未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

15种最离谱的心理障碍

The 15 WEIRDEST Psychological Disorders

Inside your skull is one of the greatest mysteries of the universe:
你的脑袋里装着宇宙间最大的奥秘之一
your brain.
即你的大脑
Despite billions of dollars in research and countless hours spent
尽管人类已花费了许多时间精力
investigating the phenomena of the human mind,
研究人类思维的种种现象
we still know very little.
我们仍对其知之甚少
What is the “self”?
什么是“自我”
Is there a consciousness?
意识究竟存不存在
Is there a reality outside of our brain?
我们的大脑外部是否有实体
The list goes on…
类似的疑虑还有很多
Thankfully we rarely have to really ask ourselves
幸好我们几乎不怎么需要真的问自己
about these topics.
与之相关的话题
But some people have to live with these questions
但有些人却不得不与它们共存
day in and day out.
日复一日
For sufferers of delusions, agnosias, obsessions,
对于妄想症 失认症 强迫症患者
and inexplicable desires,
和受到莫名欲望困扰的人来说
what it means to be oneself
成为自己 意义何在
and to navigate a stable world
探求稳定的世界 意义又何在
has been entirely corrupted.
问题的答案皆无从知晓
Historically treated as sideshow attractions,
历史上 这类人引人注意
those with severe psychological issues
他们有着严重的心理障碍
have always been considered
一直以来都被视作
as reminders of the fragility and oddity
揭示脆弱和怪异的象征
that is the human mind.
这些就是人类思维
However, recent shifts in discourse
然而 近期的论述风向有所转移
has viewed those afflicted with these issues
变成给予这些饱受心理障碍折磨的人
with a greater level of sympathy.
进一步的同情
This video will recount 15 of the strangest psychological issues.
本视频将列举15种最奇怪的心理障碍
However, I would also like to remind everyone
在此 我需要提醒大家
that these are real issues suffered by real people.
以下疾病都是真实发生在人们身上的
Although the disorders may be at times humorous,
即便有些可能不时以幽默的方式讲述
this does not excuse crude jokes about the conditions themselves.
但并非是故意用疾病本身编造笑料
This video should function not as a freak show,
本视频不应被看作一场畸形秀
but rather as a reminder of the power and mystery
而是为了提醒大家人类心理背后的
behind human psychology.
力量和奥秘
在此之前 先让我恰个饭
This video is sponsored by Brilliant,
本视频由Brilliant赞助播出
a fun and compelling way
它是为学生和自我提升人群
for students and the self-motivated
以有趣的方式学习数学 科学 逻辑
to learn about math, science, and logic.
而打造的一个自学平台
Before Brilliant ever reached out to me,
在Brilliant联系我之前
I actually used their service
我就已经用他家平台
when I decided to take up psychology.
学过心理学
One of the main requirements in psyc
学心理学的一项重要条件是
is an understanding of statistics.
了解统计学
Unfortunately, the dry exercises and explanations in my textbook
不幸的是 课本中的练习和解读枯燥乏味
didn’t really motivate me to learn anything.
让我没有任何想学的欲望
Then I used Brilliant,
直到用了Brilliant
an interactive way to learn math, science, and computer science.
通过互动方式学习数学 科学和计算机
This worked! And I actually got straight A’s
效果显著!我的两门统计学课成绩
in both my stats courses.
都拿到了A
This makes sense, as interactive learning has proven
这有依据可循 研究证明互动学习的效率
to help you learn six times more effectively
比看教学视频的学习效率
than watching lecture videos.
高出六倍
I also explored a lot of their other features.
该平台还有其他诸多优势
I’m really interested in science.
我个人对科学很感兴趣
And I found their course on science essentials very compelling.
我发现他们的科学基础课十分引人入胜
The course covers essential meta theories and principles
课程涵盖科学方法背后最基础的元理论
behind scientific investigation,
和规则
and definitely helped me in my own research.
确实对我的研究受益匪浅
Interested in fun interactive problem solving?
