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艺术家的解剖学:关节的6种类型 – 译学馆
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艺术家的解剖学:关节的6种类型

The 6 Types of Joints - Human Anatomy for Artists

人体骨骼中的关节决定了身体活动的范围和限制
The joints of the skeleton define the motion of the body and its limitations.
欢迎来到Proko课程
Hey welcome to another lesson on Proko.
这个课程是有关人体中的各种关节
This lesson is about the types of joints in the human body.
作为艺术家我们真的只需要学习滑液关节
As artists we really only need to learn the synovial joints,
比如肩关节和膝关节
like the shoulder and knee,
因为它们可以活动
because they move.
而那些由纤维和软骨组成的关节很难活动
Joints that are fibrous and cartilaginous hardly move,
还有一些比如连接
and some, like the connection
两块耻骨的关节根本无法活动
of the two pubic bones, don’t move at all.
当你在学习绘画的时候
When you’re learning how to draw,
注意那些滑液关节
pay attention to synovial joints, and keep your thoughts
不用太在意耻骨部分
away from pubic bones.
如果你知道脚上的铰链关节在哪里
If you know where the hinge joint is on this foot,
你就知道这只脚不会这样动 或者这样动
you know that it won’t do this or this
当你踮起脚尖时
when you stand on your toes.
脚应该是这样动的
It will do this.
我们需要了解这些铰链关节的位置
We need to know the position
使得这种挤压和伸展动作
of that hinge joint to make squash and stretch look like
看上去非常真实
the real thing.
滑液关节有六种类型的滑液关节
Synovial Joints There are 6 types of synovial joints.
它们有不同的形状
They have varying shapes,
但最重要的是它们都可以活动
but the important thing about them is the movement they allow.
关节决定了我们的身体能处于什么样的位置
Joints determine what positions our bodiescan take.
我们学习它们去创造姿势
We learn them to invent poses.
并且我们学习它们的活动范围去扩延伸这种范围
And we learn the limits to stretch the limits.
这六种滑液关节分别是:铰链关节
The 6 types of synovial joints are: Hinge,
车轴关节、球窝关节、椭球关节、鞍状关节
Pivot, Ball & Socket, Ellipsoid, Saddle, and
以及平面关节
Plane.
让我们来一个一个看
Let’s go through them one by one.
铰链关节是一种很简单的关节
Hinge The hinge is a very simple joint.
它仅仅允许在一定的角度内活动
It allows movement only on one axis.
它的结构防止关节这样转动 或这样转动
It’s structure prevents rotation this way,or this way.
一块骨头的一头包裹住另一块骨头的圆柱体头部
The head of one bone wraps around the cylindrical head
允许它在一个非常
of the other, allowing a very stable
稳定的角度转动
rotation this way.
回到我们上周说的术语
Going back to the terminology from last week,
铰链关节允许弯曲和拉伸
the hinge joint allows flexion and extension.
就是这样
That’s it!
这就是它只能做到的 但又是做的最好的
Thats all it does, but it does it well.
就像门上的铰链 只让门开或关
Like the hinges on a door, allow it only to open or close.
这种类型的关节最典型的例子就是肘关节
The best example of it is the elbow.
这里就是一个简化版本骨骼的转动模式
Here’s the rotation on a simplified skeleton.
弯曲和拉伸
Flexion and extension.
但如果肘关节只能允许做弯曲和拉伸
So if the elbow only allows flexion and extension,
那么我们是怎么样才能做到扭曲前臂的呢?
how is it that we are able to twist the forearm? Well,
好 让我们来看下一种关节
let’s take a look at the next joint..
车轴:车轴关节也只能在一个轴平面转动
Pivot The pivot joint also allows rotation at onlyone axis. However,
但是 它只能在长轴转动
it rotates along the long axis.
一侧圆柱形的骨头嵌入到另一个环状包围的骨头和韧带中
A cylindrical bone fits into a ring of bone and ligament,
就像桡尺关节
like with the radio-ulnar joint
正好在肘部下面
just below the elbow.
桡骨的顶部与尺骨的凹口
The cap on the radius bone fits nicely
非常的适配
into this notch on the ulna bone.
韧带形成一个环状
Ligaments complete the ring,
把骨头固定在一个位置并且
holding the bone in place and allow the radius only to rotate
仅允许桡骨在内部转动
inside of it.
在前臂上产生的效果就是我们所说的内翻和外旋
The result on the forearm is what we call pronation and supination.
在内翻过程中 桡骨的基部
During pronation, the base of the radius rotates
转过尺骨的头部
over and around the head of the ulna.
而尺骨相对保持静止
