ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

宇航员在阿波罗16号飞船上放屁 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

宇航员在阿波罗16号飞船上放屁

That Time Apollo 16 Astronauts Got the Farts

[引乐]
[♪ INTRO]
关于人类太空航行的故事常常充满了英雄主义 数学
Stories about human spaceflight are usually full of heroism, math,
以及人类用聪明才智战胜了难以置信的困难
and the triumph of human ingenuity over incredible odds.
宇航员在阿波罗16号飞船上放屁的故事也不例外
The story of how an astronaut got the farts on Apollo 16 is no exception.
那都是从1971年着陆月球的阿波罗15号任务开始
It all started on the Apollo 15 mission, which landed on the Moon in 1971.
那次任务无疑是成功的 但当他们在太空中的时候
The mission was successful, but while they were in space,
宇航员们经历了一些心率失常 或是心脏的不稳定跳动
the astronauts experienced some arrhythmia, or irregular beating of the heart.
心率失常可能预示着各种严重的心血管问题
Arrhythmia can signal all kinds of serious cardiovascular problems,
比如心脏病和中风
like heart attack and stroke.
因此即使宇航员们完好地回来了 NASA也很想确保
So even though the astronauts made it back just fine, NASA very much wanted to make sure
宇航员们在未来的任务中能避免在太空中发生心率失常
that astronauts on future missions avoided arrhythmia while they were in space, where
在那时人类还没有建立任何可靠的医疗保障基础设施
humans haven’t yet to establish any solid healthcare infrastructure.
因此在阿波罗15号的全体人员返回地球时NASA的医师们做了一些验血工作
So NASA physicians did some bloodwork on the Apollo 15 crew when they returned to Earth,
发现他们的身体中钾含量过低 这是一种叫做低钾血的环境
and found that they had too little potassium in their systems, a condition called hypokalemia.
钾对心脏非常重要
Potassium is super important for your heart
因为它是神经细胞正常运转的主要部分
because it’s a major part of nerve cell function.
神经系统是控制心跳的
And your nervous system is what controls your heartbeat.
尤其 钾被用于在各种细胞中都发现的钠-钾泵
Specifically, potassium is used in the sodium-potassium pump, which is found in all kinds of cells,
包括位于神经系统各部分的细胞
including those in every part of the nervous system.
一种酶将钠和钾分离到神经细胞膜的两侧
An enzyme separates out the sodium and potassium on either side of a nerve cell’s membrane,
在细胞表面形成电压
building up voltage across the cell surface.
对于严格按照时间规律爆发的细胞活动你会常常希望细胞膜
For carefully timed bursts of cellular activity, you usually want the cell’s membrane
在细胞兴奋之前达到被称作动作电位的特定电压
to reach a particular voltage before firing, called the action potential.
一旦达到了那个电压 细胞就会兴奋
Once you hit that voltage, the cell fires;
否则 细胞等待着电压的下一次形成
otherwise, it just waits for the voltage to build up again.
贯穿心脏的神经细胞网络依赖着钠-钾泵
A network of nerve cells throughout the heart rely on the sodium-potassium pump,
来调节心率
among other cell-signalling pathways, to time your heartbeat.
如果那个系统的组件陷入混乱 比如你没有摄取足够的钾
If components of that system fall out of whack, like if you aren’t getting enough potassium,
你的心跳就可能失调
your heartbeat can get off-kilter.
所以朋友们 一定要吃香蕉
So be sure to eat your bananas, friends.
但回到我们的宇航员
But back to our astronauts.
为了保证阿波罗16号宇航员的安全免受阿波罗15宇航员经历的心律不齐
To keep the Apollo 16 astronauts safe from the arrhythmia experienced
NASA给他们开了大量的钾
by the Apollo 15 crew, NASA prescribed a ton of potassium.
不足以在另一方面破坏钠-钾泵的量
Not enough to mess up the sodium-potassium pump in the other direction,
但是仍然有很大的量
but still a whole bunch.
钾是出了名的苦的
Potassium is typically very bitter,
因此它需要溶解在有香味的东东里
so it needs to be dissolved into something with a lot of flavor.
NASA决定用大量的橘子类饮料
NASA decided to use lots of citrus drinks.
全体人员有各种各样每天都要喝橘子香的可复水饮料
The crew had various citrus-flavored rehydratable drinks that they had to drink every day,
一天要喝许多次
multiple times a day.
你可能想到 宇航员们对此很厌倦
As you can probably imagine, the astronauts got really tired of this.
这一饮食也有一些对我们身体的弊端 我们知道这一点是因为NASA记录了下所有的