对有趣的互动式解决问题感兴趣?
Join the millions of people already learning on Brilliant
加入成为Brilliant百万用户的一员
with a special offer just for listeners.
获取本视频观众专属优惠
Head to brilliant.org/sisyphus55
前往 brilliant.org/sisyphus55
to get started for free with Brilliance Interactive Lessons.
免费体验在线学习互动课程
The first 200 listeners will also get 20% off an annual membership.
前200位观众可享八折年费会员
言归正传
At 15, there is Diogenes Syndrome.
榜单第15名是第欧根尼综合征
Named after the infamous philosopher Diogenes the cynic
以臭名昭著的犬儒学派哲学家第欧根尼命名
who lived like a dog in his own filth
他像狗一样活着 住在污秽里
and was well known for his one-liners,
因俏皮话而闻名
this syndrome carries a darker essence.
该综合征会带来更可怕的影响
Often associated with the Progressive Dementia
通常伴随着进行性痴呆
found in the elderly or Schizophrenia,
患者多为老人或精神分裂症病人
Diogenes Syndrome is characterized by an extreme level of hoarding
第欧根尼综合征的症状表现为极端的囤积行为
with no apparent attachment to the features themselves.
并且囤积的东西没有明显的特征
Those suffering from Diogenes Syndrome
第欧根尼综合征患者
will often act shamelessly,
通常不知羞耻
withdraw socially,
与社会脱节
and rarely attend to their hygiene.
也很少注意个人卫生
Unfortunately, these individuals rarely know of their condition,
不幸的是 他们察觉不到自身有问题
and are only brought to treatment after catching Pneumonia
只有在得肺炎或遭遇事故时
or a serious accident.
才会去医院治疗
At 14, there is Conversion Disorder.
第十四名是转化症
Those suffering display serious neurological symptoms
患者表现出严重的神经异常症状
such as blindness, paralysis, deafness, or epileptic seizures.
例如失明 麻痹 失聪 癫痫性痉挛等
However, upon serious medical examination,
然而即便通过严格的体检
they show no signs of any physical cause to their disorder.
也无法检测出这些障碍的物理病因
The cause is typically attributed to serious trauma or stressors.
通常医生将其归结于严重性创伤或压力过大
Unfortunately, the sufferer is entirely unaware of the stressor
可惜转化症患者完全不把压力当回事儿
and is usually adamant that the issue is neurological.
而是坚决认为问题出在神经上
Hence, treatment often involves an illusory rehabilitation program
因此 治疗方案经常包括幻觉康复项目
that would typically be used for those actually suffering from these afflictions.
这种项目一般是针对真正饱受幻觉折磨的病人的
At 13, we have Jerusalem Syndrome.
第13名是耶路撒冷综合征
This is an acute psychotic state
患者会进入严重的精神失常状态
in which individual identifies themselves as a Biblical character.
把自己当做《圣经》中的某个人物
The most common form of this syndrome
该综合征最常见的症状表现为
is when a previously mentally stable person visits Jerusalem,
先前精神稳定的正常人在访问了耶路撒冷后
and soon enters into a state of religious delusion.
随即产生宗教错觉
However, there is some controversy
不过 人们
as to whether this form of the syndrome can be verified.
对于上述症状能否得到证实仍存在争议
Interestingly, Jerusalem averages 100 cases per year.
有趣的是 耶路撒冷每年平均查出100位患者
And thankfully,
幸好
the syndrome typically disappears after a short period of time.
该综合征通常一段时间后就会消失不见
At 12, there is Visual Agnosia.
第12名 视觉失认症
Most famous in “Oliver Sacks—the man who mistook his wife for a hat”,
大多数人是通过奥利佛·萨克斯所著的《错把帽子当太太的人》才知道这个病症的
this disorder is characterized by an inability
临场症状表现为无法
to recognize or make sense of certain objects
辨识或讲不清楚某些物品
despite technically seeing them.
即使严格来说患者能看见它们
Here we see the main difference
在此我们能看出“感觉到某物”
between sensing something and perceiving something.
和“感知到某物”之间的主要区别
Whereas those with Visual Agnosia
尽管视觉失认症患者
can see the object,
