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颞下颌关节(TMJ)解剖及椎间盘移位动画演示

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Anatomy and Disc Displacement Animation

颞下颌关节(TMJ)
The temporomandibular joint — the TMJ –
是连接下颚骨
is the joint between the lower jawbone –
下颌骨和颅骨的颞骨的关节
– the mandible – and the temporal bone of the skull.
它控制下巴的运动
The TMJ is responsible for jaw movement and
并且是身体里使用最频繁的关节
is the most used joint in the body.
它本质上是下颌骨和下颌窝
The TMJis essentially the articulation between the
(颞骨里的一个槽)
condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa –
之间的关节
a socket in the temporal bone.
颞下颌关节的独特之处在于关节盘——
The unique feature of the TMJ is the articular disc –
一块在两个骨头平面之间充当垫子的
a flexible and elastic cartilage that
灵活而有弹性的软骨
serves as a cushion between the two bone surfaces.
关节盘的中心缺乏神经末梢和血管
The disc lacks nerve endings and blood vessels
因此对疼痛并不敏感
in its center and therefore is insensitiveto pain.
它附着于前面的翼外肌
Anteriorly it attaches to lateral
——一块咬肌
pterygoid muscle – a muscle of chewing.
后部是布满了血管和神经的
Posteriorlyit continues as retrodiscal tissue fully supplied
盘后组织
with blood vessels and nerves.
下颌骨是嘴张开时
The mandible is the only bone that moves when
唯一移动的骨头
the mouth opens.
张口幅度只有20mm时
The first 20 mm opening involves
只需下颌窝里
only a rotational movement of the condyle
那块骨节的旋转运动
within the socket.
嘴要张的更大
For the mouth to open wider,
那块骨节和关节盘必须移出下颌窝
the condyle and the disc have to move out
推动关节结节向前向下移动
of the socket, forward and down the articular eminence,
一块凸骨前移靠近下颌窝
a convex bone surface located anteriorly
这被称之为移动
to the socket. This movement is called translation.
颞下颔关节最常见的问题是关节盘错位
The most common disorder of the TMJ is disc displacement,
并且关节盘通常是前移
and in most of the cases, thedisc is dislocated anteriorly.
因为关节盘前移
As the disc moves forward,
盘后组织被夹在两块骨头中间
the retrodiscal tissue is pulled in between the two bones.
与关节盘不同的是 它布满神经和血管
This can be very painful as this tissue is fully vascular and innervated,
因此会很疼
unlike the disc.
当嘴巴张开的时候
The forward dislocated disc forms an obstacle
前移错位的关节盘会阻碍骨节的运动
for the condyle movement when the mouth isopening.
要完全张开下巴
In order to fully open the jaw,
那块骨头就会滑上关节盘的后面
the condyle has to jump over the back end
并且滑到里面去
of the disc and onto its center.
这一过程
This produces a
会产生咔嗒声和爆裂声
clicking or popping sound.
合下巴时 骨头又从关节盘的后面滑出来产生声音
Upon closing, thecondyle slides back out of the disc hence
这一过程被称之为关节盘的错位和复位
another”click” or”pop”. This condition iscalled disc displacement with reduction.
在关节盘错位后期
In later stage of disc dislocation,
那块骨节一直呆在关节盘后面
the condyle stays behind the disc all the time, unable
不能回到关节盘
to get back onto the disc,
咔嗒声消失 但是嘴的张开程度受限
the clicking sound disappeared but mouth opening is limited.
这是症状最为明显的阶段—— 下巴似乎被锁住了
This is usually the most symptomatic stage- the jaw is said to be”locked” as it is
因为它不能张开太大
unable to open wide.
这一阶段的症状被称之为不能复位的关节盘错位
At this stage the conditionis called disc displacement without reduction Fortunately,
幸运的是 大多数情况下
in majority of the cases,
过一段时间它就会自行痊愈
the condition resolves by itself after some time.
这多亏了
This is thanks to a process
盘后组织的自然适应过程
called natural adaptation of the retrodiscal tissue, which
过段时间它会变成瘢痕组织并替代关节盘
after a while becomes scar tissue and can functionally replace the disc.
实际上
In fact, it
它会变得几乎和关节盘一样 因此被称之为伪关节盘
becomes so similar to the disc that it is called a pseudodisc.

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视频概述

颞下颌关节及关节盘移位动画演示

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小恐龙

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mB468Jh9aAY

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