And the diet had some physical downsides, which we know because NASA records all
宇航员之间的交流并且公开了文字记录
its communication with astronauts and makes the transcripts publicly available.
有一次 任务指挥官约翰·杨没有意识到他的麦克风开了
At one point, the mission commander, John Young, was unaware that he had a hot mike,
好吧 我会让你听到他对同事航天员查尔斯·杜克说了些什么
and well, I’ll just let you listen to what he said to fellow astronaut Charles Duke.
-我放屁了 又一次
“I’ve got the farts, again.
我又一次得到它们了 查理
I got ‘em again, Charlie.
我不知道是什么引起了放屁
I don’t know what gives ‘em to me.
我认为那是酸胃 我真的这样认为
I think it’s acid stomach, I really do.
我过去20年都没吃过那么多水果!
I’ll not eat this much citrus fruit in 20 years!
我告诉你一件事 在剩余的12天里我再也不会吃(橘类)了
I’ll tell you one thing, in another 12 days, I ain’t never eatin’ any more.”
当然新闻报道了这件事 又因为屁总是很有趣
So of course the press reported this, and because farts are always funny,
每个人都对此大笑不已
everyone had a good laugh about it.
也就是说 每个人 除了佛罗里达柑橘共同体
That is, everyone except for Florida Citrus Mutual,
这个组织代表了佛罗里达的柑橘产业
the organization representing Florida’s citrus industry.
他们发布了一些官方声明说 宇航员们在服用人造柑橘饮品
They issued some official statements saying that the astronauts were using artificial citrus drinks,
而不是健康的佛罗里达橙汁 而它才是一顿营养均衡的早餐的一部分
and not wholesome, Floridian OJ, part of this complete, balanced breakfast.
因此柑橘不应该接锅 并且他们想请你继续购买他们的产品
So citrus is not to blame, and they would like you to please continue to buy their products.
而那是真的
And that was true.
肠胃气胀不是由水果引起的
The flatulence wasn’t caused by fruit.
钾才是罪魁祸首
It was the potassium.
看 钾在消化系统中被用于另一个生物酶泵
See, potassium is used in another enzyme pump, in the digestive system.
那是氢-钾泵
It’s the hydrogen-potassium pump.
胃酸被一种酶很好的保存且保持酸性
Your stomach acid is kept nice and acidic by an enzyme that
这种酶让钾进入并排出氢离子
pumps potassium in and hydronium ions out.
水合氢离子快速地游离到常规水中并释放氢离子
The hydronium quickly dissociates to regular water and free hydrogen ions.
溶液中有自由的氢离子就是它呈酸性的原因
Having free hydrogen ions in a solution is what makes it acidic.
事实上 pH的含义就是氢的力量
In fact, pH stands for “power of hydrogen.”
因此所有宇航员额外摄入的钾引起了氢-钾泵
So all the extra potassium the astronauts were taking in caused the hydrogen-potassium
工作过度 这就使他们放屁
pump to overwork, which gave them “the farts.”
但是他们的心跳良好稳定因此他们至少解决了那个问题
But their heartbeats were good and steady, so at least they solved that problem!
NASA确实有大量针对太空中的屁的研究
There has actually been a great deal of research into space farts by NASA,
因为它们造成了安全风险
because they pose a safety hazard.
甲烷是一种易燃气体因此在火箭顶部有收集人喷射的可燃气体的容器
Methane is a flammable gas, so having a container of people emitting flammable gas on top
会使人信服地造成一些问题
of a rocket could conceivably pose some problems.
但是阿波罗16号宇航员产生的甲烷没有引起火灾
But the amount of methane the Apollo 16 astronauts produced didn’t cause a fire,
并且宇航员们没有经受任何心率失常
and the astronauts didn’t experience any arrhythmia.
因此对于阿波罗17号的人员来说不幸的是
So unfortunately for the Apollo 17 crew,
NASA的生理医生也要求他们吃钾餐
NASA physicians required the potassium diet for them, too.
感谢收看这一期科学秀的太空趣事
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space.
获取更多历史上太空旅行的精彩故事以及各种其他
For more amazing stories from the history of space travel, plus all kinds of other
迷人的的太空科学 你可以上youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe
fascinating space science, you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.
我保证 不是每一期都是关于屁的
Not all of our episodes are about farts, I promise.
[结束乐]
[♪ OUTRO]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

阿波罗16号飞船上宇航员经历的趣事儿!你知道在太空中放屁会怎样吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Cassic

审核员

L

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WetZdYCBWXs

相关推荐