能看见物体
they are unable to interpret the object.
他们也无法解释看到的是什么
In an extreme example,
这有一个极端病例
Sacks recounts the case of a man
萨克斯描述了一位男性视觉失认症患者
who quite literally identified his wife as a floating hat.
真的把自己的妻子认成了一顶浮动的帽子
In 11th place, we have Depersonalization and Derealization.
第11名是人格解体与现实解体
Most of us have likely learned
我们大多数人在持续感受到压力时
to detach from our environment or sense of self
可能会让自己从环境或自我感知中
during periods of stress.
暂时抽离出来
However, this disorder is far more constant,
然而此病患者出现该症状的频率远高于常人
and manifests as feeling as if one is not attached to themselves
表现为感到自己与自己分离
or the environment around them.
或与环境分离
Sufferers may feel like they are not real
患者可能会认为自己是不真实的
or that nothing is real.
或一切都是不真实的
Objects may appear colorless or flat.
在他们眼中 物体是无色或平面的
They may question their own existence.
他们也许会质疑自己的存在
At 10th, we have Truman Disorder.
第10名是楚门妄想症
If you haven’t seen the movie “The Truman Show”,
先介绍一下《楚门的世界》这部电影
it’s about Truman, a man who’s living a perfectly normal life,
讲的是楚门 一个平凡至极的男人
except one thing:
除了一件事
His entire life is a TV show,
他的生活从头到尾都是一场肥皂剧
and everyone he knows including his wife and best friend
并且他认识的所有人 包括妻子和最好的朋友
are all paid actors who are in on it.
都是为这部剧雇佣的演员
Everyone knows except him.
所有人都知道这个事实 除了楚门
Strangely, some who have watched the film began to grow paranoid
奇怪的是 有些观众在看过这个电影后开始妄想
that their own lives are being watched by millions.
认为他们自己也活在百万观众的注视下
Psychiatrists argue that the disorder is an attempt for the patient
精神病学家认为楚门妄想症是患者
to explain why the world may suddenly change
试图通过一种费解的方式来解释
in an inexplicable way.
世界为何会骤然改变
This disorder may simply be a variant of Schizophrenia.
该病症可能只是精神分裂症的一种变体
At 9th, there is Apotemnophilia,
第9位是恋残癖
the desire to mutilate parts of the body.
指想要肢解身体的某部分
Displaying similar symptoms to OCD,
该障碍和强迫症有着类似的症状
the disorder is characterized by an obsession to remove a limb.
表现为痴迷于卸掉四肢的一部分
Although the desire may stem from some sort of sexual origins,
虽然这种欲望一部分可能源自性别
some cases reveal that the obsession may also be wrapped up
但有些病例显示 这种癖好的背后实际上是
in a sense of identity.
身份认知障碍
In 8th place, we have Walking Corpse Syndrome,
第8位是行尸综合征
also known as Crotard Syndrome.
即人们熟知的科塔尔综合征
The symptoms can include severe social withdrawal,
症状包括极度回避社交
over refusal to eat,
绝食
and hearing voices from the dead telling them that they have died.
和听到逝者告诉他们 他们已不复存在
In severe instances,
在一些极端病例中
individuals will ask to be taken to the morgue.
患者会央求让人把他们送往太平间
The causes typically involved more severe underlying medical issues.
病因往往包括很多严重的潜在疾病
In 7th place, we have Alice In Wonderland Syndrome.
第7名是爱丽丝梦游仙境症候群
Somewhat similar to Derealization Disorder,
某种程度上和现实解体综合征类似
the patient feels as if they are in a dreamlike state.
患者仿佛置身于梦境中
They experience an altered perception of their own body image
感知到自己的身体忽大忽小
time and space itself.
时空扭曲
They may hallucinate and experience an altered sense of speed when moving.
他们可能会产生幻觉 在移动时感受到速度变换
The syndrome is named after the psychedelic Lewis Carroll book.
该综合征以刘易斯·卡罗尔所作童话命名
At 6th, we have Dissociative Identity Disorder.
第6位是分离性身份障碍
Historically termed Multiple Personality Disorder,
以前被称作多重人格障碍
DID is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities.
