Inside your skull is one of the greatest mysteries of the universe:
Despite billions of dollars in research and countless hours spent
investigating the phenomena of the human mind,
we still know very little.
What is the “self”?
Is there a consciousness?
Is there a reality outside of our brain?
The list goes on…
Thankfully we rarely have to really ask ourselves
about these topics.
But some people have to live with these questions
day in and day out.
For sufferers of delusions, agnosias, obsessions,
对于妄想症 失认症 强迫症患者
and inexplicable desires,
what it means to be oneself
and to navigate a stable world
has been entirely corrupted.
Historically treated as sideshow attractions,
those with severe psychological issues
have always been considered
as reminders of the fragility and oddity
that is the human mind.
However, recent shifts in discourse
has viewed those afflicted with these issues
with a greater level of sympathy.
This video will recount 15 of the strangest psychological issues.
However, I would also like to remind everyone
that these are real issues suffered by real people.
Although the disorders may be at times humorous,
this does not excuse crude jokes about the conditions themselves.
This video should function not as a freak show,
but rather as a reminder of the power and mystery
behind human psychology.
This video is sponsored by Brilliant,
a fun and compelling way
for students and the self-motivated
以有趣的方式学习数学 科学 逻辑
to learn about math, science, and logic.
Before Brilliant ever reached out to me,
I actually used their service
when I decided to take up psychology.
One of the main requirements in psyc
is an understanding of statistics.
Unfortunately, the dry exercises and explanations in my textbook
didn’t really motivate me to learn anything.
Then I used Brilliant,
an interactive way to learn math, science, and computer science.
This worked! And I actually got straight A’s
in both my stats courses.
This makes sense, as interactive learning has proven
to help you learn six times more effectively
than watching lecture videos.
I also explored a lot of their other features.
I’m really interested in science.
And I found their course on science essentials very compelling.
The course covers essential meta theories and principles
behind scientific investigation,
and definitely helped me in my own research.
Interested in fun interactive problem solving?
Join the millions of people already learning on Brilliant
with a special offer just for listeners.
Head to brilliant.org/sisyphus55
to get started for free with Brilliance Interactive Lessons.
The first 200 listeners will also get 20% off an annual membership.
At 15, there is Diogenes Syndrome.
Named after the infamous philosopher Diogenes the cynic
who lived like a dog in his own filth
and was well known for his one-liners,
this syndrome carries a darker essence.
Often associated with the Progressive Dementia
found in the elderly or Schizophrenia,
Diogenes Syndrome is characterized by an extreme level of hoarding
with no apparent attachment to the features themselves.
Those suffering from Diogenes Syndrome
will often act shamelessly,
and rarely attend to their hygiene.
Unfortunately, these individuals rarely know of their condition,
and are only brought to treatment after catching Pneumonia
or a serious accident.
At 14, there is Conversion Disorder.
Those suffering display serious neurological symptoms
such as blindness, paralysis, deafness, or epileptic seizures.
例如失明 麻痹 失聪 癫痫性痉挛等
However, upon serious medical examination,
they show no signs of any physical cause to their disorder.
The cause is typically attributed to serious trauma or stressors.
Unfortunately, the sufferer is entirely unaware of the stressor
and is usually adamant that the issue is neurological.
Hence, treatment often involves an illusory rehabilitation program
that would typically be used for those actually suffering from these afflictions.
At 13, we have Jerusalem Syndrome.
This is an acute psychotic state
in which individual identifies themselves as a Biblical character.
The most common form of this syndrome
is when a previously mentally stable person visits Jerusalem,
and soon enters into a state of religious delusion.
However, there is some controversy
as to whether this form of the syndrome can be verified.
Interestingly, Jerusalem averages 100 cases per year.
the syndrome typically disappears after a short period of time.
At 12, there is Visual Agnosia.
Most famous in “Oliver Sacks—the man who mistook his wife for a hat”,
this disorder is characterized by an inability
to recognize or make sense of certain objects
despite technically seeing them.
Here we see the main difference
between sensing something and perceiving something.
Whereas those with Visual Agnosia
can see the object,
they are unable to interpret the object.