The ulna stays relatively still. Remember,
但记住 在肘部的铰链关节会防止尺骨扭转
the hinge joint at the elbow, prevents the ulna from twisting.
因此所有的扭转都发生在桡骨
So all of that twisting happens at the radius.
此外
And by the way,
尺骨和桡骨的远端关节也是一种车轴关节
the distal joint of the ulna and radius is also a pivot joint.
顶部的和底部的车轴关节
The combination of the pivot at the top and
组合起来形成
at the bottom creates that twisting motion
内翻和外旋的动作
for pronation and supination.
球窝关节
Ball & Socket
球窝关节是所有关节中第一流的
The ball & socket is the champion of all joints.
为球窝关节欢呼万岁
Hooray for the ball and socket!
它的结构就像它的名字
It’s structure is just like how it sounds.
一个球在窝槽里
A ball inside of a socket.
这种简单又有效的结构允许关节在任何方向活动-弯曲
This simple and effective structure allows it to move in all axes – flexion,
伸展、外展
extension, abduction,
内收、旋转和回旋
adduction, rotation, and circumduction.
身体里的两个球窝关节是
The two ball and socket joints of the body are
髋关节和肩关节
at the hip and the shoulder.
髋关节有一个较深的窝槽使其非常稳固
The hip has a deep socket, which gives it stability,
但也限制了活动的范围
but limits some range of motion.
而肩关节的窝槽比较浅
The shoulder joint has a shallower socket,
使其可以有非常大的活动度
which gives it greater range of motion, but
但减少了稳定性
takes away some stability.
也许这就是为什么肩关节的脱位是很常见的
Maybe that’s why a dislocated shoulder isso common.
椭球关节和球窝关节非常类似
Ellipsoid The ellipsoid joint is very similar to a ball & socket. However,
但是它的韧带和椭圆形的形状限制了它的旋转性
the ligaments and its oval shapeprevent rotation.
不过它还是能在两个轴线上旋转
But it still has the ability to rotate on two axes,
比如弯曲/伸展、外展/内收、
which allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction,
或回旋
circumduction.
回旋其实就是在一个环状面上所有旋转活动的集合体
Circumduction is just a combination of all the others in a circular motion.
球形或椭圆形骨骼头部也会在窝槽内部滑动
The ball, or oval head also slides insidethe socket.
当它在一个较宽广的平面旋转的时候
When it rotates along the wider plane,
你能看到它会从窝槽里
you can see how it pops out too much from the
突出太多的部分
socket. So,
因此它会滑向中央
it slides in back to center.
椭球关节最好的例子就是腕关节 也称为桡腕关节
A great example of an ellipsoid joint is the wrist, aka radiocarpal joint.
一组腕骨在桡骨的窝槽里旋转
The group of carpal bones rotate inside the socket of the radius.
鞍状关节
Saddle
鞍状关节与椭球关节相似
The saddle joint is similar to the ellipsoid,
但由于骨骼的结构导致
but the rotation is limited mostly because
旋转更加受限
of the bone structure.
鞍状关节的结构很有意思
The structure of the saddle is very interesting.
所有的骨头都有凹面和凸面
Both bones have a concave and convex surface.
凸面意味着表面突出 就像一个山丘
Convex means the surface sticks out, likea hill.
凹面意味着表面弯曲陷入 就像一个洞或穴
Concave means the surface curves in, like a hole or a cave.
一块骨头的凹面与另一块骨头的凸面相吻合
The concave plane of one fits on the convex plane of the other.
就像3D的阴阳图
It’s like a 3D yin yang!
或者一个牛仔骑在马上
Or a cowboy on a horse!
马鞍形成了底部的部分
The saddle makes the bottom piece and the
牛仔的腿构成了上面的部分
cowboy’s legs make the top piece.
上面部分的腿
The legs of the top piece,
包裹着底部部分的身
which wrap around the body of the bottom piece allow a rotation
并可以让它按这个方式旋转
this way.
上面部分的身体也可以
The body of the top piece can glide
在底部部分的腿中间滑动
inside of the legs of the bottom piece. So,
因此 这种独特的结构能让关节屈曲、伸展
this unique structure allows the joint to flex, extend,
外展、内收、回旋
abduct, adduct, circumduct,
以及小幅度的旋转
and very slightly rotate.
鞍状关节的一个例子
An example of a saddle joint
就是拇指侧的腕掌关节
on the body is the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
让我们看看它是怎么活动的
Let’s see that baby in action!
最后是平面关节
Plane Finally, the plane joint.
虽然不如其它的关节那么有趣 但依然值得我们去爱它
Not really as interesting as the others, but deserves our love anyway.
