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感谢沙拉,我们离宇宙殖民又近了一步

Thanks to Salad, We’re One Step Closer to Colonizing Space

采访者: 这是2015年国际空间站的宇航员
INTERVIEWER: This is a 2015 video of International Space
Scott Kelly Kell Lindgren和Kimiya Yui
Station astronauts Scott Kelly, Kjell Lindgren, and Kimiya Yui,
他们正在享用一份简单
enjoying a simple salad,
但并不普通的沙拉
except it’s not simple.
它实际上是人类历史上最重要的沙拉
It’s actually the most important salad in human history.
为什么?
Why?
因为ISS的宇航员们不只吃的是生菜
Because these ISS astronauts aren’t just eating lettuce.
他们吃的是在太空中长大的
They’re dining on the first lettuce
第一颗生菜
to be grown and eaten in space.
都因为这个有创意的命名
And it’s all thanks to this creatively
“蔬菜生产系统”
named unit, the Vegetable Production System,
另外也被称为Veggie(蔬菜)
otherwise known as Veggie.
现在在太空里尝试种植植物已不再是一个新想法
Now trying to grow plants in space isn’t exactly a new idea.
过去已经尝试过很多次
There have been many attempts in the past.
在1997年 豆子籽苗在Mir空间站种下
In 1997, bean seedlings were grown on the Mir Space Station.
在2012年ISS的宇航员 Don Pettit
And in 2012, ISS astronaut Don Pettit
种了一年的绿皮西葫芦
grew a zucchini plant for a year.
他甚至为它写了一份博客
He even wrote a blog about it called
名叫 太空绿皮西葫芦的日记
“Diary of a Space Zucchini.”
NASA一直在研究农作物支持系统
And NASA has been looking into crop support
超过了30年
systems for over 30 years.
但是蔬菜项目是第一个在太空中投入最大的
But Project Veggie is the first large-scale effort
大规模种植农作物的项目
to produce food crops in space,
如果我们想让宇航员在像火星这么远的地方
an idea that is going to be critical if we want astronauts
长期执行任务的希望成为现实 那么这个(蔬菜项目)想法将会是决定性的
to make long duration missions to places like Mars a reality.
GIOIA MASSA:在太空中 如果环境条件
GIOIA MASSA: In space, if you can get those environmental
适宜–光线 温度
conditions right– the light, the temperature,
空气 养分还有水–
the atmosphere, the nutrients, and the water–
如果这些都没问题
if you can get those right, plants
植物就能长的很好
grow pretty well and pretty similarly
和在地球上长的一样
as they grow on earth.
采访者: 这是GIOIA MASSA博士
INTERVIEWER: That was Dr. Gioia Massa,
领导我们在肯尼迪太空中心的蔬菜项目
who leads the Veggie team at the Kennedy Space Center,
团队的任务是解决
the group responsible for tackling the challenges
太空植物生长这一挑战性的问题
of growing plants in space.
迄今为止 现在所遇到的最大的问题是
So far, the biggest of which has been coming up with a way
想出如何在微重力的情况下给植物浇水的方法
to water plants in a microgravity environment.
GIOIA MASSA:你想不到在微重力
GIOIA MASSA: You don’t think about how difficult it
的情况下浇水有多难
is to water in microgravity, or to wash your vegetables
或是像洗蔬菜之类的事情
or things like that, until you start
直到你看到像这样的视频 告诉你如何在太空中
to watch some of these videos of just how water behaves
浇水
in space.
采访者: 为了解决供水的问题
INTERVIEWER: In order to tackle the problem of providing water,
提供养份 以及在太空环境下植物光照的这些问题
nutrients, and light to plants within a space environment,
肯尼迪太空中心与
the Kennedy Space Center teamed up
轨道技术公司
with Orbital Technologies Corporation
设计建造了蔬菜项目的硬件装置
to design and build the Veggie unit.
这个硬件使用了由植物枕支撑的
The hardware uses a passive watering system
被动式浇水系统
supported by plant pillows.
这些植物枕都是单一次性使用口袋
These pillows are single-use pockets
