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Taxi To The Front – The First Battle of the Marne I THE GREAT WAR - Week 7

在战争开始的前五周 德国、俄国和奥匈帝国发动了猛烈的攻势
The first five weeks of the war have seen great offensives by Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary,
larger than any military operations in history.
数十万人阵亡了 但是今天
Hundreds of thousands of men have died, but today
all of those offensives come to an end.
我是因迪·奈德尔 欢迎收看伟大战争
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
在战争开始的那一周 法国和英国在巴黎重新集结
At the beginning of the week, the French and the British were re-grouping around Paris
德国人也提前集结在东部 希望
as the Germans advanced. The Germans were also advancing in the east, hoping to push
把俄国人赶回俄国 而俄国人刚在更靠南的地方集结
the Russians back to Russia,while further south there was the Russians advancing to
push the Austrians back toward their empire.
两周前 一支俄国陆军在坦能堡战役中全军覆没
Two weeks ago, a Russian army had been absolutely destroyed at the Battle of Tannenberg, and
虽然德国人试图扩大其优势 但仍未发生大规模的战斗
though the Germans had been trying to press their advantage, there hadn’t been a major
battle since then. That changed this week.
9月9日的早晨 德国陆军从法国前线
On the morning of September 9th, the German army, bolstered by troop arrivals from the
调至马恩河 再次对俄国人发动突袭
front in France, attacked the Russians and once again simply crushed them at the Masurian
俄国陆军只能逃走以防全军覆没 他们以非常快的速度
Lakes, and the Russian army only escaped complete and total destruction by the remarkable speed
从马恩河地区撤退 并以一天40公里的速度将德军远远甩在后面
of its retreat from the lakes, moving 40 kilometers a day to leave the Germans far behind.
这两场战役 特别是坦能堡战役获得了历史性的胜利
These two battles, especially Tannenberg, were truly historical victories, and they
pushed all Russian troops off of German soil. They also destroyed Russian numerical superiority
over the Germans for the time being. Russia would still have a strong presence just across
the border, but the Germans were no longer worried about being steamrolled by the endless Russians army.
在撤退时发生了一件趣事 几个俄国士兵试图
Here’s a little anecdote from the retreat- some Russian soldiers were trying to take
a statue of Bismarck from a town in East Prussia to bring home, but their commander told them
不要去这么做 因为他不希望引发国际争端
not to take it because he didn’t want there to be an international incident.
现在 俄国人可能普遍士气低落
Now, the Russian people as a whole might have been totally demoralized by the catastrophic
他们在面对德国时遭受了灾难性的失败 尽管他们击败了奥匈帝国
defeats they had suffered against Germany, had they not beaten Austria-Hungary nearly
as badly in the Battle of Galicia, which also ended September 11th.
This was the group name for a series of battles over several weeks during Austria’s offensive
into Russian territory. These battles ended with Russia taking 130,000 prisoners and inflicting
324000个奥地利人伤亡 是的 你没听错
324,000 Austrian casualties. Yes, you heard that right.
看 奥匈军队在康拉德·冯·赫岑多夫参谋长的领导下袭击了一股
See, the Austrian army under Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf had attacked with a
相比之下数量非常小的俄国军队 事实上 失败更多是因为奥地利人的无能
much smaller force than the Russians had, and the failure was actually due more to Austrian
而不是俄国的辉煌 这支奥地利军队被迫撤退160公里
incompetence than Russian brilliance. The Austrian army was forced to retreat 160 kilometers
到喀尔巴阡山脉 康拉德是完全的失败和耻辱
toward the Carpathian Mountains. Conrad’s failure and humiliation were now total, and
记住 也许追根到底只有一两个要为第一次世界大战的开始
remember, there were perhaps only one or two people on earth who bear more responsibility
for the beginning of World War One and all the carnage that was to follow than Conrad
von Hotzendorf. Another side note here: At one point a bit down the road, Conrad confessed
向他的参谋说 如果大公弗朗兹·斐迪南还活着的话 必须让他
to his staff that if Archduke Franz Ferdinand was still alive he would take the man responsible
for such military disaster- Conrad himself- out and have him shot.
也是在本周签订了伦敦条约 法国 英国和俄国
It was also this week that also saw the pact of London, when France, Britain, and Russia
agreed that none of them would make a separate peace with Germany or Austria-Hungary. They
他们将会战斗到底 在西线 这似乎是最好的结果
would fight to the end. In the Western Front it seemed like it might well be the end. The
德国人已经向巴黎方向前进了两周 并在最后的战役中正在进行
Germans had advanced toward Paris for two weeks, and the final battle of that offensive was approaching.