In an extreme example,
Sacks recounts the case of a man
who quite literally identified his wife as a floating hat.
In 11th place, we have Depersonalization and Derealization.
Most of us have likely learned
to detach from our environment or sense of self
during periods of stress.
However, this disorder is far more constant,
and manifests as feeling as if one is not attached to themselves
or the environment around them.
Sufferers may feel like they are not real
or that nothing is real.
Objects may appear colorless or flat.
They may question their own existence.
At 10th, we have Truman Disorder.
If you haven’t seen the movie “The Truman Show”,
it’s about Truman, a man who’s living a perfectly normal life,
except one thing:
His entire life is a TV show,
and everyone he knows including his wife and best friend
are all paid actors who are in on it.
Everyone knows except him.
Strangely, some who have watched the film began to grow paranoid
that their own lives are being watched by millions.
Psychiatrists argue that the disorder is an attempt for the patient
to explain why the world may suddenly change
in an inexplicable way.
This disorder may simply be a variant of Schizophrenia.
At 9th, there is Apotemnophilia,
the desire to mutilate parts of the body.
Displaying similar symptoms to OCD,
the disorder is characterized by an obsession to remove a limb.
Although the desire may stem from some sort of sexual origins,
some cases reveal that the obsession may also be wrapped up
in a sense of identity.
In 8th place, we have Walking Corpse Syndrome,
also known as Crotard Syndrome.
The symptoms can include severe social withdrawal,
over refusal to eat,
and hearing voices from the dead telling them that they have died.
In severe instances,
individuals will ask to be taken to the morgue.
The causes typically involved more severe underlying medical issues.
In 7th place, we have Alice In Wonderland Syndrome.
Somewhat similar to Derealization Disorder,
the patient feels as if they are in a dreamlike state.
They experience an altered perception of their own body image
time and space itself.
They may hallucinate and experience an altered sense of speed when moving.
The syndrome is named after the psychedelic Lewis Carroll book.
At 6th, we have Dissociative Identity Disorder.
Historically termed Multiple Personality Disorder,
DID is characterized by the presence of two or more distinct identities.
There is typically a host identity
which is the identity most frequently encountered
and carries the person’s legal name;
and the altered identity.
Interestingly, the identities can be aware of each other
or be entirely unaware.
The cause is thought to be due to childhood trauma,
but a more recent sociocognitive theory suggests
that clinicians inadvertent suggestibility has caused DID.
In 5th place, we have Boanthropy,
the belief that one is a cow or ox.
The sufferer will typically act out being a cow
by munching on grass and roaming around in a field.
Interestingly, this disorder appears to come up in the Bible,
in which a boastful king goes insane
and lives like a cow for seven years.
What could be stranger than thinking you’re a cow?
In 4th place, we have Clinical Lycanthropy,
in which the sufferer believes themselves to be a werewolf.
Symptoms can include the pairing of somatosensory aberrations,
such as believing oneself to be growing hair;
and strange thoughts,
such as the belief that one is about to transform into a werewolf.
At 3rd place, we have Capgras Delusion.
Typically the patient becomes convinced
that a family member or somebody close
has been replaced by an imposter.
This leads to extreme distress
and the patient may actually act out violently
against their own family.
It is thought to be caused by a miscommunication
between the visual cortex which identifies people,
and the striate which attaches an emotional response to identification.
At 2nd place, there is the phenomenon of Phantom Pregnancies.
The patient who is often obsessively terrified of becoming pregnant
will suddenly experience an end to their periods, cravings, cramps,
随后突然出现停经 恶心呕吐 痉挛
and may even have their belly grow.
Queen Mary Tudor is thought to be an historical example of this disorder.
Finally, in 1st place, there is Koro Syndrome.
Largely present in Asian societies
and typically onset in epidemics,
Koro Syndrome is characterized by an obsessive fear
that one’s genitals are shrinking or retracting within the body,
and that the end of this process will lead to death.
Mass hysteria of genital shrinkage
has also been reported in Africa and Europe.
Sufferers may use a clamping device
to relieve themselves of their anxiety.
Although this will likely result in hospitalization.
Thank you for watching!
Inside your skull is one of the greatest mysteries of the universe: