未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

1995年哈勃照片改变了天文学

The 1995 Hubble photo that changed astronomy

Since the Hubble Space Telescope went into orbit back in April 1990
自1990年4月 哈勃空间望远镜进入轨道以来
It has sent back a ton of incredible photos
它发回了很多令人惊奇的照片
Each has own story
每张照片都有自己的故事
but one of Hubble’s greatest images is this one from 1995
但哈勃最经典的照片是1995年的这张
This is a snapshot of nearly the entire history of the universe
这是几乎包括宇宙整个历史的快照
and the first of its kind.
也是第一张这样的快照
Vox observatory
Vox 天文台
The Hubble Deep Field is an unusual image that came from an unusual process
哈勃深空场是经过特殊处理的图像
Typically astronomers apply to use Hubble to look at a particular known object.
天文学家通常用哈勃观察特定的已知天体
“You want to study a star?
“你想了解一颗恒星吗?
Okay you know what star you’re going to study.
好的 你要知道你研究的星体是什么
You point the telescope at that star.”
然后你把镜头对准它”
That’s Robert Williams.
Robert Williams这样说
He became the director of the telescope in 1993.
1993年 他成了哈勃望远镜的负责人
It was his decision to create the Deep Field image
他决定让望远镜对准一片没有星体的特殊区域
by pointing the telescope at nothing in paticular.
来拍摄深空场照片
“ What we’re doing basically was just the opposite
“这与我们所做的相反
We are trying find a sort of
我们正努力寻找
indiscriminate area of sky where no observation had been made before.”
一块之前从未探测过的天空”
They wanted to test how well Hubble could survey very distant galaxies.
他们想测试哈勃望远镜在观测遥远星系时的性能
But they didn’t know what they’d see.
但他们不知道会看见什么
And It wasn’t a great time to be trying new things.
而且这也不是个尝试新事物的好时候
“ After spending 2 billion dollars for 12 years,
“在12年间 花费20亿美元之后
to have this kind of unexpected, very large mistake take place..”
仍然发生了这种令人难以想象的巨大错误……”
The Hubble team was still repairing the reputation of
由于哈勃望远镜的一个主镜问题
the telescope after a flaw in the main mirror
近三年拍摄到的影像都是模糊的
produced blurry images for nearly three years.
哈勃团队仍努力挽回这一失误带来的名誉损失
“ We were the brunt of jokes and the newspapers,
“我们频频出现在笑话和报纸中
political cartoons you know Johnny Carson show.
比如政治性动画《约翰尼·卡森秀》
NASA was be made fun of
因为把这个昂贵的项目搞砸了
for having made such a monumental screw up of such an expensive project.”
NASA受到了嘲讽”
NASA sent astronauts on a 5-day mission to
NASA给宇航员们一个为期五天的任务
install a module that would fix the problem.
要求安装一个能解决问题的组件
And it worked.
然后问题解决了
So Williams’ team spent 1995 planning the deep field observation.
所以Williams的团队从1995年就计划深空场的观测
For one thing, they had to decide where to point the telescope.
首先 他们得决定把望远镜对准哪里
The goal was to see far beyond our galaxy,
他们的目标是看到银河系外
so the spot needed to be away from the galactic plane of the Milky Way
所以要对准离银河系的银河平面远一些的地方
and away from any known large galaxy clusters.
并且远离任何已知的大型的星系团
They didn’t want anything bright to block the view.
他们不想让任何明亮的东西挡住视线
And to get continuous observations,
为了能够一直观察
It needed to be a location that wouldnt be obscured
当哈勃每一个半小时环绕地球一圈时
When Hubble went around Earth,as it does every hour and a half or so.
该区域必须是无遮挡的地方
They settled on a region just above the big dipper —
他们将这片区域设置在北斗星的上方——
a dark, unremarkable, peephole into the universe.
一个宇宙中黑暗的 不起眼的窥视孔
The field of view was extremely narrow.
这片区域的视野极其狭窄
Astronomers measure the apparent size of objects in the sky in angular degrees
天文学家在空中以一定的角度测量天体表面的大小
and a degree can be divided into 60 arcminutes.
一度又可以分为60弧分
From Earth, the moon is about half a degree across,
从地球上观测 月亮大约偏离半度
around 30 arcminutes.
大概是30弧分
But the area that Hubble photographed was just 2.6 arcminutes across.
但哈勃望远镜能拍下的区域仅仅是2.6弧分