尽管法国人获得了最后一点优势 但在德国人临近巴黎时
As the Germans neared Paris, though, the French were finally gaining a bit of an advantage.
在过去几周受到巨大损失的影响下 他们几乎是雇佣了新兵
In spite of their massive losses the past three weeks, they had a newly recruited and
才凑齐队伍 当弹尽粮绝的德国人已经前行了33个日夜后 同样的
formed army, while the exhausted Germans had been advancing for 33 straight days. Also,
德国人紧跟着撤离的英国军队而不是巴黎 但就在巴黎的东北部
the Germans had followed the retreating British not to Paris, but just to the northeast, and
在马恩河的南面 德国人极力扩展自己的补给队伍却错失了得到
south of the river Marne, over-extending their supply lines and losing the chance to take
巴黎的机会 这是他们的战争计划中的一个重要目标 施里芬计划 所以在
Paris, which was the major goal of their battle plan, The Schlieffen Plan. So it was south
马恩河的南面 英国人和法国人都在准备作战
of the Marne that the British and French prepared to do battle.
马恩河战役开始于1914年9月5日 这场战斗是法国人
The Battle of the Marne began on September 5th, 1914; a battle that the French and the
和英国人不能失败的 超过两百万的军队集结在这场战役中
British could absolutely not afford to lose. Over two million troops were engaged in the battle.
法国人用铁路不断变换新的位置 运用策略击败了德国人
The French used the railways to constantly take up new positions and outmaneuver the
如果德国人之间能更好的交流的话 这或许不是一个大问题
Germans. This might not have been such a big problem if the Germans had better communications,
但冯·莫尔特克 这个德国军队的主参谋在科布伦茨 超过500公里远的地方 他训练出
but von Moltke, the German army Chief of Staff, was at Koblenz, over 500 km away, and he practiced
a system of de-centralization where his generals often just did what they saw best. Moltke
莫尔特克也是一个十分敏感的人 在这一点上 他谈及他自己并写信
was also very high-strung, and by this point he was talking to himself and writing letters
to his wife where he would freak out about the amount of blood spilled in the war and
the feeling he must personally answer for it.
这是相当惊人的 当你意识到这些德国人远离本土并当他们的指挥官
It’s pretty amazing when you realize that the Germans got this far when their generals
经常不知道别的军官在干嘛 在整场马恩河战役中
often had no idea what the others were doing. During the entire battle of the Marne, Moltke
and the German High Command issued no orders at all, and the last two days didn’t even receive any.
德国人在这里有两支军队 在西面指挥官冯·布洛的手下有一支队伍被强迫
The Germans had two armies here, and the western one under General von Bulow had been forced
划出一条南北线来面对法国 以抵御法国的进攻 对吧?
to make a new north-south line facing Paris to defend against French advances, right?
冯·布洛把队伍移动到他的右侧来反击 但反击
Von Bulow moved troops from his left to his right to counter attack, but this counter
attack opened up a gap between von Bulow and the eastern army under von Kluck, and standing
而英国的远征力量就站在这个缺口处 他们谨慎的发动了攻击
before that gap was the British Expeditionary Force, who cautiously advanced. Von Bulow’s
冯·布洛的军队现在切断了冯·克卢克的军队 他们之间几乎毫无联系
army was now cut off from von Kluck’s with communications almost non-existent. This is
where the taxi legends come in.
当德国人增兵法国面临危机时 法国指挥官约瑟夫·加列尼做了些事
As the French surged and the Germans reinforced, the French General Joseph Gallieni, did something
他曾引述“至少是与众不同的”来形容 这的确是从来没有人做过的事情
that he quoted as “at least out of the ordinary”, and indeed it was something nobody had ever
done before. Gallieni requisitioned all the Paris taxicabs to shuttle reserves 50 kilometers
汽车虽然还处于初期发展阶段 但已经有超过
from the city to the front. The automobile was still in its infancy, but this was over
400辆车 在当时是一个庞大的数量 大部分士兵都没有这么奢侈的
400 cars, a huge amount for the time, and most of the soldiers had never had the luxury
乘坐过汽车 有两件事 虽然这对战斗的实际影响不大
of riding in an automobile.Two things though- the actual impact of this on the battle
出租车司机也是要付钱的 他们的计程表全程都在运转
was quite modest, and the taxi drivers were paid; their meters were running the whole time.