该障碍表现为存在两种及以上不同人格
There is typically a host identity
患者一般拥有一个主人格
which is the identity most frequently encountered
即最常控制身体的人格
and carries the person’s legal name;
我们用患者的法定姓名来称呼他
and the altered identity.
除此之外还有其他人格
Interestingly, the identities can be aware of each other
有趣的是 不同人格要么能意识到对方的存在
or be entirely unaware.
要么完全意识不到
The cause is thought to be due to childhood trauma,
人们将其病因归结为童年受过创伤
but a more recent sociocognitive theory suggests
但最近的一项社会认知理论认为
that clinicians inadvertent suggestibility has caused DID.
临床医生无意的暗示会引发该障碍
In 5th place, we have Boanthropy,
第五名是牛人并发症
the belief that one is a cow or ox.
即认为自己是头牛
The sufferer will typically act out being a cow
患者通常会做出和牛一样的行为
by munching on grass and roaming around in a field.
如啃草和在草地上来回走动
Interestingly, this disorder appears to come up in the Bible,
有趣的是 该病症出自《圣经》
in which a boastful king goes insane
其中有位自负的王发了疯
and lives like a cow for seven years.
像牛一样生活了七年
What could be stranger than thinking you’re a cow?
还有什么能比认为自己是头牛更离谱呢?
In 4th place, we have Clinical Lycanthropy,
第四名是狼化妄想症
in which the sufferer believes themselves to be a werewolf.
即患者认为自己是狼人
Symptoms can include the pairing of somatosensory aberrations,
症状包括躯体感觉错乱
such as believing oneself to be growing hair;
例如 相信自己会长毛发
and strange thoughts,
以及产生奇怪的想法
such as the belief that one is about to transform into a werewolf.
比如 坚信自己会变成狼人
At 3rd place, we have Capgras Delusion.
第三名是卡普格拉综合征
Typically the patient becomes convinced
通常患者会认为
that a family member or somebody close
家庭成员或其他人
has been replaced by an imposter.
是冒名顶替的
This leads to extreme distress
由此导致自己极其痛苦
and the patient may actually act out violently
患者可能会对自己的家庭
against their own family.
做出暴力行为
It is thought to be caused by a miscommunication
人们认为该病症是由
between the visual cortex which identifies people,
负责识别身份的视觉皮质
and the striate which attaches an emotional response to identification.
和传递情感反馈的纹状皮层之间传达错误所致
At 2nd place, there is the phenomenon of Phantom Pregnancies.
第二名是假性怀孕
The patient who is often obsessively terrified of becoming pregnant
患者平时极度恐惧怀孕
will suddenly experience an end to their periods, cravings, cramps,
随后突然出现停经 恶心呕吐 痉挛
and may even have their belly grow.
甚至可能腹部隆起的情况
Queen Mary Tudor is thought to be an historical example of this disorder.
玛丽·都铎女王就是历史上患过此病的例子
Finally, in 1st place, there is Koro Syndrome.
终于公布榜单第一名 恐缩症
Largely present in Asian societies
该病症大部分出现在亚洲人身上
and typically onset in epidemics,
通常正值地方流行病爆发
Koro Syndrome is characterized by an obsessive fear
恐缩症的症状表现为极其恐惧
that one’s genitals are shrinking or retracting within the body,
自己的生殖器官会萎缩或缩入体内
and that the end of this process will lead to death.
而最终致死
Mass hysteria of genital shrinkage
大量的生殖器萎缩癔症病例
has also been reported in Africa and Europe.
在非洲和欧洲被报道出来
Sufferers may use a clamping device
患者可能会通过使用夹紧装置
to relieve themselves of their anxiety.
来缓解自身焦虑
Although this will likely result in hospitalization.
不过 这样做很有可能导致住院
Thank you for watching!
感谢您的收看!
[outro]
[结尾]
[outro]
[结尾]
[outro]
[结尾]
[outro]
[结尾]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

该视频罗列了15种最离谱的心理障碍,并分别进行了简短解读。

听录译者

Гадес.Д

翻译译者

Oct·Darlene

审核员

审核员OYN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wKwySl8omM

相关推荐