它基本上是两个平坦的表面 一个在另一个上面
It’s basically two flat-ish surfaces, oneon top of the other.
它们的表面可以滑动或旋转
These surfaces can glide or rotate.
并且它们通常是一组关节
They usually come in groups,
比如手的腕骨和脚的跗骨
like the carpals of the hand and the tarsals of the foot.
韧带把这些骨头紧固在一起 但也允许部分旋转和滑动
Ligaments hold these bones together, but might allow some rotation and gliding.
另一个平面关节是肩锁关节
Another plane joint is the acromioclavicularjoint.
这是一个锁骨和肩胛骨的肩峰之间的关节
That’s the one between the clavicle and acromion process of the scapula.
当我们耸肩的时候
When we elevate the shoulder,
在这里的角度可以进行调整来保持肩胛骨垂直
the angle in here will adjust to keep the scapula vertical.
脊椎
The Spine
我在开始的时候
I mentioned in the beginning that
说过软骨性的关节对艺术家来说不太重要
cartilaginous joints are not important for artists, except
但得除了这个 最重要的 你的脊椎
in one, big, important case: your spine.
我们将在下一节课讨论
We’ll talk about that, in the next lesson.
这节课的作业有两个
Assignments For this lesson, there’s two assignments.
第一个是找到你身体上的那些关节并学习它们的活动方式
The first assignment is to find these joints on yourself and study the movement.
我会贴六张斯凯利关节的特写图
I’ve posted 6 close-up images of Skelly’s joints
在这个视频的说明里
in the description under this video.
第二个作业是用简单的版本画出它们
Your second assignment is to draw them assimple versions.
当你把它们放进透视图的时候
When you try to put them into perspective,
可能会发现有点困难
you may find it difficult, but I will have
我会让马歇尔帮助你们理解如何做的
Marshall help you understand how to do it.
把你的图发在脸书的群组里 facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists
Post your drawings in the facebook group,at facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists. Marshall,
透视大师马歇尔
the perspective master will
会在脸书群组里点评你的作业
help to critique your assignments in the facebook
稍后
group. Later,
马歇尔会做一个演示
Marshall will do a demo to
教你如何使用简化形式来表现活动状态
show you how to simplify your forms and move them around.
下周我们将学习解剖学的语言
Last week we studied the language of anatomy.
只要看看这长长的术语列表
Just looking at a long list
就知道它们是很难记住的
of terms can be daunting and difficult to remember.
这就是为什么我把它们都放在一个PDF电子书里
That’s why I put together a PDF
用可视化的方法来定义这些术语
ebook that visually defines all these terms.
这本电子书作为课程的优质资源可以在proko.com/anatomy下载
This ebook is available as a premium featureat proko.com/anatomy.
这周我还带来另一个PDF电子书
This week I’ve included another PDF ebook showing which
它显示了按照我们前面分类的六种关节类型
of the 6 types every joint in
对应在我们体内的每一个关节
the body is classified as.
同样它也是可视化的
And again it’s shown visually,
而不是一个列表 你可以把它打印出来
rather than just a list, so you can print these out as
作为参考
reference.
如果你登录到你的账号里 你还可以看到本周的另一个特色资源
Another premium feature you’ll see this week when you login to your account,
Robo Skelly的
is a 3D model
3D模型
of Robo Skelly.
这是一个简化形式的骨骼
This is a skeleton with simplified forms.
简化形式可以让你很容易理解和记忆
Simplified forms are a lot easier to understand,
并且可以更加实用的运用到
to remember and are more practical to apply
你的绘画中去
to your drawings. So,
因此 你可以在浏览器里面
you can zoom in and rotate
直接放大或旋转视角看Robo Skelly模型
around Robo Skelly directly in your browser.
这会有助于你
This will help you
本周的作业以及今后
with the assignment this week and upcoming lessons when we study the
我们将学到的更细节的有关骨骼的课程
skeleton in detail.
要想得到所有这些优质资源 访问proko.com/anatomy
To get all the premium features, go to proko.com/anatomy

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视频概述

艺术家需要了解的关节解剖学知识

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cYal_hitz4

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