在9月8日 你可以争论这场战役 这整个战争 甚至是整个
On September 8th, the battle, and you could argue, the whole war, and even the whole 20th
二十世纪都处于平衡状态 进攻和反击 所有这一切都只是一个问题
century hung in balance. Attack and counterattack, all across the line, and it was simply a question
of who would crack first.
这是一场在八号晚上的战斗 当法国人占领了恩布里后就真的
It was a night attack on the 8th, when the French captured Marchai-en-Brie that really
形成了浪潮 当冯·布洛反击 他的军队和冯·克卢克之间的差距
turned the tide. When von Bulow fought back, the gap between his army and von Kluck’s
缩短到了30公里 并且他在数量上超过冯·克卢克的军队 英国人现在已经进入缺口
grew to nearly 30 km, he was outnumbered, the British were now well into the gap, and
在极短的时间内 冯·布洛下达了撤退的命令 在1914年9月9日上午9点02分
in the wee hours, von Bulow gave the order to retreat. At 9:02 AM on September 9th, 1914,
the German forces began to withdraw.
在9月9日 德国人被迫穿过马恩河 并在13号穿过埃纳河
On September 9th, the Germans were driven back across the Marne and on the 13th across
总共有100公里的撤退 德国军队在山脊上挖洞
the Aisne, a total retreat of 100 kilometers. It was there on a ridge that the German troops
dug in, and we see now one of the unsung military advances of the war, the spade, in action.
德国人使用了它 但法国人没有 所以德国人可以挖战壕:而法国不行
The Germans used it; the French did not, so the Germans could dig in: not so the French.
There’s no telling how many thousands of Frenchmen were lost to the German advance
因为这样一个简单的小工具 一个人可以在一个洞里用大炮发起攻击
because of such a simple tool. A man in a hole is impossible for artillery to spot,
并且不会被枪打中 手榴弹也可以近距离投掷 虽然对很多法国人而言
and can’t be shot by a rifle, and hand grenades would require close contact. For many Frenchmen,
用这样防守的方式指挥战斗是无耻的 他们很快
though, using such a defense was a dishonorable means of conducting a battle. They would soon
明白荣誉在现代战争中毫无用处 在现代战争中
learn that honor had no a place in modern warfare. That modern warfare had now cost
仅仅五周就耗费了接近一百万的生命 这还只是战争刚开始的几个月
close to one million lives in only five weeks, and during the first few months of the war,
an average of over 15,000 lives were lost every day.
在9月14日 极度疲劳的莫尔特克从德军统帅部撤走 他在最后
On September 14th, a shattered Moltke was removed from the German command. He had in
意识到了难以承受的人员伤亡 看这些命令 他在最后
the end found the casualties unbearable, and looking at the few orders he issued the last
两周的命令 你可以发现他已经逐渐崩溃
two weeks of his command, you can see him slowly falling to pieces, but it’s hard
但我们很难对他产生同情的:在地球上没有一个人 甚至是康拉德 也没有比莫尔特克带来更多的战争
to have sympathy for him: no man on earth, not even Connad, had done more to bring about
the war than Moltke, but he proved incapable of commanding his nation’s armies.
三次大规模进攻在这周结束 剩下的大部分时间都是休战
Three great offensives were over this week, and much of the pattern was set for the rest
of the war. I’m going to end today’s episode with a quote from the historian Martin Gilbert
to tell you how
“否认德国成功进入巴黎 德国军队将继续在西线战斗
“Denied their triumphal entry into Paris, the German army would go on fighting on the
另一个四年 并像期待1918年8月胜利那样
Western Front for another four years, as hopeful of victory in August 1918 as they had been
1914年8月取得胜利 但是一个月内击败法国的希望破灭了
in August 1914. But the hopes of a month earlier of being able to defeat France in a knockout
blow and then turn all their military strength against Russia had been dashed. The war of
rapid victories had become a strategy of the past, and a dream for the future. Germany
德国人将不得不同时地进行两面作战 西线和东线都有危险
was going to have to fight simultaneously, and with constant danger, in both east and
法国将不得不在法国的土地上进行战斗 俄国将不得不
west. France was going to have to fight on French soil. Russia was going to have to regain
收复西面的土地 奥地利则收复东面的土地 圣诞节还有三个半月
land in the west and Austria to regain land in the east. Christmas was still three and
a half months away, but every warring state was going to have to search for new strategies,
and even new allies.”
If you have any questions about this week in the Great War or if you want to submit
或有些想法 只需要在评论区留言 我们将回复你
some of your ideas, just leave them in the comments and we will get back to you. An important
update for our mobile viewers: You can find all our useful links right below this video.