里面装满了培植用土和可自行释放肥料装置
filled with soil substrate and control released fertilizer.
嵌入枕垫内的是一种保湿材料
Embedded into the pillow is a moisture wicking material
种子可以粘在上面
where seeds can be glued and carefully
并小心定向摆放 确保种子向下生长
orientated to ensure that the roots grow down
枝叶向上生长
and the shoots grow up.
LED储能灯有红光 蓝光和绿光
The LED light bank provides red, blue, and green light
帮助植物储存能量
to help plants generate energy.
整个系统的四壁
And the walls of the whole system
可被调节向上扩展使植物有生长的空间
can be extended upward, allowing room for growth.
这是低量模块系统
It was this low mass modular system
在2014年被送到ISIS
that was sent to the ISIS in 2014,
宇航员设置好并且开始种植生菜
where an astronaut set the unit up and started to grow lettuce
把它作为实验种类
as a test species.
这个团队还种植百日菊
The crew also grew zinnia flowers
来测试开花农作物的长期生存率
to test the long-term survival of flowering crops,
比如番茄
like tomatoes.
首先 它是成功的
Initially, it was a success.
在蔬菜项目中第一批成长的生菜
The first group of lettuce grown in Veggie
被送回地球进行分析
was sent back to Earth for analysis.
在认定这些样品是可食用之后
After those samples were deemed edible,
给了ISS宇航员绿色的灯光
the ISS astronauts were given the green light
去垫在第二个农作物的绿叶植物下
to tuck into the second crop of leafy greens, which
当然 他们这么做了
of course, they did.
但百日菊就不同了
The zinnias, however, were a different story.
培植这株亮橘色花后不久
Shortly after nurturing this bright orange flower,
Scott Kelly 从ISS发了一条推特 说:
Scott Kelly sent this tweet from the ISS.
“我们的植物看上去不是很好
“Our plants aren’t looking too good.
如果在火星上就会是个问题
Would be a problem on Mars.
我要引导内心的Mark Watney
I’m going to have to channel my inner Mark Watney.”
尽管Mark Watney Scott的已经开花的百日菊快要死了
Despite channeling Mark Watney, Scott’s flowering zinnias
而且他对此无能为力
were dying, and there was nothing he could do about it.
GIOIA MASSA: 白日草上的确有霉菌出现
GIOIA MASSA: We did get fungus growing on the zinnia.
虽然我们估算了宇航员给
And we were kind of estimating water volumes
植物浇的水量
for the astronauts to give to the plants.
但我们的估测不正确
And our estimates were not right.
在植物茎内有过量的水
And so there was excess water in the plant chamber.
所以它导致了霉菌的出现
And this led to fungus.
采访者: 现在你能放心的知道
INTERVIEWER: Now you’ll be relieved
Scott确实成功的救活了一些白日草
to know that Scott did manage to save some of his zinnias.
那发霉的那些呢?
And the moldy ones?
它们被送回Massa在肯尼迪太空中心
They were sent back to Massa’s team
的团队 他们迫切的开始分析这些植物
at the Kennedy Space Center, who eagerly started analyzing them.
GIOIA MASSA:我们已经在
GIOIA MASSA: We’ve been doing a lot of research
带来这些组织上做了大量的研究
here on the tissue that was brought back,
试着搞清这些霉菌来自哪里
to try and understand where this fungus came from
它们是如何传染这些植物的
and how it infected these plants,
这样我们就能为未来做准备
so that we will learn for the future.
采访者: 迄今为止 五种蔬菜项目的农作物
INTERVIEWER: So far, five Veggie crops
已经在ISS上收获
have been harvested on the ISS.
每次 团队都能
And each time, the team have learned
学到如何操作硬件来维持健康的太空产物
how to tweak the hardware to support healthy space produce.
除了微调Veggie来优化植物健康
And aside from fine tuning Veggie to optimize plant health
与生长 团队还实验了
and growth, the team are also experimenting
用不同的标准和红色
