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测试火星用降落伞 – 译学馆
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测试火星用降落伞

Testing a Parachute for Mars

测试火星用降落伞
在弗尼吉亚州东海岸的高空之上
High above the Eastern Shore of Virginia a rocket is hurtling
一枚火箭正在以近两倍音速的速度穿越大气
through the atmosphere at nearly twice the speed of sound
它为测试火星用降落伞而设计
Attached is a three thousand pound payload that
附有三千磅的载荷
is designed to test a parachute for Mars
火箭上搭载的电脑不停地计算着火箭的高度与速度
Onboard a computer is calculating the altitude and speed to determine the precise time
以便于确定展开降落伞的精确时间
that it will signal to deploy the parachute
这不是我们对火星用降落伞的第一次实验
These aren’t the first tests of parachutes from ours
50年前NASA就开始描绘降落伞高度速度的理论模线
50 years ago NASA began lofting parachutes to
以模拟火星的环境
altitudes and speeds meant to simulate the conditions of Mars entry
这些早期的测试展示了在1500km/h的风速下
those early tests demonstrated the challenges of inflating lightweight materials
为使其不受损坏
in a 1500 mile an hour wind and
充气轻质材料所遇到的挑战
Having them survive.
对在火星上安全着陆很有帮助
Well enough to help enable a safe landingon the red planet
在我们的任务变得越来越大胆的今天
Today as our missions become ever more daring
我们需要新的降落伞来胜任火星艰苦的环境
We need new parachutes capable of surviving those strenuous environments and we need ways
同时需要新的方法来测试比以往更重的载荷
of testing them at loads higher than ever before
为了让这些测试能够实现
To make those tests a reality
NASA喷射推进实验室的工程师联合沃罗普飞行研究所
Engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory worked
一同开发一项新的测试技术
with NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility to develop a new test technique the advanced supersonic
先进超音速降落伞充气实验 简称ASPIRE计划
parachute inflation research experiments or
此计划应用二级飞行器“黑雁9号”火箭作为探测火箭
aspire project uses a two-stage black Brant 9 sounding rocket
来运载有效载荷到达需要释放降落伞的情况
to carry its payload to the conditions needed to stress the parachute the
这枚火箭于大西洋上发射
Rocket is launched out over the Atlantic Ocean and
并且持续上升
ascends to altitudes where the atmosphere of Earth mimics
直到地球大气足以模拟火星表面大气的高度
the atmosphere near the surface of Mars
第三次也是最后一次Aspire测试火箭在九月七日发射
The third and final aspired test launched on September 7th
这次试验中 在二分之一秒内降落伞以近两倍音速的速度
The parachute was deployed at nearly twice the speed of sound in
从装满200磅的尼龙芳纶和诺拉科技材料的
Less than half a second 200 pounds
像鼓一样大的包中展开
of nylon Kevlar and tech Nora go from a small
从木材的密度膨胀为降落伞
Drum sized bag with the density of wood to an inflated parachute
拥有大量容纳空气的体积
with the volume of a large house generating nearly
以至于可以承担近乎70000磅的载重
70,000 pounds of drag
在慢镜头图像中我们可以看到
Here in slow motion images you can see the
降落伞随着拖力的形成而迅速出现
rapid emergence of the parachute as it begins generating
这对在火星的减速极为重要
the drag crucial for deceleration at Mars
这些图像给予了我们的美妙的物理视野
These images give us amazing insights
让我们更清楚超音速降落伞膨胀的表现
into the physics and early behaviors of a supersonic parachute
显然我们可以轻松的展开降落伞
Inflation the apparent ease of the unfurling and unfolding
这与极端环境下的条件不符
in the parachute belies the severity of the extreme environment in which this occurs
此时一只回收队伍正在航线下
Awaiting below were a recovery team who had to retrieve
等待着回收降落伞和载荷并把它们带回海岸
both the parachute and the payload and return them to shore
之后降落伞会被一丝不苟的清洗干净
The parachute was then meticulously rinsed
并在检查之前晾干
and hung to dry before inspection
降落伞用数公里的线和三百万个针脚缝制
Miles and miles of thread and
我们甚至检查过每一个针脚
over 3 million stitches are used to hold the parachute together and we will examine each stitch
在三次成功的Aspire实验后
after three successful tests of aspire
NASA的新型降落伞通过了这次试炼
nASA has now tested their new parachute
在负载下它的表现超过之前每一种超音速降落伞
at loads and conditions exceeding any large supersonic parachute before it and
并且可以承载超过2020火星任务载荷要求40%的载重
40 % higher than the highest load expected for the Mars 2020 mission.
现在我们的降落伞可以合格的在火星飞行了
Our parachute is now certified for flight at Mars

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视频概述

NASA测试新型超音速降落伞为火星2020任务做准备。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

CLARK

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcAgnQ9K7UY

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