“A little larger than a pinhead at arm’s length.
比大头针的针头稍微大点儿
So it’s a teeny patch of sky.”
该区域就是天空的一块小补丁
The observations began on December, 18, 1995,
这项观测开始于1995年12月18号
collecting 4 different wavelengths of light.
收集了4种不同光的波长
And over the next 10 days the telescope took 342 images
在接下来的10天内 望远镜对准那块天空的“小补丁”
of that teeny patch of sky.
拍摄了342张图片
“ We were relieved
“我们如释重负
that we are getting good data but we had to keep adding it up
因为我们得到优质的数据 但我们还要不断的增加
and so it wasn’t until ten days that we realized
直到第十天 我们意识到
oh,we really got something. ”
噢 我们发现了一些东西”
There are a few nearby stars in the image
图片里有一些附近的星体
but pretty much all the other objects here,
但也有很多其他的天体
including these tiny blue dots — they’re galaxies.
包括那些小蓝点——它们是星系
The light from these different galaxies
不同星系发出的光
has been traveling for vastly different amounts of time
已经传播了截然不同的时间
so the furthest galaxies are shown pretty early
所以在120亿多年前 星系形成的过程中
in their evolution more than 12 billion years ago
最远的星系出现得最早
That’s just a billion and a half years after the big bang.
也就是宇宙大爆炸后的十五亿年里
It’s as if you could point a telescopeacross the earth
就像用望远镜对准地球
and actually photograph ancient Egypt,with a neanderthal
拍摄到了古埃及
in the background and then further back there’s a dinosaur.
有一个尼安德特人入镜 并且远处看有只恐龙
The research team sampled another tiny spot two years later,
两年后 研究小组又对准另一个地方
this time in the southern sky.
这次是在南极的天空
“ We wanted to know okay then we got one spot of sky.
”我们想弄明白 所以我们取了天空中的一个点
You never know,maybe it was some weird spot
你永远不知道 它可能是一个奇怪的点
and so we thought it was important to repeat the observation.”
所以我们认为反复观测很重要“
The datasets boosted estimates of the total number of galaxies.
这些增长的数据用来估测星系的总数
They allowed researchers to track the history of star formation through the universe.
这为研究者们研究宇宙中恒星的形成史创造了条件
And they helped confirm the bottom-up theory
并且这些数据通过发现星系
Galaxy formation by revealing Galaxy
来帮助证实星系形成理论
that are small and irregular early in their evolution.
在它们的形成过程中 最初显得小而无序
But one of the most important legacies of the Hubble Deep Field
但关于哈勃深场最重要的贡献之一
is how it changed the culture of astronomy.
是它改变天文学文化的方式
“ Until this time astronomy had a history
“在此之前天文学有过一段人们收集数据但
of people taking the data and keeping it
不予以示人直到他们完全分析清楚的历史
to themselves until they had fully analyzed it after all this was intellectual property.”
这背后的原因就是为了维护他们的知识产权”
Instead of hoarding the discoveries embedded in the dataset
威廉及其团队将他们的发现向更多的科研团体公布
Williams and his team formatted and released it immediately to the wider scientific community.
而不是隐藏发现的数据
It’s been cited in hundreds of papers.
他们的发现被很多的报纸宣传
“ Nowadays it is so much more common for people
“如今 对人们来说
to take interesting observations
进行有趣的观测
and make the data available to the public
并公开数据已经司空见惯
even though they might have a right to keep it
尽管他们可能有权在特定时间内
for a certain period of time to themselves.”
保留他们的劳动成果”
Thanks to servicing missions that installed more advanced cameras,
多亏了维修任务安装了更先进的相机
Hubble has since made even deeper deep field images
哈勃可以拍摄出更大倍率的深空图像
and those data too,were released to the public.
并且将这些数据公之于众
“ I think it moves forward the march of human
我认为星系形成理论在人类认知理解的道路上
understanding human knowledge tremendously
迈出了一大步
and the Hubble deep field did that.”
并且哈勃深空场做到了

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频简要介绍了哈勃望远镜的发展过程以及带来的积极影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

夜暮

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95Tc0Rk2cNg

相关推荐