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畸胎瘤:长着牙齿的肿瘤能告诉我们什么? – 译学馆
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畸胎瘤:长着牙齿的肿瘤能告诉我们什么?

Teratomas: What Tumors with Teeth Can Teach Us About Stem Cells

当你听到肿瘤这个词时
When you hear the word “tumor,”
你可能觉得这是种非常不好的东西
you probablythink “not good.”
它们甚至有些可怕
And they can be pretty scary.
在良性形式中
In their mildest form,
良性肿瘤只不过是在你身体中的细胞聚集而成的肿块
tumors are just a lump of cells hanging out in your body.
在恶性情况下 这些细胞可以分离和扩散
At their worst, those cells are dividing and spreading
扩散速度如同野火一般-这时它们就是癌症了
like wildfire — they ’ re cancerous.
但是有一种肿瘤
But there ’ s one kind of tumor
它就像是从恐怖电影中出来的一样
that ’ s basically straight out of a horror movie.
如果你看到了畸胎瘤的内层 你可以找到头发 牙齿
If you peek inside a teratoma, you might find hair, teeth,
眼睛 甚至是脑细胞
eyes, or even brain cells.
这些肿瘤很奇怪
As strange as these tumors are,
这些杂乱的身体组成成分并不会真的变成人
the jumbles of body parts aren ’ t actually turning into people.
但是它们确实教了我们许多
But they have taught us a lot
关于干细胞和早期胚胎生长发育是如何工作的
about stem cells and how early development works.
许多肿瘤形成当随机突变
Most tumors start when a random mutation
发生在一个细胞的DNA中使它过度的分离和分裂
in one cell ’ s DNA makes it go rogue and divide too much.
所以 例如 一个肺肿瘤可能是一簇原本正常在肺中生长的细胞簇
so, for instance, a lung tumor might be a cluster of the cells that would normally line your lungs.
如果肿瘤持续长大
If that tumor keeps growing,
这些肿瘤细胞可以进行更多随机突变
the cells can develop more random mutations,
这将会在它们之间制造更多细小的不同
which can creat more small differences between them.
但是 总体来说 它仍然是一块肺样的组织 畸胎瘤
But — on the whole — it’s still lung-liketissue. Teratomas,
在另一方面
on the other hand,
看起来就像你混合了人并从粘液中生长了一些东西
look like you blended up a human and started growing something from the goop.
我们认为这些细胞是肿瘤产生的原因
And we think that ’ s because of the cells that spawn these tumors.
大部分的畸胎瘤是由卵巢和睾丸中的细胞发育而来
Most teratomas develop from germ cells inthe ovaries and testes.
它们是为了产生成熟的精子和卵子而分离出的细胞
Those are the cells that divide to produce mature sperm and eggs.
你大概知道 精子和卵子聚合在一起形成细胞
As you probably know, sperm and eggs fuse together to make embryos.
并且
And the cells
在早期胚胎中的细胞具有一种生物学家称为多功能性的能力 这意味着
in early embryos have an ability biologists call pluripotency, which means
有正确的物理化学信号
that with the right physical and chemical signals,
它们可以形成任何人体中的任何部分
they can become pretty much anything,
从皮肤细胞到肝脏细胞
from skin cells to liver cells.
如果干细胞内发生足够多的随机突变
If enough random mutations happen in germ cells,
它们可以解锁多功能性
they can unlock pluripotency at the
在不恰当的时候
wrong time.
伴有不受控制的细胞分裂可以导致畸胎瘤
Combined with wildly dividing cells, thatleads to teratomas.
在畸胎瘤形态中它们至少有一些
As teratomas form, they have at least a tiny bit
胚胎中有的所有三种发育组织
of all three kinds of developmental tissue that embryos have.
它们是内胚层
There ’ s the endoderm,
内胚层将会形成你的肠腔 中胚层
which goes on to make your gut lining, the mesoderm, which makes
形成你的肌肉 血管和骨骼和外胚层
your muscles, blood vessels, and skeleton,and the ectoderm,
形成你的皮肤和大脑
which makes your skin and brain.
要清楚的是 它们不是胚胎-它们的生长
To be clear, they are not embryos — their growth
并不是完全被控制的
isn ’ t nearly controlled enough.
但是发育组织可以解释头发和眼球
But that developmental tissue is how hairand eyeballs
是如何在这些肿瘤中出现的
can start sprouting in these tumors.
科学家早在20世纪50年代到60年代真正研究过畸胎瘤
Scientists really started digging into teratomasin the 1950s and 60s.
一个团队用老鼠去研究抽烟的健康危害
A team using mice to study the health hazards
在老鼠实验中发现了畸胎瘤
of cigarettes found teratomas in a mouse ’ s testes,
他们随后将实验改为了肿瘤研究
then switched over to tumor researchsoon after.
通过仔细的肿瘤实验 生物学家开始意识到
Through careful experimentation with thesetumors, biologists started to realize that
胚胎发育也是与其相似的过程
embryonic development happened in a similarway.
在胚胎中 只是……更少的破损 加上
In embryos it was just … less broken. Plus,
他们发现
they discovered
老鼠的胚胎干细胞被移植到被测试的健康
that mouse embryonic stem cells implanted into the testes of healthy
成年大鼠中也可以导致畸胎瘤的生长
adult mice could grow into teratomas too.
所以 你真的可以追溯
So really, you can pretty much trace the field
干细胞研究到畸胎瘤
of stem cell research back to teratomas.
并且这个领域有一天会帮助很多人 正常来说
And it ’ s a field that could help a lot of people someday. Normally,
组织很难被捐赠给需要它们的患者
it ’ s hard to donate tissues to patients that need them,
因为我们的身体
because our bodies
排斥外来的物质
reject foreign stuff.
这就是多功能干细胞可以起作用的地方 像胚胎干细胞
That’s where pluripotent stem cells comein, like embryonic stem cells.
我们可以用他们
We might be able to use them to
培养需要被移植的组织而不会触发
grow tissues that can be transplanted without triggering
那些在医学中非常有用的防御机制 但是
those defenses, which could be really usefulfor medicine. But,
很明显 科学家并不想意外移植
obviously, scientists don’t want toaccidentally transplant tissues
生长畸胎瘤的组织
that create teratomas.
尽管这是良性的
Even if it turns out to be benign,
在你体内发现一个充满牙齿的组织将不会
finding a tooth-filled lump inside you would not be
是一个好的惊喜
a good surprise.
所以 我们还有很多需要学习的地方
So there ’ s a lot we have to learn
在这些潜在的治疗方法快要成为
before these potential therapies get close to becoming
现实之前
a reality.
在那个学习列表上的是为什么正常
And on that list is why seemingly normal
胚胎干细胞发育成肿瘤伴有
embryonic stem cells grow into tumors with a bunch of
身体部分
body parts.
感谢收看本期的Scishow
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
如果你想学习更多隐藏在身体里的奇怪的事情
If you want to learn about more weird things hiding
查看我们的频道
in human bodies, check out our video
关于你唾液中的天然止痛药
about the natural painkiller in your spit!
和更多的科学内容
And for more of all kinds of science,
你可以去youtube的网站并且订阅该频道
you can go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

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视频概述

主要讲述了畸胎瘤的定义,形成和相关实验以及与干细胞研究的发展

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收集自网络

翻译译者

浅叶飞月

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审核员DW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dr2ofA0JBP0

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