with different levels and intensities
蓝色和绿色的Led光的强度
of red, blue, and green LED light
使太空农作物更有营养更美味
to make space crops more nutritious and delicious.
现在叶绿素 在通过光合作用产生植物能量时出现的色素
Now chlorophyll, the pigment involved in generating plant
它们更好的吸收了红色
energy via photosynthesis, absorbs red and blue light
和蓝色的光
best.
本质上来说 这些波长帮助太空农作物
Essentially, these wavelengths help space crops
不用日光就能成长
to grow without sunlight.
最近的研究还表明了少量的绿光
Recent studies have also shown a small amount of green light
对稠密植物的成长很可能很重要
could be important for dense plant growth,
特别是在像外层太空这样缺少光的条件下
particularly in poor light conditions like in deep space.
然而 使光保持平衡
However, getting the light balance just right
还正处于研究过程中
is still a work in progress.
GIOIA MASSA: 解决这个猜谜过程真的
GIOIA MASSA: It’s a really fun puzzle
很好玩 植物能有什么不同
to figure out, what different plants are doing.
可能在蓝光下 某些维他命的含量会
You might get higher levels of certain vitamins
更高些
under blue light.
红光更倾向于使叶类作物长的更大
Red light tends to make leafy crops expand more.
但这不是普遍的情况
But it’s not, it’s not a universal thing.
总体来说 这次灯光实验
For the most part, these light experiments
似乎更趋向于好的结果
seem to be yielding delicious results.
在2017年早期 宇航员Peggy Whitson和Shane Kimbrough
In early 2017, astronauts Peggy Whitson and Shane Kimbrough
在ISS上面种了一颗中国的大白菜
grew a Chinese cabbage on the ISS.
并且它被誉为迄今为止最好吃的素食农作物
And it was considered the best tasting veggie crop so far.
对于这些宇航员来说这是一个令人骄傲的时刻
It was a proud moment for those astronauts.
这说明了蔬菜项目的另一个长处
And that speaks to another strength
它能够长期推动
of Project Veggie, its ability to boost morale
那些长期驻扎在ISS上的工作人员的斗志
among those stationed on the ISS for long periods of time.
GIOIA MASSA:看着他们工作
GIOIA MASSA: It’s just been incredible to watch them work
看着他们种植物是一件让人难以置信的事情
and to watch them grow the plants.
我们确实对它的的人为因素
We’re actually very interested in the human factors
和心理因素方面很有兴趣
and the psychological aspects of this.
所以 这是Veg-40和Veg-50
And so that’s one of the components
实验组成的部分之一
of the Veg-04 and Veg-05 experiment
会用来做一些评估
We’ll be to do some assessments trying
试着量化 植物在太空中
to quantify how much the plants might
存活的经验有多大影响
impact the experience of living in space.
采访者:明年 NASA
INTERVIEWER: Next year, NASA is set
准备发射高级植物栖息地
to launch the Advanced Plant Habitat, the largest plant
迄今为止建造的最大的植物种植屋
chamber built so far.
虽然APH使用了与蔬菜项目类似的科技
The APH shares similar technology to Veggie,
但是我们能够容纳更大面积的农作物
but we’ll be able to hold larger crops.
所以谁知道呢?
So who knows?
也许这个让宇航员在火星上种土豆的想法
Perhaps the idea of astronauts growing potatoes on Mars
终究会在不久的将来实现
might not seem so far fetched after all.
NASA可能会计划着用一个大的空间磁铁
NASA may have plans to make Mars habitable
使人类能够在火星上居住
using a giant space magnet.
想了解更多 请观看本期内容
To find out more, watch this episode now.
感谢您的观看 不要忘记订阅本频道
Thanks for watching, and don’t forget to subscribe.

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视频概述

成功的在太空中种植农作物 这是怎么做到的 解说员为你解说科技的进步

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Vh4__TY78A

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