一日这种药会挽救他们的生命
as it has done for so many others.
就像那么多被它挽回生命的人一样
How does medicine know where needs to go?
医学是怎么发展的?
Follow its journey through the body with this video.
跟着我们的视频 一起探索医学之旅

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视频概述

视频介绍了青霉素被发现的过程,以及抗生素是如何改变现代医学和感染的治疗方法的

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员BB

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNbnLgetqHs

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